IGNOU MRD 101 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

IGNOU MRD 101 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

MRD 101, or Rural Development: Indian Context, is a course offered by the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) as part of their Master of Arts (Rural Development) programme.

IGNOU MRD 101 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

Course Structure:

  • Block 1: Rural Society and Economy: This block introduces you to the basic characteristics of rural society and economy in India, including demographics, social stratification, landownership patterns, and agrarian structure.
  • Block 2: Rural Development: Concept, Strategies and Experiences: This block explores the concept of rural development, different development strategies adopted in India, and their successes and failures.
  • Block 3: Rural Development: Agrarian Issues: This block focuses on the critical issues related to agriculture in rural India, such as land reforms, irrigation, credit, marketing, and agricultural technology.
  • Block 4: Rural Development Administration: This block examines the administrative setup for rural development in India, including the roles of Panchayati Raj institutions, cooperatives, and other agencies.
  • Block 5: Dynamics of Change in Rural India: This block analyzes the various factors driving change in rural India, such as globalization, migration, and technological advancements.

Q.1 What do you mean by Jajmani System ? Briefly describe the social mobility in Indian Villages.

The Jajmani system is a traditional social and economic arrangement prevalent in many Indian villages, particularly in rural areas. The term "Jajmani" is derived from the Sanskrit word "Jajman," which means the patron or employer. This system is characterized by a reciprocal relationship between different caste groups, wherein each caste has a specific economic function, and they provide services to the higher or dominant castes in exchange for patronage.

IGNOU MRD 101 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-In the Jajmani system, various caste groups are assigned specific occupations and duties. The social structure is organized hierarchically, with each caste having a distinct role in the economic activities of the village. 

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The key elements of the Jajmani system include the Jajman (patron), who belongs to the higher caste, and the Kamin (service provider), who belongs to the lower caste. The Kamin provides specific services such as agricultural labor, craftsmanship, or other essential functions to the Jajman in return for economic and social support.

IGNOU MRD 101 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-The Jajmani system is deeply ingrained in the social fabric of rural India and has been prevalent for centuries. It serves as a means of economic exchange and social cohesion within the village community. However, with the changing dynamics of Indian society, the Jajmani system has undergone transformations, and its relevance has diminished in some regions.

One aspect often associated with the Jajmani system is the lack of social mobility within Indian villages. Social mobility refers to the ability of individuals or groups to move up or down the social hierarchy. In the context of Indian villages, social mobility is often constrained by the rigid caste system and the roles assigned to each caste within the Jajmani system.

IGNOU MRD 101 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-The caste system in India has been a longstanding social structure that categorizes individuals into distinct groups based on birth. This has led to a hierarchical organization of society, with limited opportunities for individuals to change their social status. The Jajmani system, being closely tied to the caste system, further reinforces these social boundaries.

In the traditional Jajmani system, individuals are born into specific castes that dictate their occupation and social status. The hereditary nature of occupations restricts the ability of individuals to pursue different professions or move beyond the roles assigned to their caste. This lack of flexibility in occupational choices contributes to the limited social mobility within Indian villages.

Moreover, the economic interdependence fostered by the Jajmani system reinforces social hierarchies. The higher castes, as patrons, hold economic power and influence, while the lower castes, as service providers, are economically dependent on the former. This economic interdependence, coupled with social norms and traditions, acts as a barrier to social mobility by perpetuating the existing social order.

IGNOU MRD 101 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-However, it is essential to note that with the changing socio-economic landscape in India, there have been efforts to break away from the traditional constraints of the Jajmani system and the caste-based social structure. Education and economic development have played crucial roles in challenging these age-old norms and providing avenues for individuals to pursue diverse occupations.

Government initiatives and social reforms have aimed at dismantling the rigid caste system and promoting social equality. Educational opportunities have increased, allowing individuals from lower castes to access knowledge and skills that were traditionally reserved for the upper castes. This has the potential to disrupt the traditional Jajmani system by providing avenues for social mobility through education and economic independence.

Furthermore, the influence of urbanization and globalization has led to the diversification of occupations and a shift away from the agrarian economy that traditionally characterized Indian villages. As villages become more integrated into the broader economic landscape, individuals are exposed to new opportunities beyond the confines of the Jajmani system. This exposure can potentially facilitate social mobility as individuals explore alternative paths and occupations.

Q.2 Discuss the various types of rural development strategies.

Q.3 Explain in brief, rural development experience of Bangladesh.

Q.4 Discuss the agrarian movements arising out of feudalistic contradictions after 1950.

Q.5 Highlight the different approaches to organise agricultural extension services.

Q.6 Characteristics of process of communication.

Q.7 Describe the rural development policies and briefly  discuss various types of rural development strategies.

Q.8 Describe the important aspects of the caste system  in India.

Q.9 Discuss the problems and challenges faced by  Agricultural Extension Services in India.

Q. What are the essential ingredients of  empowerment ? Explain the role of self - help groups as a strategy for empowerment of weaker sections.

Q.11 Describe the problem areas which have  come up as a consequence of green revolution.

Q.12 What are the main sources of rural credit in India ? Explain.

Q.13 Examine the important aspects of Green Revolution in India.

Q.14 Describe the experience of rural development in Bangladesh.

Q.15 Explain the concept of caste. Discuss the issue of social mobility in rural India.


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