IGNOU EPS 015 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

IGNOU EPS 015 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

IGNOU EPS 015 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-EPS 15 South Asia: Economy, Society and Politics is an interdisciplinary course offered by Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) that examines the diverse and complex region of South Asia.

IGNOU EPS 015 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

Course Structure:

  • Block-1 South Asia as Region
  • Block-2 Country Profiles : India
  • Block-3 Country Profiles : Pakistan
  • Block-4 Country Profiles : Bangladesh
  • Block-5 Country Profiles : Nepal, Bhutan
  • Block-6 Country Profiles : Sri Lanka, the Maldives
  • Block-7 Democracy in South Asia
  • Block-8 South Asia in a Globalising World
  • Block-9 Regional Co-operation
  • Block-10 Regional Security

Q.1 Why did India move away from Import Substituting Industrialisation (ISI) in the 1990s ? Explain.

IGNOU EPS 015 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-In the 1990s, India made a significant departure from Import Substituting Industrialization (ISI) due to a combination of internal and external factors that rendered the ISI model unsustainable and counterproductive. ISI, a strategy widely adopted by developing nations post-independence, aimed to reduce reliance on imports by fostering domestic industrialization through protective measures such as tariffs, quotas, and subsidies. However, by the 1990s, it became evident that the ISI approach had reached its limits and was incompatible with evolving global economic dynamics, domestic challenges, and the imperative for economic liberalization.

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One of the primary drivers for India's shift away from ISI was the recognition of its inherent limitations and inefficiencies. While ISI initially helped establish a domestic industrial base and reduce dependence on foreign imports, it also led to the proliferation of inefficient and uncompetitive industries shielded from international competition. These protected sectors often suffered from low productivity, subpar quality, and high costs, hindering overall economic growth. 

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Additionally, the ISI strategy resulted in a misallocation of resources, with a disproportionate focus on heavy industries at the expense of more dynamic and productive sectors like services and technology. Consequently, India's industrial sector struggled to compete globally, limiting export potential and hindering innovation and technological progress.

IGNOU EPS 015 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-

Externally, changes in the global economic landscape and the emergence of new development paradigms played a crucial role in India's departure from ISI. The end of the Cold War ushered in an era of globalization and liberalization, marked by increased trade openness, deregulation, and capital flows. These shifts made it increasingly challenging for countries like India to sustain protectionist policies and maintain closed economies. The proliferation of regional trade blocs and free trade agreements further pressured India to open up its markets and integrate into the global economy. Furthermore, the growing significance of knowledge-based industries highlighted the need for India to transition from traditional manufacturing-focused industrialization to a more technology-driven and service-oriented growth trajectory.

Domestically, India faced a host of economic challenges that undermined the viability of ISI by the late 1980s. Persistent inflation, balance of payments deficits, fiscal imbalances, and sluggish growth rates underscored the shortcomings of the ISI model. Additionally, India's socialist-inspired economic policies, characterized by excessive state intervention, bureaucratic inefficiencies, and regulatory hurdles, stifled economic dynamism. 

As public dissatisfaction mounted over the economy's performance, pressure mounted on the government to implement reforms to stimulate growth, attract investment, and address structural weaknesses. The economic crisis of 1991, triggered by a balance of payments crisis exacerbated by geopolitical tensions, served as a catalyst for India to abandon ISI and embark on a path of economic liberalization.

In response to these internal and external pressures, India initiated wide-ranging economic reforms in the early 1990s aimed at liberalizing the economy, deregulating markets, and attracting foreign investment. Spearheaded by Prime Minister P.V. Narasimha Rao and Finance Minister Manmohan Singh, these reforms, collectively known as the New Economic Policy (NEP) or "New Liberalization," encompassed measures such as trade liberalization, industrial deregulation, fiscal consolidation, financial sector reforms, privatization, and opening up to foreign investment. By dismantling trade barriers, reducing tariffs, abolishing industrial licensing, and welcoming foreign competition, India sought to enhance competitiveness, spur investment, foster export-led growth, and integrate into the global economy.

IGNOU EPS 015 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-

The shift away from ISI towards economic liberalization in the 1990s marked a pivotal juncture in India's economic trajectory, laying the groundwork for sustained growth, poverty reduction, and global integration in the ensuing years. Although the transition from ISI to a market-oriented model posed challenges and sparked debates, it ultimately unleashed India's economic potential, fostered innovation, and drove rapid economic expansion. 

Nonetheless, the legacy of ISI continues to influence India's economic policies and development strategies, underscoring the importance of learning from past experiences and adapting to evolving global realities to shape India's future economic course.

Q.2 Account for the dominant role of the military in the politics of Pakistan.

Q.3 Examine the strategies adopted in South Asia to deal with poverty.

Q.4 Discuss the importance of regional co-operation in the context of globalisation.

Q.5 What are the defining differences between human development and neo-liberal approaches to development ?

Q.6 Describe the dominant characteristics of South Asia as a region.

Q.7  Why is India described as a rising power in the post-cold war years ?

Q.8 Describe the methods adopted by South Asian countries to manage and resolve conflicts over water sharing.

Q.9 Examine the major events in the development of nationalism in East Pakistan resulting in the emergence of Bangladesh.

Q.10 Trace the development of Pakistan's economy under different regimes.

Q.11 Examine the challenges facing the liberalisation programme in India.

Q.12 Explain the position of India and Pakistan on the nuclear issue.

Q.13 Analyse the methods adopted by the Indian National Congress for India's freedom.

Q.14 What are the reasons for the slow progress in regional cooperation in South Asia ?

Q. 15 Write an essay on India's position in the global power structure.


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