IGNOU BEGC 131 Important Questions and Answers 2024

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Q.1. Why was the ring of light from Mr. Jones’s lantern dancing from side to side?

Mr. Jones, of the the Manor Farm, had locked the hen-house for the night, but was too drunk to remember to shut the pop-holes. With the ring of light from his lantern dancing from side to side, he lurched across the yard, and made his way up to bed, where Mrs. Jones was already snoring.

As soon as the light in the bedroom went out, there was a stirring and a fluttering all through the farm buildings. Word had gone round during the day that old Major, the prize Middle White boar, had had a strange dream on the previous night and wished to communicate it to the other animals. It had been agreed that they should all meet in the big barn as soon as Mr. Jones was safely out of the way. Old Major was so highly regarded on the farm that everyone was quite ready to lose an hour's sleep in order to hear what he had to say.

All the animals were now present except Moses, the tame raven, who slept on a perch behind the back door. When Major saw that they had all made themselves comfortable and were waiting attentively, he cleared his throat and began: 'Comrades, you have heard already about the strange dream that I had last night. But I will come to the dream later. I have something else to say first. I do not think, comrades, that I shall be with you for many months longer, and before I die, I feel it my duty to pass on to you such wisdom as I have acquired. I have had a long life, I have had much time for thought as I lay alone in my stall, and I think I may say that I understand the nature of life on this earth as well as any animal now living. It is about this that I wish to speak to you.

Now, comrades, what is the nature of this life of ours? Let us face it: our lives are miserable, laborious, and short. We are born, we are given just so much food as will keep the breath in our bodies, and those of us who are capable of it are forced to work to the last atom of our strength; and the very instant that our usefulness has come to an end we are slaughtered with hideous cruelty.

'But is this simply part of the order of nature? Is it because this land of ours is so poor that it cannot afford a decent life to those who dwell upon it? No, comrades, a thousand times no! This single farm of ours would support a dozen horses, twenty cows, hundreds of sheep - and all of them living in a comfort and a dignity that are now almost beyond our imagining. Why then do we continue in this miserable condition? Because nearly the whole of the produce of our labour is stolen from us by human beings. There, comrades, is the answer to all our problems. It is summed up in a single word - Man. Man is the only real enemy we have, Remove Man from the scene, and the root cause of hunger and overwork is abolished for ever.

2. What does old Major want to share with the animals?

Old Major is Mr Jones' prize boar. He gathers all the animals together in the big barn to make a speech. He tells the animals that mankind and Mr Jones are the 'enemy', it is their fault that the animals' lives are miserable. He points out how cruel the men are to the animals - consuming without producing. He says that one day a rebellion will come - the animals will overthrow mankind and live in harmony.

Old Major is very intelligent, well-respected, an excellent speaker and an inspiration to the animals. He ends his speech by teaching the animals a song called Beasts of England. It is about a time when animals are free and humans are overthrown. He dies shortly after giving his speech and the other pigs take what they learnt from him and create 'Animalism', a set of rules for animals to live by.

Old Major is partly based on Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin. Karl Marx was a German philosopher who lived during the 19th-century. His ideas formed the basis of communism - his ideas are collectively known as 'Marxism', like 'Animalism' in the novel. He developed theories on how power structures in society keep people under control. Vladimir Lenin was a Russian revolutionary who established a form of Marxism in Russia in the early 20th-century.

As a democratic socialist, Orwell had a great deal of respect for Karl Marx, the German political economist, and even for Vladimir Ilych Lenin, the Russian revolutionary leader. His critique of Animal Farm has little to do with the Marxist ideology underlying the Rebellion but rather with the perversion of that ideology by later leaders. Major, who represents both Marx and Lenin, serves as the source of the ideals that the animals continue to uphold even after their pig leaders have betrayed them.

Though his portrayal of Old Major is largely positive, Orwell does include a few small ironies that allow the reader to question the venerable pig’s motives. For instance, in the midst of his long litany of complaints about how the animals have been treated by human beings, Old Major is forced to concede that his own life has been long, full, and free from the terrors he has vividly sketched for his rapt audience. He seems to have claimed a false brotherhood with the other animals in order to garner their support for his vision.

As soon as the light in the bedroom went out, there was a stirring and a fluttering all through the farm buildings. Word had gone round during the day that old Major, the prize Middle White boar, had had a strange dream on the previous night and wished to communicate it to the other animals. It had been agreed that they should all meet in the big barn as soon as Mr. Jones was safely out of the way. Old Major was so highly regarded on the farm that every one was quite ready to lose an hour’s sleep in order to hear what he had to say

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3. How is Man different from the animals?

There are many similarities between humans and other animals that you may have noticed. Humans and animals both eat, sleep, think, and communicate. We are also similar in a lot of the ways our bodies work. But we also have a lot of differences. Are there any differences that set humans apart, uniquely, from all other animals?

Some people think that the main differences between humans other animal species is our ability of complex reasoning, our use of complex language, our ability to solve difficult problems, and introspection (this means describing your own thoughts and feelings). Others also feel that the ability for creativity or the feeling of joy or sorrow is uniquely human. Humans have a highly developed brain that allows us to do many of these things. But are these things uniquely human? First, let’s get into the fuzzy part of that question.

There are a lot of things that humans think are true about animals and animal behavior, but some of these ideas are problematic. Sometimes, when we do tests on animal behavior, we use tests that apply to animals like humans, and we expect animals to perform in a similar way if they have similar abilities. For example, the mirror test is used to see if animals have awareness of themselves as the image that they see in a mirror. If a mark is placed on the animal, they should show signs of knowing that the mark is on their body. Maybe they try to rub it off with their hands or, if they can’t use their limbs that way, they may move their body a bit to see the mark better. But what if an animal doesn't have the best vision? Do we just say that, because they can't perform the test in that way, they wouldn't pass? Expecting all other animals to perform similarly to humans on tests can be problematic. This makes learning about some parts of animal behavior difficult.

