Thursday, March 7, 2019

American Revolution English literature - My Exam Solution

American Revolution

American Revolution, You must know that Christopher Columbus discovered the US. After discovering America, the wealthy people of Europe started sharing the US. Spain, Portugal, Holland, France and England have their settlements there. There were 13 colonies of the British in America. American Revolutionary War, The British who lived in the colonies were freedom-lovers. They were able to leave the motherland and go to the colonies to protect their freedom. But when George III (George III of the United Kingdom) wanted to rule over its colonial rule, freedom-loving colonizers rebelled. Today, we will read about the American Revolution in the subject and will learn about the causes and causes of the war in Hindi.
In any country, the seeds of revolution are hidden in the social, economic, political and religious stage, which erupts after getting favorable conditions.
The American Revolution first introduced this example that it is difficult to crush the awakened national sentiment ... remember what we had read in the 1857 IndianRevolution? American Revolution gave the opportunity to increase capitalism. America became the first country to end the hereditary monarchy and establish democracy.
American Revolutionary War, The struggle between the American colonies and the England was compulsory. The reason behind this was that there was so much difference in their political, economic, social and religious life that they could not have a good relationship with them for more days. If we talk about the causes of American Revolution in America, then in short, we can keep these reasons as follows:

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AMERICAN REVOLUTION'S CAUSES

I) Religious Differences
Diversity in the religious view of colonizers and British was an important reason for the revolution. Most of the inhabitants of England were inclined towards Anglicanism (what is Anglicanism, check WIKI) .... They believed in the bishop and the dominion of religion, the colonists Puranan were opinionated. They used to hate Anglican vote. The bishops were opposed to the law and the possession of religion. Due to religious differences, the colonialists did not want to have any kind of relationship with England.


II) Social Differences
American Revolutionary War, America's social structure was different from the social structure of the Netherlands. The society in England was feudal, whereas America's society was democratic. England's society was conservative and artificial, whereas America's society was fundamental and idealistic. There can never be a coordination in a conservative and progressive society. The influence of the rich on British politics was. There was no place for the poor in English politics. The American society did not have the feeling of rich-poor.



III) Unsatisfactory Governance
The colonists settled in the colonies had also come with England's beliefs and institutions. The governance of the colonies was unsatisfactory. There was constant struggle between the executive and the manager. The governor of the colony was appointed King of England. The Governor had the privilege. The administrative council could also control the Governor's salary by stopping it. The colonists considered the administrative seat as an all-powerful institution, but the British government considered it a subordinate and a local body. Consequently, the conflict in both of them was natural.
The Industrial Revolution
The colonists were deprived of political rights. The British rulers thought that the colonists did not have the ability to rule. That is why the British was appointed in large positions only. The British government was dissatisfied with this policy.

IV) Ethnic Equality
American Revolutionary War, The English blood was flowing in the colonies' arteries too. He was also a priest of freedom and independence like the British and wanted to break the chain of slavery. It was disrespectful to the colonists to be governed by their own people.


V) Colonists Look Towards Britain
The persecuted Catholics and Protestants of England settled in the colonies. They wanted to breathe independence there. But when the government of England made the colonies even as the arena of tyranny and injustice, they rebelled.

VI) The Development of the Spirit of Autonomous Rule
Because of America's geographical position, the Government of England was not interested in the colonies. Due to lack of distance and means of transport, the government of England was unable to control the colonies. That's why the colonists came to search for solutions to the problems of the government and found themselves self-governing. In the democratic tradition of England, the Yellow Colonizers wanted to use the qualities of responsible governance.

VII) Leaders of the Intellectual Class
Leadership of the Jankranti is always the intellectual class. The colonists got the slogan of the struggle with the British. Philosophers like John Locke, Rousseau, Walter, Montescu were influenced by the colonists. Authors such as Thomas Penn, James Orris raised a voice against the king's divine authority, and this also made people aware.



VIII) Trade and Industrial Restrictions
In the American Revolution, There were several types of restrictions on the commerce of the colonies. They could not have a business rivalry with England and could have had a business relationship with England's enemies. Import-export of goods was also banned. Import and export of commodities between the British colonies and the colonies and other European countries was done by the British ships. There were also some business laws. 
The French Revolution
American Revolutionary War, Certain items could be sent only to England, cotton, sugar and tobacco. The ban on production of goods was also banned. The industries of essential commodities, such as colonized iron, cotton cloth, could not separate themselves here. Due to industrial and commercial sanctions, there was no industrial and commercial progress in the colonies. The colonists were very dissatisfied with this and they wanted to break the matriarchal ladder.

