IGNOU BSOC 112 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

IGNOU BSOC 112 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

BSOC 112 Sociological Research Methods-I is a core course offered by Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) for its Bachelor of Arts (Honours) Sociology (BASOH) program. 

IGNOU BSOC 112 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

Course Structure:

  • Block 1: Introduction to Social Research:
  • This block sets the stage by familiarizing you with:
  • The nature and purpose of sociological research.
  • Different research designs and methodologies (quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods).
  • Ethical considerations in social research.
  • The research process: from formulating research questions to data collection and analysis.
  • Block 2: Research Design and Techniques:
  • This block delves deeper into specific research designs and techniques, including:
  • Quantitative research: Surveys, experiments, observational methods, sampling techniques, data analysis using statistical software.
  • Qualitative research: Interviews, focus groups, ethnographic methods, content analysis, discourse analysis.
  • Mixed methods research: Combining quantitative and qualitative approaches for a richer understanding.
  • Block 3: Data Collection and Analysis:
  • This block focuses on the practical skills of data collection and analysis, covering:
  • Interviewing techniques and participant observation.
  • Document analysis and coding qualitative data.
  • Analyzing quantitative data using descriptive statistics and basic tests.
  • Using data analysis software tools.
  • Block 4 (Optional): Specialized Research Techniques:
  • This block may introduce you to specific research techniques tailored to different areas of sociology, such as:
  • Social surveys and questionnaire design.
  • Field research methods and participant observation techniques.
  • Content analysis and discourse analysis tools.
  • Ethical considerations in specific research contexts.

Q.1 Discuss the nature and scope of quantitative research.

Quantitative research is a systematic inquiry method focused on quantifying variables and analyzing numerical data to comprehend phenomena, relationships, and patterns. It relies on statistical techniques and numerical analysis to derive conclusions and generalize findings about the population under study. The nature and scope of quantitative research encompass various facets, including its defining characteristics, methodologies, applications, strengths, and limitations.

At its core, quantitative research is distinguished by its emphasis on measurement, objectivity, and generalizability. Unlike qualitative inquiry, which delves into subjective experiences and interpretations, quantitative research prioritizes obtaining precise measurements and numerical data that can be statistically analyzed. This objective stance enables researchers to test hypotheses, discern trends, and make predictions based on empirical evidence. The methodology often involves large sample sizes and structured data collection methods, such as surveys, experiments, or observations, to ensure the reliability and validity of findings.

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Quantitative research is widely applicable across disciplines, spanning psychology, sociology, economics, education, health sciences, and beyond. Within each field, quantitative methods are deployed to address a diverse array of research questions and objectives. For instance, in psychology, quantitative research might explore the efficacy of psychological interventions, prevalence rates of mental health disorders, or factors influencing human behavior. Similarly, in economics, quantitative inquiry may scrutinize economic indicators, trends, and relationships to inform policy decisions or forecast market outcomes.

The methodologies employed in quantitative research encompass various techniques for data collection and analysis. Surveys, experiments, observational studies, and secondary data analysis are common approaches for gathering quantitative data. Surveys involve administering structured questionnaires or interviews to sample populations to collect data on their attitudes, beliefs, or behaviors. Experiments entail manipulating independent variables to observe their effects on dependent variables under controlled conditions. Observational studies systematically observe and record behaviors or events in natural settings. Secondary data analysis involves scrutinizing existing datasets collected for other purposes, such as government surveys or organizational records.

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A fundamental aspect of quantitative research is statistical analysis, enabling researchers to analyze and interpret numerical data to test hypotheses and draw conclusions. Descriptive statistics, such as measures of central tendency (e.g., mean, median, mode) and variability (e.g., standard deviation, range), are used to summarize and describe data characteristics. Inferential statistics, such as hypothesis testing, regression analysis, and analysis of variance (ANOVA), are employed to make inferences and draw conclusions about populations based on sample data. These statistical techniques aid researchers in determining the significance of relationships, differences, or associations observed in the data.

The applications of quantitative research are extensive and diverse, spanning academic and applied domains. In academia, quantitative research is utilized to advance knowledge and theory across disciplines, providing empirical support for theoretical frameworks. In applied settings, it informs decision-making, evaluates programs or interventions, and addresses practical challenges in fields such as public policy, healthcare, marketing, and education.

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Quantitative research offers several strengths, including its ability to provide precise measurements, test hypotheses rigorously, and generalize findings to broader populations. Its systematic and empirical approach enhances the credibility and reliability of findings, making it valuable for informing evidence-based practices and policy decisions. Moreover, quantitative research facilitates replication and comparison across studies, fostering cumulative knowledge development and scientific progress.

However, quantitative research also has limitations and challenges. It may oversimplify complex phenomena and contexts, potentially overlooking nuanced aspects of human experiences. Standardized measurement tools and operational definitions may not capture the full breadth of phenomena under investigation. Researchers must also contend with issues like sampling bias, measurement error, and confounding variables, which can impact the validity and reliability of findings. Additionally, quantitative research can be resource-intensive and time-consuming, requiring specialized skills, equipment, and software for data collection, analysis, and interpretation.

Q.2 In what way does empirical research influence sociological theory ? Explain.

Q.3 Discuss the significance of reflexivity in social science research.

Q.4 According to Radcliffe Brown, how do social anthropologists differ from ethnologists in the use of historical method ?

Q.5 What is experimental research ? Explain

Q.6 What is qualitative research ? Discuss the importance of visual method and documents in qualitative research.

Q.7 What is comparative method ? Discuss Murdock’s use of comparative method in the study of cultures

Q.8 How do you think the traditional moments are marked differently from the post-modern moments of qualitative research?

Q.9 Why do you think symbolic interaction is based on the methods of qualitative research?

Q.10 What is a variable? What are its types?

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Q.11 How is Problem formulation done in Quantitative Research?

Q.12 What are the levels of Measurement?

Q.13 Why should social facts be treated as things?

Q.14 How does theory differ from ideology and what is its focus?

Q.15 Discuss the interdependence of theory and research




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