Monday, March 4, 2019

The French Revolution Literary Movement UGC NET JRF

French Revolution (FRENCH REVOLUTION): Role
French Revolution (FRENCH REVOLUTION) For the various reasons of the 70-80s of the 18th century, there was a spirit of revolt among the citizens of France against the king and then the erstwhile princely state. This protest was gradually moving fast. Ultimately, in 1789 King Louis XVI had to call a meeting. The name of this meeting was General State. This meeting had not been convened for many years. In this, there were representatives of general classes besides the feudalists. There was strong debate on the demands of the people in this meeting. It became clear that people had a batch of change in the system.

The result of this batchani was that after a few days of organizing this gathering, a procession of ordinary citizens reached the prison called Bastil and its doors were broken. All the prisoners went out. If the truth was true, then the citizen considered this prison as a symbol of oppression of the people. After a few days, a group of women had gone to besiege the King of Versailles, resulting in the king to leave for Paris. Meanwhile, the General State began to take many revolutionary steps. Such as: declaration of human rights, the beginning of the metric system, the conclusion of the influence of the church, the annunciation of feudalism, the declaration of the end of slavery, etc. There were differences among members of the General State. Some people wanted to slow down the speed of the revolution. Some others were nutritious to the intense revolution.

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These people started to have mutual quarrels but their leadership was in the hands of the radical revolutionaries. Later, one of his leaders Maximilian Robespierre happened to kill thousands of people. His one-year leadership is still called Reign of terror. This culminated in the murder of Louis 16th and his queen herself. After the assassination of the royal family, anger among the other kings of Europe arose, and they formed a joint army-and started fighting against the revolutionaries. The revolutionaries also formed an army in which the general category people were also involved. Because of the new zeal of the revolution, the revolutionaries' army succeeded repeatedly and its enthusiasm continued to grow. This army also started winning lands outside of France. Meanwhile, an army commander named Napoleon Bonaparte was very popular due to his victories. Here the people were bored with the hardcore revolution in France. Taking advantage of it and reducing its popularity, Napoleon occupied power and started to rule by making a consulate. This rule continued on revolutionary principles. Napoleon eventually gave himself the title of the emperor, and thus the monarchy returned to France again. In this way we can say that the French Revolution was in its peak.
Literary Theory & Criticism  
Modern Era

The French Revolution of 1789 AD was an important event of the modern era. The French Revolution was launched against the despotic monarchy, feudal exploitation, class privileges and rulers' apathy towards the good of the people. At that time in France, not only was the winner of the oppressed and dissatisfied class, but there could also be contradictions in the economic and political structure of that region. Political power was centralized The whole country's axis was the only state. The leadership of the society was in the hands of the intellectual class. The king was the supreme authority of the regime. The wishes of the king were only the law of the state. People did not get any kind of civil rights.
The general public was troubled by the injustice and atrocities of the king. Speech, writing and publication were strictly prohibited. People were not even given religious freedom.

The king had a personal right on the total income of the nation. The entire income was spent on the pleasures and pleasures of the King and Queen and the courtiers. Raja's benefactors were appointed on higher positions in the state. There was a lack of local self-government. The French society was divided into two pieces - one feature-rich and the other non-functional class.

The French Revolution's effect was universal. As a result, the autocratic rule and the feudal system ended. The foundations of democratic governance were laid down. Significant improvements have been made in social, economic and religious systems.

French Revolution Reasons

Political reasons

i) Autocratic monarchy

The autocracy of the monarchy was one of the main reasons for the French Revolution. The king was the supreme authority of the regime. He used to work as his own wish. He used to call himself a representative of God. Critics of Raja's work were put in jail without giving reasons. The general public was devastated by the injustice and atrocities of the king. He started trying to get rid of autocracy.

ii) Lack of Freedoms

France was very central to governance. All the sources of governance were in the hands of the king. Speech, writing and publication were strictly prohibited. There was a complete lack of political freedom. People were not even religious freedom. Habeas corpus rules were not arranged. Due to this naked disregard of justice and freedom, the anger of the people was slowly taking the form of a revolution.

iii) Luxury life and wealth wastage of Rajprasad

The king had a personal right on the total income of the nation. The entire income was spent on the pleasures and pleasures of the King and Queen and the courtiers. The Queen used to spend huge money in buying precious things. On one side farmers and laborers did not get enough food, on the other hand Samant, elite and royal family used to live luxuriously.

iv) Administrative disorder

The rule of France was stupendous and disorganized. The appointment to government posts was not on merit. The king's benevolent officers were appointed on higher positions in the state. There were different laws in different provinces. Due to the diversity of law it was useless to hope for clean justice.

