Monday, March 4, 2019

The Renaissance English Literary Movement UGC NET JRF

The Renaissance

Renaissance in Europe literally means "wake up again". The cultural progress that was made in Europe between the fourteenth and the sixteenth century is called "Renaissance". 
As a result, new consciousness came in every area of ​​life. This movement was not limited to the salvation of old knowledge, but in this era, new experiments were made in the fields of art, literature and science. New research took place and new ways of finding knowledge were discovered. It distinguished humanism in place of paroism and religiousism.

Renaissance was the movement by which the West's nation came out of medieval times and adopted the ideas and lifestyle of the modern age. Residents of Europe made progress in geographical, business, social and spiritual areas. In this era, people have abandoned medieval monotheism and equipped themselves with new discoveries, latest ideas and social, cultural and intellectual advancement.
The French Revolution
Every area has a completely new approach, ideal and hope is communicated. Religion's influence ended on literature, art, philosophy, science, commerce, society and politics. Thus, the Renaissance is the name of the intellectual movement that revived the ancient civilization-culture of Rome and Greece and gave birth to new consciousness.

Causes of Renaissance In Europe

1. Business and development of cities
The most important reason for Renaissance was the development of commerce. The business relationship of the people with the new countries was established and they got an opportunity to know the culture and culture there. Business development gave birth to a new business class. The businessman was a strong critic and staunch opponent. The business class encouraged thinkers, thinkers, literary and scientists.

Thus, the progress of knowledge-science has progressed in the umbrella of the business class. New city settled with the development of trade In Sharon there were businessmen from many countries in connection with trade. There was exchange of ideas among them. The intellectual development of the public was exchanged with ideas.

2. Contact East
At the time when Europeans were intellectually backward, a new Arab culture had given birth to the Arabs. The billions of empires spread to Spain and North Africa. They were also spreading their empire-expansion along with knowledge-science. Due to the contact with the Arabs, the West also benefited.

3. Tradition of Medieval Panditpanth
Based on the knowledge gained from the Arabs, the scholars of Europe emphasized the study of Aristotle. He ran Panditpand tradition. It was the primacy of antiquity and authenticism. An attempt was made to revive ancient literature. Ancient literature was translated into various languages. Aristotle's philosophy was the primacy of this philosophy.
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4. The invention of paper and printing art
The contribution of paper and printing was important in pursuing the Renaissance in Europe. The printing of books and printing was started extensively with the invention of books. The ordinary person could now read and buy books at affordable rates. The books were written in the language of the masses, so that the benefits of knowledge-making started reaching ordinary people. People started becoming aware of the work of different thinkers and philosophers. They had intellectual awareness.

5. Cultural significance of the Mongol empire
The durbar of the Mongol Emperor Kublai Khan was a meeting place for the scholars of the East and the West. His court was full of scholars, missionaries and businessmen from abroad and abroad. Interpersonal interaction between these scholars helped in the progress of knowledge-science. Travelers of Europe tried to use their method in their country by learning the method of producing gunpowder, paper and ship compass. Thus, the Mongol empire did the vehicle in pursuit of Renaissance in Europe.

6. Fall of Kastunatunia
In 1453 AD Osmani Turks took control of Kustunetunia. Kusutantunya was the center of enlightenment. After the conquest of the Turks, fleeing the disciplines of Kustunatunya, seeking refuge in the countries of Europe. He attracted people's attention to ancient literature and knowledge. This generated new curiosity in the public with reverence for ancient knowledge. This curiosity was the soul of the Renaissance in Europe.
There is another significant effect of the decline of Kustunatunya. The trade routes of trade were closed between Europe and Eastern countries. Now the effort of reaching the eastern part of the waterway started. Columbus, Waskodigama and Magellan have discovered many countries in this activity.

7. Discovering ancient literature
In thirteenth and fourteenth century, scholars tried to revive the ancient literature. Among them are the names of Petrarch, Dante Alighieri, and Bacon. Scholars translated ancient texts into different languages ​​and tried to introduce people to the mysterious subjects.

8. Impact of Humanistic ideology
Europe's medieval civilization was based on artificiality and core idealism. Worldly life was misconstrued. Universities of Europe were studying Greek philosophy. Roger Bacon opposed Aristotle's primacy and rendered the theory of rationalism. This led to the development of humanism. Humanists criticize the fanaticism of churches and clergy
Literary Theory & Criticism 

9. Influence of Crusade
For almost two hundred years, there was a crusade between the East and the West. Crusades of Crusade were influenced by Eastern civilization. Later these warriors strengthened the foundation of Renaissance in Europe in Europe.

10. Decrease of Feudalism
Due to feudal practice, farmers, businessmen, artists and ordinary people did not get the opportunity of independent meditation. The atmosphere was always toxic due to feudal wars. But the fall of the feudal system balanced the public life.

Peace and order prevail. In the peaceful environment, people began to make progress in literature, art and business and pay attention. In a peaceful environment, people started paying attention to the progress of literature, art and business. The important consequence of the decline of feudalism was the development of the national states. People were born in a national spirit.