IGNOU BANC 132 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

IGNOU BANC 132 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

BANC 132 Fundamentals of Biological Anthropology is a course offered by Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) that introduces students to the biological aspects of human beings and their place in the animal kingdom.

IGNOU BANC 132 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

Course Structure:

  • Block-1 Introducing Biological Anthropology
  • Block-2 Human Evolution and Evolution
  • Block-3 Living Primates : Human and Non-Human
  • Block-4 Approaches of Biological Anthropology

Q.1 Define Physical Anthropology. Discuss its aims and scope.

Physical anthropology, also termed biological anthropology, stands as a pivotal subfield within anthropology, focusing on the biological facets of human beings, their ancestors, and closely related primates. It undertakes the comprehensive investigation of human evolution, variation, genetics, primatology, osteology, and forensic anthropology among its expansive realms. This interdisciplinary field amalgamates concepts and methodologies from biology, genetics, archaeology, and various natural and social sciences to scrutinize fundamental inquiries concerning human origins, development, and diversification.

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IGNOU BANC 132 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-At its core, physical anthropology pursues multifaceted aims, balancing theoretical exploration with practical applications. One primary objective is the discernment of human evolution and the underlying mechanisms that have shaped the biological attributes of contemporary humans. This entails delving into the fossil record, comparative anatomy, genetics, and other sources of evidence to reconstruct the evolutionary narrative of hominins, comprising humans and their extinct ancestors. By meticulously studying the morphology, behavior, and genetic makeup of extinct and extant primates, researchers endeavor to chart the evolutionary trajectories culminating in Homo sapiens and the distinctive traits characterizing our species.

Another pivotal aim within physical anthropology is the examination of patterns of biological diversity within and among human populations. This entails scrutinizing variations and similarities in physical traits, encompassing skeletal morphology, skin pigmentation, blood types, and genetic markers, across diverse global populations. Through the lens of population genetics and biostatistics, physical anthropologists analyze genetic diversity patterns to unravel the mechanisms of human migration, adaptation, and population dynamics. Such insights into the sources of biological diversity are instrumental in addressing questions surrounding health disparities, disease susceptibilities, and societal inequalities, while also informing advancements in medical genetics and personalized healthcare approaches.

IGNOU BANC 132 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-Moreover, physical anthropology endeavors to explore the biological and behavioral adaptations of humans and their primate counterparts to diverse ecological settings and environmental challenges. Through the meticulous examination of primate behavior, ecology, and social structures, researchers gain invaluable insights into the evolutionary origins of quintessentially human traits such as tool usage, language development, cooperative behaviors, and social cognition. 

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Comparative studies elucidating primate anatomy and physiology further illuminate the adaptive strategies facilitating the success of humans and other primates across varied habitats, ranging from lush rainforests to unforgiving arctic landscapes. This understanding of adaptive significance not only sheds light on past and present human populations but also bolsters conservation initiatives aimed at safeguarding endangered primate species and their habitats.

IGNOU BANC 132 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-Furthermore, physical anthropology plays a pivotal role in the realm of forensic science and criminal investigation by applying principles of skeletal biology, osteology, and forensic genetics. Forensic anthropologists employ meticulous analyses of skeletal remains to deduce crucial information such as age, sex, ancestry, stature, and unique identifying features like trauma patterns, pathologies, and dental characteristics. 

Through sophisticated DNA analyses and molecular techniques, forensic anthropologists can accurately identify human remains, discern familial relationships, and furnish critical evidence for legal proceedings. The integration of physical anthropology into forensic investigations serves to offer closure to families of missing individuals, aid in the prosecution of crimes, and bolster the dispensation of justice.

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Additionally, physical anthropology contributes significantly to our comprehension of human health and disease by delving into the biological underpinnings of variations in disease susceptibilities, treatment responses, and adaptations to environmental stressors. By unraveling the genetics of complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disorders, researchers strive to pinpoint genetic risk factors and devise personalized approaches to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. Anthropological perspectives on health and disease extend into evolutionary medicine, which explores how evolutionary processes have molded human biology and susceptibilities to illnesses, as well as bioarchaeology, which scrutinizes health and disease patterns in ancient human populations through the analysis of skeletal remains and archaeological artifacts.

Q.2 Briefly discuss the methods to study human variation.

Q.3 What are the new fields of study in biological anthropology ? Discuss any one of them in detail.

Q.4 Briefly discuss the primate evolutionary trend.

Q.5 Explain various methods to study human evolution.

Q.6 Discuss theories of evolution in brief.

Q.7 Describe various primate characteristics.

Q.8 Define evolution. Discuss Lamarckism.

Q.9 What is Biological Anthropology ? Briefly discuss its sub-fields.

Q.10 Briefly comment on the relationship of Biological Anthropology with other Sciences.

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Q.11 Define Anthropometry and Serology. Discuss the

use of Anthropometry and Serology in understanding human variation.

Q.12 Describe why the present classification of the mankind into three major groups is arbitrary.

Q.13 Why genetic traits should be preferred for classification of the mankind?

Q.14 What different types of antigens are present in Rh blood group system and which Rh gene complexes are Rh negative?

Q.15 Do you think geographical areas restrict the inclusion of similar groups in a given race?



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