IX) Results of the Hundred Wars
As a result of this war, colonizers have developed a sense of self-confidence. American soldiers, in collaboration with British soldiers, fought France in the war. They believed that they could fight well with the British. Due to the improvement in economic conditions and the development of education, the middle class was born in the colonies, which started trying for political independence. People of this class became the forerunners of the American Revolution.

X) Immediate Reason
The American Revolution's improvised Grainville were some of the objectionable works. As a result of the Saptari War, economic crisis was created. Farmers and laborers wanted to go beyond their limits and populate the land of tribals, but Grainville banned it. Granville strictly implemented the Navigation Act. Admiralty court was established to investigate the cases of thieves. Make Molasses Act in 1733 AD -. a British law that imposed a tax on molasses, sugar, and rum imported from non-British foreign colonies in the North American colonies. Grainville showed strictly in the collection of collections. British employees were deployed at the ports and the house of taxpayers was searched. A Stamp Act was created in 1765. It was now mandatory to issue government tickets on newspapers, legal papers, mortgage related documents and advertisements. Due to this law, the despatches of colonists, advertisers, lawyers, businessmen suffered heavy losses. Due to protests from the colonists, the Stamp Act was closed in 1766 AD. But it was made clear that the British government had the right to tax the colonies.


Tuesday, March 5, 2019

Industrial Revolution English Literary Movement UGC NET JRF

Industrial Revolution

Industrial Revolution, The term "Revolution" usually involves an inconsequential upheaval. But we do not get the same thing with Industrial Revolution. Generally, radical changes in the manner of production of iron, bronze and other things are called "industrial revolution".

As a result of scientific research, factories were born in place of handcrafted, production increased. In essence, the Industrial Revolution is meant to be those changes that made it possible that humans could produce large quantities in large factories, except for the ancient methods of production. Historian Raikar has define industrial revolution saying that "Industrial Revolution was the only change in the production and transport of transport driven by transporting transport in place of handcrafted."



From 1760 AD to 1840 AD, there was a new phenomenon in the industrial process in Europe, which was eventually named after the Industrial Revolution. Actually this process is going on till today, but the changes in the process of industrial production in the period of that time were very casual and unprecedented. In this context, the importance of 1760 AD is that in the same year cast iron blowing cylinder was the first experiment. Railway expanded in Europe after 1840 AD, hence, there was unprecedented progress in industrial production. So this period was given the name of the second industrial revolution.

Industrial Revolution : Beginning
Before the start of Industrial Revolution, domestic industries were dominated. Craftsmen, artisans, craftsmen used to prepare beautiful objects of their homes. Industrial Revolution has resulted in radical changes in the methods of production. The use of machines in place of human labor began. Newer machines are built. In this way, as a result of scientific research, when factories were born and production increased, it was termed as "Industrial Revolution". In essence, Industrial Revolution refers to those changes that made it possible that humans could produce large quantities of large quantities of items in the big factories except for the ancient methods of production.



Reason
The foundation of the Industrial Revolution was already being prepared in England. The business class of England was more efficient and courageous than the business class of other countries. They had more passion and natural motivation for the advancement of the business. The business class in England was free of government interference. The Government of England also assisted the businessmen. In addition to the ease of the situation, due to social, political and economic conditions, Industrial Revolution was first of all in England. The details of these reasons are as follows -

England's internal status

After the revolution of 1688 AD, the Parliament of England Parliament was established. The rights of the public were secured. After getting rid of political and religious oppression, people started moving towards economic development. There was no fear of civil war and external aggression. Internal peace and soundness helped in the progress of trade. But other countries were trapped in political conflicts.
The Renaissance 

Rise of Middle Class
Due to the business revolution in the seventeenth century, the strength of the middle class grew. But due to feudal restrictions, the middle class business was not progressing in trade and industry. In the 1740s, the middle class revolted in England in the revolution. As a result of the revolution, a new system is established. In the new system, due to the relieving of old feudal sanctions and power in the hands of industrialists, there has been a lot of progress in industry in England. Since the political power in England in the hands of the middle class was before France and America, hence the beginning of the Industrial Revolution was also first introduced in England.

