IGNOU MANE 005 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

IGNOU MANE 005 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

IGNOU MANE 005 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-MANE 005 Environmental Anthropology invites you to explore the multifaceted relationship between humans and their environment. This course likely delves into how diverse cultures interact with, shape, and are shaped by their natural surroundings.

Important Questions With Answers English Medium

Course Structure:

  • Block-1 Introduction to environmental Anthropology
  • Block-2 Theoretical and methodological Issues of environmental anthropology
  • Block-3 Ecology And Subsistence Patterns
  • Block-4 Natural resource management and Sustainable development
  • Block-5 Development policies, environmental Impact and collective action
  • Block-6 Cultural dimensions of development And biodiversity conservation
  • Block-7 Contemporary issues and problems in Environmental anthropology

Q.1 Discuss the history and development of environmental anthropology.

The development of environmental anthropology has been a dynamic journey, evolving in response to global environmental crises and the intricate relationship between human societies and their natural surroundings. Initially emerging as a distinct subfield in the mid-20th century, environmental anthropology draws from the intersections of anthropology, ecology, and environmental science. 

IGNOU MANE 005 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-Its evolution has been shaped by diverse cultural contexts, theoretical frameworks, and methodological approaches, all aimed at understanding and addressing pressing environmental issues while promoting sustainable practices.

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The roots of environmental anthropology can be traced back to early anthropological studies that documented indigenous peoples' relationships with their environments. Scholars like Franz Boas and Bronisław Malinowski conducted pioneering research, highlighting indigenous ecological knowledge, subsistence practices, and spiritual connections to the land. These studies laid foundational understandings of how human societies interact with and influence their environments.

IGNOU MANE 005 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-In the latter half of the 20th century, environmental anthropology gained prominence as scholars responded to the growing awareness of global environmental challenges. Seminal works such as Julian Steward's "Theory of Cultural Ecology" and Roy Rappaport's "Pigs for the Ancestors" provided theoretical frameworks for studying the dynamic interactions between culture, ecology, and society. These works emphasized the complex ways in which cultural beliefs, social institutions, and ecological processes shape human-environment relationships.

Throughout the late 20th century, environmental anthropology expanded its scope to encompass a wide array of topics, including environmental conservation, natural resource management, environmental justice, and sustainable development. Interdisciplinary collaborations with ecologists, geographers, and environmental scientists allowed for holistic investigations into issues such as deforestation, climate change, biodiversity loss, and water scarcity. By considering the social, cultural, political, and economic dimensions of environmental change, environmental anthropology offered nuanced insights into the complexities of environmental issues.

A significant contribution of environmental anthropology has been its emphasis on local knowledge systems and indigenous perspectives on the environment. Collaborations with indigenous communities worldwide have facilitated the documentation of traditional ecological knowledge, adaptive strategies, and sustainable resource management practices. Recognizing the value of indigenous knowledge has underscored the importance of integrating local perspectives into environmental policies and conservation efforts.

IGNOU MANE 005 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-Moreover, environmental anthropology has been instrumental in advocating for environmental justice and addressing environmental inequalities. Studies have highlighted how marginalized communities, particularly indigenous peoples and low-income populations, disproportionately bear the burden of environmental degradation and pollution. By examining the social and political factors underlying environmental injustices, environmental anthropology has contributed to efforts to promote environmental equity and empower marginalized communities.

In recent decades, environmental anthropology has adapted to new challenges and opportunities presented by globalization, urbanization, and technological advancements. Scholars have explored topics such as urban ecology, environmental governance, climate adaptation, and the impacts of globalization on local environments and livelihoods. Innovative methodologies, including participatory research methods and community-based approaches, have fostered inclusive and collaborative research processes that involve local communities as active participants and co-producers of knowledge.

Looking ahead, environmental anthropology is poised to continue playing a crucial role in addressing contemporary environmental challenges. Through interdisciplinary collaboration, community engagement, and applied research, environmental anthropologists can contribute to the development of more sustainable and equitable societies that prioritize the well-being of both people and the planet. By drawing on insights from anthropology, ecology, and other disciplines, environmental anthropology offers valuable perspectives and approaches for navigating the complex environmental issues of the 21st century.

Q.2 Discuss the Julian Steward's theory of cultural ecology.

Q.3 What is shifting cultivation? Critically examine it impact on the environmental with refrence to India.

Q.4 Critically discuss the sustainable development in the third world.

Q.5 Examine the relationship between forest and indigenous people with suitable example.

Q.6 Discuss bio- diversity and its impact on the ecosystem.

Q.8 Define cultural ecology as given by Julian Steward and discuss its relevance.

Q.9 What is environmental degradation ? Examine critically with reference to overgrazing, deforestation and unsuitable cropping patterns in dryland.

Q.10 Describe the impact of the forest policies on the tribal communities in India.

Q.11 Define global warming and discuss its impact on the environment with suitable examples.

Q.12 What are Indigenous Knowledge Systems ? Discuss with suitable examples.

Q.13 Discuss critically with suitable examples the impact of environment on health.

Q.14 Comment on the relationship between culture and climate change. Discuss the application of anthropological qualitative methods to the study of climate change.

Q.15 Describe hunter gatherer's way of life. Describe briefly any one hunting gathering community living in India.


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