IGNOU EPA 05 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

IGNOU EPA 05 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

IGNOU EPA 05 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-EPA 05 Financial Administration, offered by Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU), delves into the crucial aspects of managing and administering finances in different organizational settings. This course equips individuals with the knowledge and skills needed to make informed financial decisions, implement effective financial practices, and contribute to the financial well-being of their organizations.

IGNOU EPA 05 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

Course Structure:

  • Block 1: Introduction to Financial Administration: This introductory block lays the foundation by defining financial administration, exploring its core principles, and highlighting its significance within various organizations. It emphasizes the different contexts and challenges faced by different organizational types (public, private, non-profit).
  • Block 2: Public Finance: This block focuses on the principles and practices of financial administration in the public sector. Students will explore topics like government budgeting, public expenditure management, tax administration, and public debt management.
  • Block 3: Corporate Finance: This section delves into the financial management practices of private sector businesses. Students will gain insights into capital budgeting, investment analysis, financing decisions, dividend policies, and risk management.
  • Block 4: Financial Accounting and Analysis: This block provides a foundational understanding of financial accounting principles and their application in financial analysis. Students will learn to interpret financial statements, evaluate financial performance, and assess the financial health of organizations.
  • Block 5: Financial Regulations and Compliance: This section focuses on the various financial regulations and compliance requirements that organizations must adhere to. Students will explore topics like corporate governance, internal controls, auditing, and anti-money laundering regulations.
  • Block 6: Emerging Issues and Challenges: This final block examines current trends and emerging challenges in the field of financial administration. Students will discuss issues like technological advancements, financial globalization, and sustainability considerations, and their impact on financial practices.

Q.1 Discuss the different types of classification of budgets.

Budgets serve as comprehensive financial plans that outline an organization's or government's anticipated revenue and expenditures over a specified period, typically a fiscal year. These budgets can be classified into various types based on different criteria, including their scope, flexibility, time frame, purpose, and approach to budgeting.

IGNOU EPA 05 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-Understanding the different types of budgets is crucial for organizations and governments to effectively manage their finances, allocate resources, and achieve their strategic objectives. This essay will discuss the various classifications of budgets, highlighting their characteristics, advantages, and limitations.

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One common classification of budgets is based on their scope and level of detail, distinguishing between comprehensive or master budgets and specific or functional budgets. A comprehensive budget, also known as a master budget, encompasses all aspects of an organization's financial activities, including revenue projections, operating expenses, capital expenditures, and financing arrangements.

It provides an overarching framework that integrates various functional budgets, such as sales, production, marketing, human resources, and finance, into a unified financial plan. In contrast, specific or functional budgets focus on individual activities, departments, or functions within an organization, detailing the expected costs and revenues associated with each area. Examples of functional budgets include sales budgets, production budgets, cash budgets, and capital budgets.

IGNOU EPA 05 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-While comprehensive budgets offer a holistic view of an organization's financial position and performance, functional budgets provide detailed insights into specific areas of operation, enabling managers to make informed decisions and monitor performance effectively.

Another classification of budgets is based on their flexibility or rigidity, distinguishing between fixed or static budgets and flexible or variable budgets. Fixed budgets are prepared based on predetermined assumptions and parameters, with fixed targets for revenues, expenses, and performance indicators. Once set, these budgets remain unchanged regardless of actual operating conditions or changes in external factors.

In contrast, flexible budgets are designed to adapt to changing circumstances, allowing for adjustments in response to fluctuations in activity levels, market conditions, or other variables. Flexible budgets typically include variable cost components that vary with changes in activity levels, such as sales volumes or production levels, enabling organizations to manage costs more effectively and maintain performance targets even in uncertain environments.

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While fixed budgets provide stability and predictability, flexible budgets offer greater responsiveness and agility, allowing organizations to adapt to changing conditions and seize opportunities more effectively.

Budgets can also be classified based on their time frame or horizon, distinguishing between long-term budgets and short-term budgets. Long-term budgets, also known as strategic budgets or capital budgets, cover a period of several years and focus on major investment decisions, capital expenditures, and strategic initiatives aimed at achieving the organization's long-term goals and objectives.

These budgets typically involve significant capital outlays, such as infrastructure projects, equipment purchases, research and development initiatives, and strategic acquisitions, which require careful planning and evaluation. In contrast, short-term budgets, also known as operational budgets or tactical budgets, cover a shorter time frame, typically one year or less, and focus on day-to-day operations, routine expenses, and short-term financial goals.

IGNOU EPA 05 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-These budgets include operating expenses, such as salaries, utilities, supplies, and maintenance costs, as well as revenue projections and cash flow forecasts for the upcoming fiscal period. While long-term budgets provide a strategic roadmap for future growth and development, short-term budgets offer a detailed plan for managing current operations and meeting immediate financial needs.

Additionally, budgets can be classified based on their purpose or function, distinguishing between capital budgets, operating budgets, cash budgets, and other specialized budgets tailored to specific organizational needs. Capital budgets focus on capital expenditures and investment decisions related to long-term assets, such as property, plant, and equipment, as well as major infrastructure projects and strategic initiatives with significant long-term implications.

Operating budgets, on the other hand, focus on day-to-day operations and routine expenses, including salaries, wages, supplies, utilities, and other recurring costs necessary for maintaining ongoing business activities. Cash budgets project cash inflows and outflows over a specific period, providing insights into the organization's liquidity position and cash management needs. Other specialized budgets may include sales budgets, production budgets, marketing budgets, research and development budgets, and project budgets, each tailored to address specific aspects of an organization's operations, goals, and challenges.

IGNOU EPA 05 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-Furthermore, budgets can be classified based on their approach to budgeting, distinguishing between traditional or incremental budgets and zero-based budgets.

Traditional budgets, also known as incremental budgets, start with the previous period's budget as a baseline and make incremental adjustments or additions based on changes in activity levels, inflation, or other factors. While incremental budgets are relatively simple and easy to implement, they may perpetuate inefficiencies, encourage budgetary padding, and hinder innovation by assuming continuity with past practices. In contrast, zero-based budgets require managers to justify every expense from scratch, regardless of past allocations, starting from a "zero base" each budget cycle.

IGNOU EPA 05 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-This approach forces managers to critically evaluate the necessity and effectiveness of each expenditure, prioritize resources based on strategic objectives, and identify opportunities for cost savings and efficiency improvements. While zero-based budgets are more time-consuming and resource-intensive to prepare, they promote accountability, cost-consciousness, and alignment with organizational priorities, fostering a culture of continuous improvement and value creation.

Q.2 Examine the role of Comptroller and Auditor General of India.

Q.3 Describe the important phases of rural fiscal management.

Q.4 'The general complaint against the financial relations between the union and the states relates to division of resources.' Examine.

Q.5 Explain the concept of deficit financing and discuss measures to control it.

Q.6 The financial autonomy and accountability of public enterprise can be improved, through various measures.' Elaborate.

Q.7 Discuss the emerging trends in financial administration of India.
Q.8 Describe the functions and the working of Public Accounts Committee.

Q.9 Discuss the important principles of fiscal federalism.

Q.10 Discuss the concept and salient features o f mixed economy.

Q.11 Write a note on the different phases o f budgetary cycle.

Q.12 Highlight the limitations and measures to control deficit financing.

Q.13 Explain the advantages and limitations of deficit financing.

Q.14 Examine the financial administration of urban government and highlight the gap between municipal services and resources.

Q. 15 Enumerate the problems and benefits of 12 implementation of zero base budgeting system.



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