Excess of Capital
The trade in England was from East and West Islands. This gave England more profits. The capitalist system in the country was getting increasingly increasing day by day. Using the remaining capital, people will start to increase production. Industrial revolution was encouraged by the increase in production. The development of the bank system also helped to raise funds.
Increasing demand for goods.
The consequences of the eighteenth century war proved to be helpful in the progress of the Industrial Revolution. England used to prepare war materials for professional soldiers. The increasing demand for goods made necessary changes in the methods and means of production. It was such a situation that people had to put their intellect in the production of goods on large scale.

Influence of Agrarian Revolution
One of the main reasons for the first industrial revolution in England was that there was a change in the first agricultural system. A method of farming was adopted and production increased. Changes in the economic condition of the people, their needs increased and industry-related businesses were developed to meet the needs. It has been possible to feed the growing population of cities by increasing production. One result of the agrarian revolution was that the farmers engaged in farming became useless. They went to town in search of livelihood. This led to lack of labor force. Now the market got ready for the finished goods in the country.
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Skilled craftsman
Due to the Crusades in the seventeenth century, more skilled skilled workers from other countries had come to England. He performed his art skills in England. This increased the knowledge of the workers in England. There was a change in the way of farming and industry was developed. In this way, skilled craftsmen have been very helpful in the development of industries.

Raw materials facility
By the middle of the 18th century, the colonial empire of England had spread to eastern Canada, North America, Florida, India, Western Islands, Western Africa, Gibraltar. From these places, England got enough raw material. Also, the market was also used for consumption of manufactured goods. Money was also available from the colonies. Thus, with the rise of the colonial empire, England got considerable support in industrial progress. Because the main means of industrial development - capital, labor, raw materials and market colonies were found.

Increase in population
The rise in population was one of the main reasons for the industrial revolution. The security of the children and the assistance of the poor were arranged. Now people could not easily be a victim of hunger and rest. Increasing population increased labor for the development of the industry.



Deforestation
As a result of the collapse of the forest union, the Industrial Revolution could achieve success. The people in the forest union had to work according to the rules of association. But due to the breakdown of the Vantik Sangh, people started doing their work of choice. A variety of businesses emerged. This also boosted the industrial revolution.

Result

Financial Results
Industrial Revolution resulted in change in economic life of the people. On the one hand, large factories were established, on the other hand, domestic industries were destroyed. This bad impression was on the craftsmen. Amiri-Poverty Increased Together England's national property grew. Inland business as well as international trade also increased. The trade of England was from Asia, Africa and America. This has given him economic benefits. The useless laborers and craftsmen in the country started working in the city. This led to the increase in population of cities, as well as economic-social problems.

Social Result
Due to the proper management of nutritious food and claim-alcohol, population increased. On the other hand, the bad effect of the factory system was on the health of workers. Workers were not given proper wages. Due to low wages, they did not get good food. The Industrial Revolution gave rise to social asymmetry. The money was deposited in the hands of a few people. Capitalists used to earn profits and they did not care about the convenience of workers. The rich were becoming wealthy day by day and the poverty of the poor was increasing. Economic inequality gave birth to social inequality. In society, social evils like corruption and adultery have increased. This made the life of the people painful.
The French Revolution 
As a result of the Industrial Revolution, many people have changed their standard of living. Happiness and solidity grew in life. The production of things started to be in sufficient quantity Now the ordinary person started using the same things that was used only to the rich class only. The industrial class gave birth to the middle class. The people of this class had the money. But they did not get any rights. They started struggling for their rights. This caused a social problem.


To solve the problem, the government of the industrialized countries made some laws. The middle class got social equality Labor was exploited in the capitalist economy. They had to work for a long time but wages were low. As a result the labor union was born.

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The Renaissance English Literary Movement UGC NET JRF


The Renaissance

Renaissance in Europe literally means "wake up again". The cultural progress that was made in Europe between the fourteenth and the sixteenth century is called "Renaissance". 
As a result, new consciousness came in every area of ​​life. This movement was not limited to the salvation of old knowledge, but in this era, new experiments were made in the fields of art, literature and science. New research took place and new ways of finding knowledge were discovered. It distinguished humanism in place of paroism and religiousism.


Renaissance was the movement by which the West's nation came out of medieval times and adopted the ideas and lifestyle of the modern age. Residents of Europe made progress in geographical, business, social and spiritual areas. In this era, people have abandoned medieval monotheism and equipped themselves with new discoveries, latest ideas and social, cultural and intellectual advancement.
The French Revolution
Every area has a completely new approach, ideal and hope is communicated. Religion's influence ended on literature, art, philosophy, science, commerce, society and politics. Thus, the Renaissance is the name of the intellectual movement that revived the ancient civilization-culture of Rome and Greece and gave birth to new consciousness.

