IGNOU BANC 102 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

IGNOU BANC 102 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

IGNOU BANC 102 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-BANC 102  Introduction to Social and Cultural Anthropology. This course complements BANC-101 by exploring the human experience from a different lens, focusing on societies, cultures, and the social aspects of being human

IGNOU BANC 102 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

Course Structure:

  • Block- 1 Nature and scope
  • Block- 3 Theoretical perspectives
  • Block-2 Basic concepts
  • Block-4 Fieldwork

Q.1 Discuss why British and American Anthropology began differently with focus on Society and Culture, respectively.

British and American anthropology embarked on divergent paths, each shaped by distinct historical contexts and intellectual traditions, leading to differing emphases on society and culture. The roots of British anthropology can be traced back to the colonial era, where scholars were primarily concerned with studying non-Western societies encountered through imperial expansion. Influenced by evolutionary theories, British anthropologists such as E.B. Tylor and Lewis Henry Morgan focused on understanding the social and cultural development of humanity from simpler to more complex forms. Their work laid the foundation for a discipline deeply entrenched in the study of society, particularly in its evolutionary and comparative aspects.

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IGNOU BANC 102 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-In contrast, the emergence of American anthropology was influenced by a combination of factors, including the nation's unique history of immigration, cultural diversity, and intellectual currents. Unlike their British counterparts, early American anthropologists such as Franz Boas rejected simplistic evolutionary frameworks and instead advocated for a holistic approach to studying culture. Boasian anthropology emphasized the importance of understanding societies within their specific historical and cultural contexts, rejecting universalistic claims about human development. This marked a significant departure from British anthropology's focus on societal evolution, placing greater emphasis on the intricacies of culture and the uniqueness of each society.

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The divergent trajectories of British and American anthropology can also be attributed to differences in institutional settings and academic priorities. In Britain, anthropology often developed within the framework of colonial administration and missionary activities, leading to a focus on practical knowledge about non-Western societies. As such, British anthropologists were often tasked with providing insights useful for colonial governance and imperial expansion, shaping the discipline's orientation towards understanding the social structures and customs of colonized peoples.

IGNOU BANC 102 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-On the other hand, American anthropology flourished within the academic environment of universities, where scholars were granted more autonomy to pursue theoretical inquiries and engage in interdisciplinary collaborations. This institutional context encouraged a more nuanced approach to the study of culture, with American anthropologists exploring topics such as kinship, language, and symbolism in depth. Moreover, the cultural diversity within the United States itself provided fertile ground for anthropological research, fostering a keen interest in understanding the dynamics of multicultural societies.

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Furthermore, the intellectual currents prevalent in each country further contributed to the divergence between British and American anthropology. In Britain, the influence of social Darwinism and Victorian notions of progress shaped anthropological thought, leading to an emphasis on hierarchical classifications of societies based on perceived levels of advancement. This approach, epitomized by figures like Herbert Spencer, reinforced colonial hierarchies and contributed to the marginalization of indigenous cultures.

Conversely, American anthropology was profoundly influenced by the rise of cultural relativism, championed by Boas and his students. Cultural relativism posited that each culture must be understood on its own terms, without imposing external standards of evaluation. This paradigm shift not only challenged ethnocentric assumptions prevalent in Western thought but also paved the way for a more empathetic and culturally sensitive approach to studying human societies.

The divergent trajectories of British and American anthropology also manifested in their methodological approaches. British anthropology, heavily influenced by the positivist tradition, often relied on quantitative data collection methods and statistical analyses to document cross-cultural variations in social institutions. This approach, exemplified by the ethnographic surveys conducted by early anthropologists like Bronisław Malinowski, aimed to uncover universal patterns of social organization and cultural development.

In contrast, American anthropology embraced qualitative methods such as participant observation and ethnographic fieldwork, emphasizing the importance of firsthand engagement with the communities under study. This methodological shift, inspired by Boas's emphasis on cultural immersion and linguistic analysis, allowed American anthropologists to gain deep insights into the lifeways and worldviews of diverse cultures. By privileging qualitative over quantitative data, American anthropology underscored the importance of context and subjectivity in understanding human behavior and cultural practices.

Despite these differences, British and American anthropology also shared commonalities and underwent significant cross-fertilization over time. The post-World War II period witnessed increased collaboration and exchange between scholars from both traditions, leading to the emergence of new theoretical frameworks and methodological approaches. This period of intellectual convergence, often referred to as the "post-colonial moment," saw British anthropologists grappling with the legacies of colonialism and imperialism, while American anthropologists confronted issues of power, inequality, and representation within their own society.

Q.2 Discuss the relationship of anthropology with History and Demography.

Q.3 Discuss the tools and techniques used in anthropological fieldwork

Q.4 Define marriage. Discuss the different ways of acquiring a mate.

Q.5 Discuss the scope and relevance of social and cultural anthropology.

Q.6 Discuss the relationship of anthropology with Sociology and Biological Sciences.

Q.7 Define culture and discuss the various mechanisms of culture change.

Q.8 Discuss the historical background of the development of social and cultural anthropology

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Q.9 Define culture. Discuss the elements of culture.

Q.10 Write a note on the history of fieldwork in anthropology.

Q.11 Who suggested the termcomparative sociologyfor the subject social anthropology?

Q.12 What is the basis of psychologicalstudies?

Q.13 What is the common study area of the anthropologists and the historians?

Q.14 Which period of human past is studied by historians?

Q.15 How is management sciences using anthropologicalknowledge?



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