IGNOU MRD 104 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

IGNOU MRD 104 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

MRD 104, also known as Understanding Rural India Through Fieldwork, is a core course in the IGNOU Master of Arts (Rural Development) programme. It's a unique and practical course that provides students with invaluable firsthand experience of rural realities in India.

IGNOU MRD 104 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

Course Structure:

  • Selection of a rural area: Students choose a specific rural community to study, focusing on its social, economic, and environmental aspects.
  • Data collection: Through participant observation, interviews, focus group discussions, and surveys, students gather data on various aspects of rural life in the chosen community.
  • Data analysis and report writing: Students analyze the collected data and prepare a comprehensive report presenting their findings and insights about the chosen rural area.

Q.1 What is critical social research ? Explain its main elements.

Critical social research is an approach within the field of social science that seeks to understand, analyze, and critique social phenomena with the aim of promoting social justice, equality, and transformative change. This methodology is rooted in critical theory, which emerged from the works of scholars like Max Horkheimer, Theodor Adorno, and Herbert Marcuse associated with the Frankfurt School. 

IGNOU MRD 104 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-Critical social research is characterized by its emphasis on questioning existing power structures, uncovering hidden ideologies, and engaging in socially relevant and emancipatory research.

The main elements of critical social research can be elucidated through several key principles:

1. Critical Reflexivity:

Critical social researchers emphasize the importance of self-awareness and reflexivity throughout the research process. Researchers critically reflect on their own perspectives, biases, and positions of privilege, recognizing that these factors can shape the research process and outcomes. This self-awareness is crucial for producing research that is not only academically rigorous but also socially relevant and transformative.

2. Power and Social Structures:

IGNOU MRD 104 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-Critical social research places a strong focus on analyzing power dynamics and social structures that contribute to inequality and oppression. This involves examining how power is distributed, maintained, and legitimized within society. Researchers critically investigate institutions, norms, and practices that perpetuate social hierarchies based on factors such as class, gender, race, and other forms of identity.

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3. Emancipatory Goals:

One of the central tenets of critical social research is its commitment to emancipatory goals. Researchers aspire to contribute to the liberation of marginalized and oppressed groups by exposing social injustices, challenging dominant ideologies, and advocating for social change. The aim is not only to understand social phenomena but also to actively contribute to the creation of a more just and equitable society.

4. Historical Context and Social Change:

Critical social researchers situate their work within a historical context and recognize the importance of understanding how social phenomena have evolved over time. This historical perspective allows researchers to trace the roots of contemporary issues and explore possibilities for social change. It involves scrutinizing historical injustices and understanding how they continue to impact the present.

5. Interdisciplinary Approach:

IGNOU MRD 104 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-Critical social research often adopts an interdisciplinary approach, drawing insights and methods from various disciplines such as sociology, anthropology, political science, cultural studies, and philosophy. This interdisciplinary perspective enriches the analysis, providing a more comprehensive understanding of complex social issues.

6. Dialogical and Participatory Methods:

Critical social research values collaborative and participatory approaches. Researchers often engage in a dialogue with the communities they study, recognizing the importance of incorporating diverse perspectives. Participatory methods involve including the voices of marginalized groups in the research process, allowing for a more nuanced and authentic understanding of their experiences.

7. Deconstruction of Dominant Discourses:

Critical social research involves the deconstruction of dominant discourses and ideologies that may perpetuate inequality. Researchers critically analyze language, symbols, and representations to uncover hidden power structures and challenge prevailing narratives that contribute to the marginalization of certain groups.

8. Ethical Considerations:

IGNOU MRD 104 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-Ethical considerations are central to critical social research. Researchers are attentive to issues of consent, confidentiality, and the potential impact of their work on the communities being studied. Ethical engagement includes acknowledging the potential risks and benefits of the research and working towards minimizing harm while maximizing the potential for positive social change.

9. Intersectionality:

Critical social research recognizes the interconnectedness of social categories such as race, gender, class, sexuality, and ability. The concept of intersectionality, popularized by scholars like Kimberlé Crenshaw, emphasizes that individuals' experiences are shaped by multiple intersecting factors. Researchers consider these intersections to provide a more nuanced understanding of social phenomena and to avoid oversimplified analyses.

10. Critique of Neutrality:

Critical social researchers reject the notion of complete objectivity and neutrality in research. They argue that all research is situated within a particular socio-political context and that acknowledging one's positionality is essential. Instead of aspiring to be completely objective, researchers aim for transparency, reflexivity, and a commitment to social justice.

Q.2 What do you understand by naturalistic inquiry ? Discuss the main steps involved in naturalistic method.

Q.3 Describe the importance of ensuring quality of data in social research. What are the different ways of ensuring the quality of data ?

Q.4 What are the main components of a Research Report ? Elaborate.

Q.5 Briefly explain the types, uses and limitations of tests in rural development research.

Q.6 What do you understand by phenomenology ? Highlight the phenomenological approaches in social research.

Q.7 Describe in brief, the designs of evaluative research.

Q.8 How to prepare a research proposal ? Illustrate with an example in the context of rural development ?

Q.9 What do to understand by critical social research. Describe its approaches.

Q. 10 What are the characteristics of a questionnaire ? Briefly explain its uses and limitations.

Q.11 Explain the importance and characteristics of hypothesis.

Q.12 Highlights the main steps of descriptive research.

Q.13 Explain in detail, the beginning section of a research report.

Q.14 What are the methods of sampling ? Describe various types of probability sampling.

Q.15 How to prepare a research proposal ? Illustrate with an example in the context of rural development


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