Social Reasons

i) Clergy Class

TheRoman Catholic Church was primarily in France. The church was working as an independent body. It had its own separate organization, it was its court and the source of the money received. The church had a fifth part of the land of the land. The annual income of the church was about thirty million rupees. The church itself was tax free, but it had the exclusive right to tax the people. From the immense property of the church, the great pastors used to live the life of pleasure and luxury. They did not have any meaning with the works of religion. They used to live completely worldly life.
Anglo Saxon Period 

ii) Elite Classes

The elite elite of the Franks was a well-functioned and well-off class. The elites were blessed with many privileges. They were free from the state taxes. Elite recruits were appointed in the high positions of state, religion and army. They used to levy taxes from farmers. They used to try to keep themselves in the royal palace of Versailles and keep the king under their influence. Privileges and harassment of the elites made ordinary people revolutionary.

iii) Farm Sector

The class of farmers was the most exploited and afflicted. They had to bear the burden of tax. They had to pay a lot of taxes to the state, churches and landlords. The farming class wanted to improve its condition and this reform could only come through a revolution.

iv) Working class

The condition of laborers and artisans was extremely pathetic. Due to the industrial revolution, the domestic industries were destroyed and the working class became unemployed. Paris was running in search of employment in the countryside. A big gang of the working class was ready at the time of the Revolution (French Revolution).

v) Middle class

People in the middle class wanted to end social inequality. Because most dissatisfaction with the rule of the middle class was in the middle class, this class was led by the leadership of the French Revolution.

Commercial Purpose
The economic condition of France was delayed due to foreign wars and the wastage of the palace. The income was more than the income. The government had to borrow a loan to complete the expenditure. In addition to the unsatisfactory tax administration, the French's condition worsened even with the deterioration of the rulers.

Buddhist Jagran
French Revolution, Thinkers and philosophers attracted the attention of the people towards the political and social evils of France, and a sense of dissent, hatred and rebellion against the then system emerged. The middle class was most affected by the views of Montesquieu, Voltaire, Jean-Jacques Rousseau. Montesquieu rendered the power-separation theory of the society and governance. Voltaire attacked social and religious miscreants. Rousseau opposed the monarchy and emphasized personal independence. He rendered the principles of the Rational and Just Civic Association. These writers prepared people mentally for revolution.

Dissatisfaction with the soldiers
In the French Revolution, The French army was also dissatisfied with the regime. As the dissatisfaction in the army spreads, the fall of the rule becomes inevitable. The soldiers did not get the salary on time. There was no proper arrangement for their eating and drinking. They were given old weapons during the war. In such a situation, it was natural for the army to produce fury.

Results of the French Revolution

As the Result of French Revolution- The foundation of democratic governance was laid by ending absolutist rule. There have been significant changes in social, religious and economic life along with the administration. The French Revolution ended the rule of absolutist rule and interpreted the theory of popular sovereignty. The rulers of France and other European countries before the Revolution were absolutent. There was no legal restriction on them. The revolution shocked the King's privileges and the divine authority theory. This revolution resulted in the end of the feudal system. Elocution of elites has been abolished.
The farmers were freed from feudal tax. Privileges of nobles and clergy were abolished. People were given the right to speeches and ideas. Improve tax system for improving the financial condition of France. The executive, the judiciary and the administrator were separated from each other. Now the king had to work in consultation with Parliament.
The court was reconstituted to make justice accessible. Public education was arranged by the government.

In France, one type of governance was established, one form of economic rule and new system of measurement was started. People got religious liberty. They got the right to practice and promote any religion. The priests had to take an oath of loyalty to the constitution. The French Revolution convinced the people that the king is liable to the people under a contract. If the king breaks the contract, then the people have the right to depose the king. In many countries of Europe, democracy was established by abolishing autocracy.

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