IGNOU MPA 016 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

IGNOU MPA 016 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

MPA 016 is a course code that typically refers to Decentralization and Local Governance. It's often part of a Master of Public Administration (MPA) program, but it can also be offered as a standalone course in some universities and colleges.

IGNOU MPA 016 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

Course Structure:       

  • Unit 1: Concept, Evolution and Significance of Democratic Decentralisation
  • Unit 2: Contextual Dimensions of Democratic Decentralisation-I: Political, Constitutional and Administrative
  • Unit 3: Contextual Dimensions of Democratic Decentralisation-II: Social, Economic and Geographical
  • Unit 4: Understanding Decentralisation in Contemporary Settings
  • Unit 5: Components of Decentralised Development – I: Empowerment
  • Unit 6: Components of Decentralised Development – II: Socioeconomic and Politico-administrative
  • Unit 7: Components of Decentralised Development – III Equal Distribution of Benefits of Development
  • Unit 8: Partnership Among Different Levels of Government – I: Union and State Governments
  • Unit 9: Partnership Among Different Levels of Government – II: Local Authorities and Special Purpose Agencies
  • Unit 10: Partnership Between Local Government and Non-State Agencies/Actors
  • Unit 11: Impact of Decentralised Development
  • Unit 12: Evolution of Local Governance (Before 73rd & 74th) Amendment
  • Unit 13: Features Of 73rd and 74th constitutional Amendment
  • Unit 14: Organisational Structure of Rural Local Bodies
  • Unit 15: Organisational Structure of Urban Local Bodies
  • Unit 16: Intra-Local Government Relationship-I: Rural
  • Unit 17: Intra-Local Government Relationship- II- Urban
  • Unit 18: Development Planning: Nature and Scope
  • Unit 19: Micro Level Plans: Formulation and Implementation
  • Unit 20: Structural Reforms: Resources, Finances, Powers and Functions
  • Unit 21: Capacity Building of Grassroots Functionaries
  • Unit 22: Sustainable Development and Challenges to Decentralised Governance
  • Unit 23: Decentralisation : The Road Ahead

Q.1 Describe briefly the concept and significance of  democratic decentralisation.

Democratic decentralization is a governance concept that involves the transfer of political, administrative, and fiscal responsibilities from central government authorities to local levels of government, such as municipalities or regional councils. This shift aims to empower local communities, enhance citizen participation in decision-making processes, and promote overall democratic governance. 

IGNOU MPA 016 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-The concept recognizes the importance of bringing government closer to the people, allowing them to have a more direct role in shaping policies that affect their lives. The significance of democratic decentralization lies in its potential to foster local development, strengthen grassroots democracy, and improve the efficiency and responsiveness of public administration.

One key aspect of democratic decentralization is the delegation of decision-making authority to local government bodies. This includes giving local authorities the power to make decisions on issues ranging from public service delivery to economic development initiatives. 

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By distributing decision-making responsibilities, democratic decentralization promotes a more inclusive and participatory form of governance, where citizens have a direct say in matters that impact their communities. This shift in decision-making also allows for tailored solutions to local challenges, as those closest to the issues are often better equipped to understand and address them.

IGNOU MPA 016 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-Moreover, democratic decentralization enhances citizen engagement in the political process. Local governments are more accessible to the people they serve, making it easier for citizens to voice their concerns, participate in public meetings, and actively engage in community development initiatives. This increased participation helps build a sense of ownership and responsibility among citizens, fostering a culture of civic involvement. Additionally, decentralization facilitates the emergence of local leaders who are attuned to the needs of their communities, thereby creating a more responsive and accountable system of governance.

The transfer of administrative functions is another crucial aspect of democratic decentralization. Local governments are granted greater autonomy in managing public services, infrastructure, and local development projects. This empowerment allows them to tailor policies and programs to the unique needs of their communities. For example, local authorities may be better positioned to address specific education, healthcare, or infrastructure requirements based on their knowledge of local conditions. This localization of administrative functions can lead to more effective and efficient service delivery, as decisions are made by those with firsthand knowledge of the local context.

Fiscal decentralization is a critical component of democratic decentralization, involving the allocation of financial resources and revenue-raising powers to local governments. This financial autonomy enables local authorities to fund and implement projects that align with the priorities of their communities. It also reduces dependency on central government funding, promoting fiscal responsibility and sustainability at the local level. However, for fiscal decentralization to be truly effective, it requires mechanisms to ensure financial transparency, accountability, and equitable distribution of resources to prevent disparities between affluent and less affluent regions.

IGNOU MPA 016 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-The significance of democratic decentralization extends to its potential to address issues of social justice and inclusivity. By empowering local communities, it provides marginalized groups with opportunities for representation and participation in decision-making processes. This is particularly crucial in diverse societies where different ethnic, cultural, or linguistic groups may have distinct needs and preferences. Decentralization can serve as a mechanism for promoting social cohesion and addressing historical inequalities by giving marginalized communities a platform to voice their concerns and actively contribute to local development.

Furthermore, democratic decentralization plays a vital role in conflict resolution and peace-building efforts. In regions with a history of internal conflicts, decentralization can be a tool for fostering reconciliation by involving local communities in the decision-making process and addressing grievances at the grassroots level. By empowering local leaders to take an active role in conflict resolution, democratic decentralization contributes to building a more stable and harmonious society.

However, it is important to note that the success of democratic decentralization depends on several factors, including the institutional capacity of local governments, the level of civic awareness and participation, and the commitment of central authorities to devolve power and resources. Challenges such as corruption, capacity constraints, and unequal distribution of resources can hinder the effective implementation of decentralization initiatives.

Q.2 Discuss the concept of 'empowerment' and  highlight its need.

Q.3 Write a note on the politico - administrative  component of decentralisation

Q.4 'Principle of Balance' is an important principle of  equal distribution of benefits of development'. Discuss.

Q.5 Examine the partnership between local authorities  and special purpose agencies in health sector.

Q.6 Highlight the features of 73ra Constitutional  Amendment Act 1992.

Q.7 Explain the organisation structure, powers and  functions of municipalities.

Q.8 Highlight the issues in rural development in the  context of development planning.

Q.9 Discuss the constraints in micro - level planning.

Q.10 Examine the challenges in the area of sustainable  development and environment.

Q.11 Write a note on the concept and significance of democratic decentralisation

Q.12 Explain the provisions of the 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992 and also observations on the same.

Q.13 ‘‘The State has an enormous responsibility in ensuring the conservation of resources in a sustainable manner to provide decent living to all.’’ Explain.

Q.14 ‘‘Political decentralisation signifies transferring of powers and responsibilities from Central Government to local tiers that are democratically elected.’’ Examine.

Q.15 Briefly highlight politico-administrative component of decentralisation.



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