IGNOU EPA 06 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

IGNOU EPA 06 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

IGNOU EPA 06 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-EPA 06 Public Policy, offered by Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), explores the intricate world of formulating and implementing policies for the public good. This course equips individuals with the knowledge and skills needed to understand the policymaking process, analyze policy frameworks, and contribute effectively to policy development and implementation.

IGNOU EPA 06 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

Course Structure:

  • Block 1: Introduction to Public Policy: This introductory block lays the groundwork by defining public policy, its scope, and its significance in different contexts. It explores the various actors involved in policymaking, the different types of policies, and the challenges faced in formulating and implementing effective policies.
  • Block 2: Policy-Making Process: This block delves into the various stages of the policymaking process, from agenda-setting and policy formulation to implementation and evaluation. Students will study different theoretical frameworks that explain policymaking behavior, such as rational choice theory and group theory.
  • Block 3: Policy Analysis: This section equips students with the tools and techniques needed to analyze public policies critically. It covers frameworks for assessing policy effectiveness, efficiency, equity, and sustainability. Students will learn to identify stakeholders, analyze policy impacts, and evaluate alternative policy options.
  • Block 4: Public Policy in India: This block focuses on the specific context of public policymaking in India. Students will explore the constitutional framework, the role of different institutions, and the key challenges faced by policymakers in India.
  • Block 5: Comparative Public Policy: This section broadens the perspective by examining public policymaking in other countries. Students will compare and contrast different approaches to policymaking and learn from international experiences.
  • Block 6: Public Policy and Specific Sectors: This block dives deeper into how public policy impacts specific sectors, such as health, education, environment, and social welfare. Students will analyze different policy frameworks and challenges in these sectors.
  • Block 7: Emerging Issues in Public Policy: This section examines current trends and emerging challenges that are shaping public policy globally, such as climate change, technological advancements, and social movements.
  • Block 8: Ethics and Public Policy: This final block focuses on the ethical considerations involved in formulating and implementing public policy. Students will explore issues such as justice, equity, transparency, and accountability.

Q.1 Discuss the different types of classification of budgets.

Policy-making at the union level involves a complex interplay of structures, processes, and stakeholders aimed at crafting, executing, and assessing policies of national significance.

IGNOU EPA 06 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-Central to the policy-making apparatus at the union level is the legislative branch, embodied by the Parliament, which consists of the Lok Sabha (House of the People) and the Rajya Sabha (Council of States). The Parliament stands as the principal forum for enacting laws, scrutinizing governmental actions, and allocating resources. 

Within this framework, Members of Parliament (MPs), representing diverse constituencies and political affiliations, contribute to the policy discourse by voicing the concerns and interests of their constituents. Furthermore, parliamentary committees, including standing and select committees, play a pivotal role in subjecting legislative proposals to rigorous examination and expert evaluation, thus fostering transparency, accountability, and informed decision-making.

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Complementing the legislative function is the executive branch, spearheaded by the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers. This branch is charged with executing policies, managing government agencies, and implementing laws enacted by the Parliament. At the apex of executive authority, the Prime Minister's Office (PMO) serves as the nerve center for policy coordination, facilitating inter-ministerial collaboration and strategic planning. 

IGNOU EPA 06 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-Cabinet meetings, presided over by the Prime Minister, serve as forums for deliberating on policy matters and coordinating governmental actions. Additionally, administrative bodies such as the NITI Aayog and various ministries oversee specialized policy domains, offering expertise and guidance in areas such as economic planning, social welfare, infrastructure development, and international relations.

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Independent regulatory agencies and advisory bodies also contribute significantly to union-level policy-making by providing expert analysis, oversight, and recommendations in specific sectors. These bodies, including the Election Commission, Reserve Bank of India, Securities and Exchange Board of India, Telecom Regulatory Authority of India, and National Human Rights Commission, operate autonomously to ensure regulatory compliance, safeguard public interests, and uphold democratic principles. By leveraging their expertise and independence, these institutions bolster the credibility and effectiveness of policy-making processes, fostering public trust and confidence in governance institutions.

In addition to institutional structures, the policy-making process at the union level unfolds through a series of distinct stages, each characterized by specific activities and decision points. The process typically commences with agenda setting, wherein policy issues are identified, prioritized, and brought to the attention of policymakers through various channels such as public consultations, expert opinions, media coverage, and political discourse. 

IGNOU EPA 06 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-Subsequently, policy formulation ensues, involving in-depth analysis, stakeholder consultations, and the drafting of policy proposals. Decision-making follows, as policymakers evaluate alternative courses of action, weigh trade-offs, and make choices based on political, economic, and social considerations. Once a decision is made, policies move into the implementation phase, wherein government agencies execute plans, allocate resources, and deliver services in accordance with policy directives. 

Continuous monitoring and evaluation are integral to the process, as policymakers assess progress, identify challenges, and adjust strategies to optimize outcomes and address emerging issues.

Beyond the formal policy-making process, a myriad of external factors and influences shape policy outcomes at the union level. Political dynamics, including party politics, coalition arrangements, and electoral imperatives, often shape policy priorities and decision-making processes.

IGNOU EPA 06 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-Public opinion, manifested through media scrutiny, public protests, and civil society activism, exerts pressure on policymakers and shapes policy agendas. Interest groups, ranging from industry associations to advocacy organizations, lobby for their interests and influence policy outcomes through various channels. Economic conditions, technological advancements, and global trends further contribute to the policy landscape, presenting both challenges and opportunities for policymakers to navigate.

Q.2 Discuss the policy-making structures and process at the union level.

Q.3 "Role of the non-governmental agencies in policy implementation either facilitates or hampers the effective execution of policies." Comment.

Q.4 Describe the meaning, importance and major dimensions of policy impact

Q.5 Examine the significance of Elite Theoretic Model for policy analysis.
Q.6 "Parliamentary committees play significant role in the legislative process." Examine.

Q.7 'Inappropriate supporting services cause major problem in effective implementation of public policy." Comment.

Q.8 What are for major problems in the functioning of Panchayati Raj Institutions ?

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Q.9 Define Public Policy and discuss its characteristics.

Q.10 Discuss the meaning and importance of inter-governmental relations in policy making in India

Q.11 Examine the major perspectives of policy implementation.

Q.12 Distinguish between traits of policy making process in developed and developing countries.

Q.13 Define Inter-Governmental Relations and discuss its characteristics and models enumerated by Deil S. Wright.

Q.14 'Judiciary plays a major role in policy implementation process.' Analyse.
Q. 15 Describe major techniques of connecting proposals into policies.



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