Monday, March 4, 2019

Industrial Revolution English Literary Movement UGC NET JRF

Industrial Revolution

Industrial Revolution, The term "Revolution" usually involves an inconsequential upheaval. But we do not get the same thing with Industrial Revolution. Generally, radical changes in the manner of production of iron, bronze and other things are called "industrial revolution".

As a result of scientific research, factories were born in place of handcrafted, production increased. In essence, the Industrial Revolution is meant to be those changes that made it possible that humans could produce large quantities in large factories, except for the ancient methods of production. Historian Raikar has define industrial revolution saying that "Industrial Revolution was the only change in the production and transport of transport driven by transporting transport in place of handcrafted."

From 1760 AD to 1840 AD, there was a new phenomenon in the industrial process in Europe, which was eventually named after the Industrial Revolution. Actually this process is going on till today, but the changes in the process of industrial production in the period of that time were very casual and unprecedented. In this context, the importance of 1760 AD is that in the same year cast iron blowing cylinder was the first experiment. Railway expanded in Europe after 1840 AD, hence, there was unprecedented progress in industrial production. So this period was given the name of the second industrial revolution.

Industrial Revolution : Beginning
Before the start of Industrial Revolution, domestic industries were dominated. Craftsmen, artisans, craftsmen used to prepare beautiful objects of their homes. Industrial Revolution has resulted in radical changes in the methods of production. The use of machines in place of human labor began. Newer machines are built. In this way, as a result of scientific research, when factories were born and production increased, it was termed as "Industrial Revolution". In essence, Industrial Revolution refers to those changes that made it possible that humans could produce large quantities of large quantities of items in the big factories except for the ancient methods of production.

The foundation of the Industrial Revolution was already being prepared in England. The business class of England was more efficient and courageous than the business class of other countries. They had more passion and natural motivation for the advancement of the business. The business class in England was free of government interference. The Government of England also assisted the businessmen. In addition to the ease of the situation, due to social, political and economic conditions, Industrial Revolution was first of all in England. The details of these reasons are as follows -

England's internal status

After the revolution of 1688 AD, the Parliament of England Parliament was established. The rights of the public were secured. After getting rid of political and religious oppression, people started moving towards economic development. There was no fear of civil war and external aggression. Internal peace and soundness helped in the progress of trade. But other countries were trapped in political conflicts.
The Renaissance 

Rise of Middle Class
Due to the business revolution in the seventeenth century, the strength of the middle class grew. But due to feudal restrictions, the middle class business was not progressing in trade and industry. In the 1740s, the middle class revolted in England in the revolution. As a result of the revolution, a new system is established. In the new system, due to the relieving of old feudal sanctions and power in the hands of industrialists, there has been a lot of progress in industry in England. Since the political power in England in the hands of the middle class was before France and America, hence the beginning of the Industrial Revolution was also first introduced in England.

Excess of Capital
The trade in England was from East and West Islands. This gave England more profits. The capitalist system in the country was getting increasingly increasing day by day. Using the remaining capital, people will start to increase production. Industrial revolution was encouraged by the increase in production. The development of the bank system also helped to raise funds.
Increasing demand for goods.
The consequences of the eighteenth century war proved to be helpful in the progress of the Industrial Revolution. England used to prepare war materials for professional soldiers. The increasing demand for goods made necessary changes in the methods and means of production. It was such a situation that people had to put their intellect in the production of goods on large scale.

Influence of Agrarian Revolution
One of the main reasons for the first industrial revolution in England was that there was a change in the first agricultural system. A method of farming was adopted and production increased. Changes in the economic condition of the people, their needs increased and industry-related businesses were developed to meet the needs. It has been possible to feed the growing population of cities by increasing production. One result of the agrarian revolution was that the farmers engaged in farming became useless. They went to town in search of livelihood. This led to lack of labor force. Now the market got ready for the finished goods in the country.
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Skilled craftsman
Due to the Crusades in the seventeenth century, more skilled skilled workers from other countries had come to England. He performed his art skills in England. This increased the knowledge of the workers in England. There was a change in the way of farming and industry was developed. In this way, skilled craftsmen have been very helpful in the development of industries.

Raw materials facility
By the middle of the 18th century, the colonial empire of England had spread to eastern Canada, North America, Florida, India, Western Islands, Western Africa, Gibraltar. From these places, England got enough raw material. Also, the market was also used for consumption of manufactured goods. Money was also available from the colonies. Thus, with the rise of the colonial empire, England got considerable support in industrial progress. Because the main means of industrial development - capital, labor, raw materials and market colonies were found.

Increase in population
The rise in population was one of the main reasons for the industrial revolution. The security of the children and the assistance of the poor were arranged. Now people could not easily be a victim of hunger and rest. Increasing population increased labor for the development of the industry.

As a result of the collapse of the forest union, the Industrial Revolution could achieve success. The people in the forest union had to work according to the rules of association. But due to the breakdown of the Vantik Sangh, people started doing their work of choice. A variety of businesses emerged. This also boosted the industrial revolution.


Financial Results
Industrial Revolution resulted in change in economic life of the people. On the one hand, large factories were established, on the other hand, domestic industries were destroyed. This bad impression was on the craftsmen. Amiri-Poverty Increased Together England's national property grew. Inland business as well as international trade also increased. The trade of England was from Asia, Africa and America. This has given him economic benefits. The useless laborers and craftsmen in the country started working in the city. This led to the increase in population of cities, as well as economic-social problems.

Social Result
Due to the proper management of nutritious food and claim-alcohol, population increased. On the other hand, the bad effect of the factory system was on the health of workers. Workers were not given proper wages. Due to low wages, they did not get good food. The Industrial Revolution gave rise to social asymmetry. The money was deposited in the hands of a few people. Capitalists used to earn profits and they did not care about the convenience of workers. The rich were becoming wealthy day by day and the poverty of the poor was increasing. Economic inequality gave birth to social inequality. In society, social evils like corruption and adultery have increased. This made the life of the people painful.
The French Revolution 
As a result of the Industrial Revolution, many people have changed their standard of living. Happiness and solidity grew in life. The production of things started to be in sufficient quantity Now the ordinary person started using the same things that was used only to the rich class only. The industrial class gave birth to the middle class. The people of this class had the money. But they did not get any rights. They started struggling for their rights. This caused a social problem.

To solve the problem, the government of the industrialized countries made some laws. The middle class got social equality Labor was exploited in the capitalist economy. They had to work for a long time but wages were low. As a result the labor union was born.

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