IGNOU MPYE 002 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

IGNOU MPYE 002 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

MPYE-002 is an ethics course offered by Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU). It is a compulsory course for students enrolled in the Master of Arts (MA) in Philosophy program.

IGNOU MPYE 002 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

Course Structure

Block 1: Introduction to Ethics

·       Nature and scope of ethics
·       Moral theories
·       Metaethics

Block 2: Ethical Foundations

·       Western ethical traditions
·       Indian ethical traditions
·       Contemporary ethical theories

Block 3: Applied Ethics

·       Business ethics
·       Environmental ethics
·       Bioethics
·       Medical ethics

Block 4: Current Ethical Debates

·       Euthanasia
·       Abortion
·       Genetic engineering
·       Artificial intelligence

Q.1 Define morality. How does conscience play specific role in the development of morality ?

Morality, a nuanced and intricate concept, delineates the principles and values guiding human behavior in distinguishing right from wrong. Rooted in cultural, religious, and philosophical traditions, morality intricately shapes individuals' ethical judgments and actions, molding their interactions with both others and the world. 

IGNOU MPYE 002 Important Questions With Answers English Medium -The development of morality is a dynamic and intricate process, involving various factors such as socialization, cognitive growth, and emotional maturation. Central to this developmental process is the role of conscience, a moral compass serving as an internal guide for individuals to navigate the complexities of the moral landscape.

Conscience, often characterized as an inner sense of right and wrong, acts as a moral intuition shaping decision-making and behavior. It is closely associated with feelings of guilt or remorse when actions deviate from internalized moral standards. The development of conscience is a gradual and continual process that commences in early childhood and persists throughout life, influenced by a combination of internal and external factors.

Early childhood plays a pivotal role in the formation of morality and the development of conscience through the process of socialization. Children absorb moral values from their caregivers, family members, and societal structures. Through observation, imitation, and interaction, they internalize the norms and expectations of their cultural and social milieu. For instance, a child may grasp the importance of honesty by observing their parents' emphasis on truthfulness and experiencing positive reinforcement when truth is prioritized.

IGNOU MPYE 002 Important Questions With Answers English Medium -Cognitive growth significantly contributes to the development of morality and conscience. The renowned developmental psychologist Jean Piaget proposed a theory delineating stages of moral development in children. In this schema, young children operate within a preconventional stage, where morality is primarily shaped by external consequences and authority figures. As individuals mature, they progress to a conventional stage, internalizing societal norms and rules. The final stage, postconventional, sees individuals developing their moral principles, guided by a sense of universal ethics.

Building on Piaget's work, Lawrence Kohlberg emphasized the role of reasoning in moral development, proposing a six-stage model across three levels: preconventional, conventional, and postconventional. Kohlberg's model posits that individuals advance through these stages as they encounter more complex moral dilemmas, refining their moral reasoning over time.

Emotions, particularly empathy and sympathy, also play a significant part in the development of morality and conscience. Empathy, the ability to understand and share others' feelings, fosters a connection with the experiences of others, leading to a sense of compassion and a desire to act in ways that minimize harm and promote well-being. As children and adolescents develop empathy, they become more attuned to the moral implications of their actions and decisions.

IGNOU MPYE 002 Important Questions With Answers English Medium -Conscience, as the internalization of moral values, reflects the dynamic interplay between cognitive and emotional processes. The emotional facet of conscience is evident in experiences of guilt and shame, which motivate individuals to rectify moral transgressions and maintain a sense of moral identity.

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Research in psychology and neuroscience supports the idea that cognitive and emotional processes intersect in the development of conscience. Brain regions associated with empathy and moral reasoning, such as the prefrontal cortex and mirror neuron system, undergo maturation during childhood and adolescence. These neural changes contribute to the refinement of moral judgment and the establishment of a more sophisticated conscience.

IGNOU MPYE 002 Important Questions With Answers English Medium -The influence of culture and society on the development of morality cannot be overstated. Different cultures and societies provide distinct moral frameworks, shaped by religious beliefs, ethical philosophies, and historical contexts. Cultural norms serve as a foundation for the development of conscience by shaping individuals' understanding of what is considered morally acceptable or unacceptable in their respective communities.

Religious teachings play a significant role in moral development for many individuals, offering a set of moral guidelines and commandments that act as a moral compass. Philosophical perspectives on morality also contribute to the development of conscience, as individuals engage with ethical questions and moral reasoning. Different ethical theories, such as consequentialism, deontology, and virtue ethics, offer diverse frameworks for evaluating moral dilemmas and making ethical decisions, contributing to the formation of a reflective and well-informed conscience.

To sum up, morality is a multifaceted concept guiding human behavior by distinguishing right from wrong. The development of morality involves socialization, cognitive growth, and emotional maturation, with conscience serving as an internal guide. Early childhood experiences, cultural influences, and religious teachings contribute to the formation of moral values, while cognitive and emotional processes refine moral reasoning and deepen the understanding of ethical implications. As individuals navigate the moral landscape, their conscience acts as a guiding force, shaping ethical decisions and instilling a sense of responsibility towards others and the greater good.

Q.2 Discuss situation ethics as propounded by Joseph Fletcher.

Q.3 Analyse the role of subjectivism and emotivism in the understanding of moral values.

Q.4 Explain the purusharthas and their importance in Indian Ethics.

Q.5 Explain the Ethical teachings of Buddhism.

Q.6 How do Thomas Aquinas and William of Ockham differ in their ethical approach ? Discuss.

Q.7 What do you understand by Natural Right and Positive Rights ? Explain.

Q.8 What are the general features of Habermas’ 'Discourse Ethics' ?

Q.9 Is morality relative ? Explain the cultural and ethical subjectivism involved in morality.

Q.10What do you understand by Virtue Ethics ? Elaborate and contrast it with deontological ethics.

Q.11 What are the sources of moral ideals in India ? Explain various ethical concepts discussed in Hindu philosophical tradition.

Q.12 Discuss the debate between consequentialismand non-consequentialism.

Q.13 Explain the main features of the Jaina and Buddhist Ethics.

Q.15 Discuss 'Right to Life' as the core of human rights.

Q.14 What is the code of ethics for media with special reference to social responsibility ?

Q.15. Explain the normative nature of social institutions. Discuss distributive justice as an important aspect of social institutions.


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