IGNOU BANC 104 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

IGNOU BANC 104 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

IGNOU BANC 104 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-BANC 104 Human Origin and Evolution is a course offered by the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) that deals with the study of human origins and the evolutionary processes that led to modern Homo sapiens.

IGNOU BANC 104 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

Course Structure:

  • Block-1 Palaeoanthropology and Primate Evolution
  • Block-2 Early Hominids
  • Block-3 Homo erectus to modern homo sapiens

Q.1 What is organic evolution ? Briefly discuss the significance of fossils in understanding organic evolution.

Organic evolution denotes the gradual transformation of living organisms across successive generations, driven by mechanisms like natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and gene flow. Charles Darwin's groundbreaking theory of evolution by natural selection, elucidated in his seminal work "On the Origin of Species" in 1859, proposed that organisms with advantageous traits have a higher likelihood of passing on their genes, leading to the diversification of species over time.

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IGNOU BANC 104 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-Fossils are pivotal in comprehending organic evolution as they provide tangible evidence of past life forms and the evolutionary processes that have sculpted Earth's biodiversity. Fossils, which encompass preserved remains or traces of ancient organisms found in various geological formations, including bones, shells, footprints, and DNA remnants, facilitate paleontologists' study in reconstructing the evolutionary history of life forms.

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The significance of fossils in understanding organic evolution is multifaceted. Firstly, fossils serve as historical documentation of life on Earth, enabling scientists to trace the evolutionary trajectories of different species and discern patterns of biodiversity over geological epochs. Through the examination of fossil records, researchers can delineate the phylogenetic relationships between organisms and unravel the evolutionary pathways culminating in modern taxa.

IGNOU BANC 104 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-Moreover, fossils unveil insights into extinct species and transitional forms, bridging gaps in the evolutionary narrative. Transitional fossils, exemplified by discoveries like Archaeopteryx, a bird-like dinosaur with feathered wings, offer tangible evidence of evolutionary links between ancient and contemporary organisms, elucidating pivotal evolutionary transitions.

Additionally, fossils provide glimpses into past environments and ecosystems, facilitating reconstructions of ancient habitats and climate conditions. By analyzing fossilized remains, scientists can infer past vegetation patterns, climatic shifts, and ecological dynamics, enriching our understanding of Earth's history.

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IGNOU BANC 104 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-Furthermore, fossils showcase evolutionary adaptations and responses to environmental pressures, such as climate change, competition, and predation. Variations in fossil morphology, anatomy, and physiology offer insights into how species have evolved over time, adapting to changing ecological contexts and selective pressures.

Fossils also play a crucial role in dating geological strata, providing chronological frameworks for evolutionary events. Radiometric dating techniques applied to fossil-bearing rocks allow scientists to establish the timing of key evolutionary milestones, such as mass extinctions and species diversification events.

Q.2 What is dating methods ? Briefly discuss any two methods of absolute dating

Q.3 Who are Archaic Homo Sapiens ? Briefly discuss the cultural behaviour of Archaic Homo Sapiens

Q.4 Briefly discuss the anatomical changes taking place during Bipedalism.

Q.5 What is your understanding about Australopithecus stage in human evolution ? Describe the stone tools and dietary pattern of Australopithecus

Q.6 What is Craniometry ? Describe any four craniometric measurements.

Q.7 Who are early Homo Sapiens ? Discuss its fossil evidences and distribution.

Q.8 Discuss the phylogenetic status and lifeways of Homoerectus.

Q.9 Describe the craniofacial features of Neanderthals

Q.10 Discuss the importance of Osteometry in anthropological research.

Q.11 What is palaeoanthropology ? Briefly comment on fossils and their preservation.

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Q.12 Briefly discuss the importance of Cenozoic era with reference to primate and human evolution.

Q.13 What are the characteristic features of Ramapithecus ? Discuss its position in human evolution.

Q.14 Write a comparative note on the morphology of Australopithecus and Homo habilis.

Q.15 Who discovered Homo habilis? Why it is known as “Handy Man”?



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