Causes of Renaissance In Europe

1. Business and development of cities
The most important reason for Renaissance was the development of commerce. The business relationship of the people with the new countries was established and they got an opportunity to know the culture and culture there. Business development gave birth to a new business class. The businessman was a strong critic and staunch opponent. The business class encouraged thinkers, thinkers, literary and scientists.


Thus, the progress of knowledge-science has progressed in the umbrella of the business class. New city settled with the development of trade In Sharon there were businessmen from many countries in connection with trade. There was exchange of ideas among them. The intellectual development of the public was exchanged with ideas.

2. Contact East
At the time when Europeans were intellectually backward, a new Arab culture had given birth to the Arabs. The billions of empires spread to Spain and North Africa. They were also spreading their empire-expansion along with knowledge-science. Due to the contact with the Arabs, the West also benefited.

3. Tradition of Medieval Panditpanth
Based on the knowledge gained from the Arabs, the scholars of Europe emphasized the study of Aristotle. He ran Panditpand tradition. It was the primacy of antiquity and authenticism. An attempt was made to revive ancient literature. Ancient literature was translated into various languages. Aristotle's philosophy was the primacy of this philosophy.
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4. The invention of paper and printing art
The contribution of paper and printing was important in pursuing the Renaissance in Europe. The printing of books and printing was started extensively with the invention of books. The ordinary person could now read and buy books at affordable rates. The books were written in the language of the masses, so that the benefits of knowledge-making started reaching ordinary people. People started becoming aware of the work of different thinkers and philosophers. They had intellectual awareness.

5. Cultural significance of the Mongol empire
The durbar of the Mongol Emperor Kublai Khan was a meeting place for the scholars of the East and the West. His court was full of scholars, missionaries and businessmen from abroad and abroad. Interpersonal interaction between these scholars helped in the progress of knowledge-science. Travelers of Europe tried to use their method in their country by learning the method of producing gunpowder, paper and ship compass. Thus, the Mongol empire did the vehicle in pursuit of Renaissance in Europe.



6. Fall of Kastunatunia
In 1453 AD Osmani Turks took control of Kustunetunia. Kusutantunya was the center of enlightenment. After the conquest of the Turks, fleeing the disciplines of Kustunatunya, seeking refuge in the countries of Europe. He attracted people's attention to ancient literature and knowledge. This generated new curiosity in the public with reverence for ancient knowledge. This curiosity was the soul of the Renaissance in Europe.
There is another significant effect of the decline of Kustunatunya. The trade routes of trade were closed between Europe and Eastern countries. Now the effort of reaching the eastern part of the waterway started. Columbus, Waskodigama and Magellan have discovered many countries in this activity.

7. Discovering ancient literature
In thirteenth and fourteenth century, scholars tried to revive the ancient literature. Among them are the names of Petrarch, Dante Alighieri, and Bacon. Scholars translated ancient texts into different languages ​​and tried to introduce people to the mysterious subjects.

8. Impact of Humanistic ideology
Europe's medieval civilization was based on artificiality and core idealism. Worldly life was misconstrued. Universities of Europe were studying Greek philosophy. Roger Bacon opposed Aristotle's primacy and rendered the theory of rationalism. This led to the development of humanism. Humanists criticize the fanaticism of churches and clergy
Literary Theory & Criticism 

9. Influence of Crusade
For almost two hundred years, there was a crusade between the East and the West. Crusades of Crusade were influenced by Eastern civilization. Later these warriors strengthened the foundation of Renaissance in Europe in Europe.

10. Decrease of Feudalism
Due to feudal practice, farmers, businessmen, artists and ordinary people did not get the opportunity of independent meditation. The atmosphere was always toxic due to feudal wars. But the fall of the feudal system balanced the public life.

Peace and order prevail. In the peaceful environment, people began to make progress in literature, art and business and pay attention. In a peaceful environment, people started paying attention to the progress of literature, art and business. The important consequence of the decline of feudalism was the development of the national states. People were born in a national spirit.


English Literary Movement UGC NET JRF


English Literary Movement


English Literary Movement started from the age of Renaissance which was started from Italy.



The Age of Enlightenment




The French Revolution 



The Pre Raphaelite Brotherhood


Aestheticism


Oxford Movement


Auden Group

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Stream of Consciousness


Black Mountain Poets


Kitchen Sink Drama




Theatre of Absurd


Movement Poets 

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