But, what we have learned is pretty exciting. As we keep learning more and more about animal behavior, we are continually surprised.

Gunnison's prairie dogs seem to have a fairly complex language... rather than just sounding a basic alarm call, researchers have found that their alarm calls can describe specific predator speed, color, shape, and size... So when is this communication complex enough for us to call it a language? Elephants have been found to communicate across miles of land through subsonic sound. And when researchers slow a hummingbird's chirp down, it seems the song may be as complex as a song from some other birds, though more studies need to be done to understand this. Do we view animal "language" as limited just because we have trouble understanding it?

Caledonian crows can solve problems and build tools, and can solve multiple-step puzzles that require a plan. Are these examples of difficult problems? Where do we draw the line to say something is "difficult" enough, or that we've given an animal proper motivation to want to even solve one of these problems?

Gorillas and chimpanzees have painted pictures of birds, describing (through sign language) that that is what they were trying to create. If they had a goal in mind and then made it, is that a sign that they had introspection? That they are describing their own thoughts? And that they are doing it by using their own creativity? Seems like it might be.

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4. How does Indira Gandhi establish India’s long history of peaceful co-existence?

Indira Gandhi was born Indira Nehru, into a Kashmiri Pandit family on 19 November 1917 in Allahabad. Her father, Jawaharlal Nehru, was a leading figure in the movement for independence from British rule, and became the first Prime Minister of the Dominion (and later Republic) of India. She was the only child (she had a younger brother who died young),and grew up with her mother, Kamala Nehru, at the Anand Bhavan, a large family estate in Allahabad. She had a lonely and unhappy childhood. Her father was often away, directing political activities or incarcerated, while her mother was frequently bedridden with illness, and later suffered an early death from tuberculosis. She had limited contact with her father, mostly through letters.

Indira was taught mostly at home by tutors and attended school intermittently until matriculation in 1934. She was a student at the Modern School in Delhi, St Cecilia's and St Mary's Christian convent schools in Allahabad,the International School of Geneva, the Ecole Nouvelle in Bex, and the Pupils' Own School in Poona and Bombay, which is affiliated with the University of Mumbai.  She and her mother Kamala moved to the Belur Math headquarters of the Ramakrishna Mission where Swami Ranganathananda was her guardian.She went on to study at the Vishwa Bharati in Santiniketan, which became Visva-Bharati University in 1951.It was during her interview with him that Rabindranath Tagore named her Priyadarshini, literally "looking at everything with kindness" in Sanskrit, and she came to be known as Indira Priyadarshini Nehru. A year later, however, she had to leave university to attend to her ailing mother in Europe. There it was decided that Indira would continue her education at the University of Oxford. After her mother died, she attended the Badminton School for a brief period before enrolling at Somerville College in 1937 to study history.Indira had to take the entrance examination twice, having failed at her first attempt with a poor performance in Latin. At Oxford, she did well in history, political science and economics, but her grades in Latin—a compulsory subject—remained poor. Indira did, however, have an active part within the student life of the university, such as membership in the Oxford Majlis Asian Society

During her time in Europe, Indira was plagued with ill-health and was constantly attended to by doctors. She had to make repeated trips to Switzerland to recover, disrupting her studies. She was being treated there in 1940, when Germany rapidly conquered Europe. Indira tried to return to England through Portugal but was left stranded for nearly two months. She managed to enter England in early 1941, and from there returned to India without completing her studies at Oxford. The university later awarded her an honorary degree. In 2010, Oxford honoured her further by selecting her as one of the ten Oxasians, illustrious Asian graduates from the University of Oxford. During her stay in Britain, Indira frequently met her future husband Feroze Gandhi (no relation to Mahatma Gandhi), whom she knew from Allahabad, and who was studying at the London School of Economics. Their marriage took place in Allahabad according to Adi Dharm rituals, though Feroze belonged to a Zoroastrian Parsi family of Gujarat.

5. The environment around us has been destroyed. What are the three examples given?

It is high time for human beings to take the ‘right’ action towards saving the earth from major environmental issues. If ignored today, these ill effects are sure to curb human existence in the near future.

Our planet earth has a natural environment, known as ‘Ecosystem’ which includes all humans, plant life, mountains, glaciers, atmosphere, rocks, galaxy, massive oceans, and seas. It also includes natural resources such as water, electric charge, fire, magnetism, air, and climate.

Engineering developments are resulting in resource depletion and environmental destruction. Modern technologies used in the engineering and manufacturing industry have a major impact on our life in the past few years. Due to the rapid changes in the engineering and manufacturing industry have been drastic changes in the environment.

The engineering and manufacturing industry has increased the use of materials like metals, plastic, oil, and rubber. These are used in the production of numerous end products which can be associated with different industries such as Car production units, shipping industries, Cotton mills, plastics industries, coal mining, heavy machinery, etc which are causing numerous arduous effects and are considered to be non-environment friendly.

With the population growing at a rapid pace, the demand for food, shelter, and cloth has almost tripled in the last few decades. To overcome growing demand, a direct action that we have come to recognize as “Deforestation” occurs.

Deforestation means, clearing of forests or green cover for means of agriculture, industrial or urban use. It involves the permanent end of forest cover to make that land available for residential, commercial or industrial purposes.

According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), an estimated 18 million acres (7.3 million hectares) of forest are lost each year. The long term effects of deforestation can be severely devastating and alarming as they may cause floods, soil erosion, an increase in global warming, climate imbalance, wildlife extinction, and other serious environmental issues.

This is a never-ending human tragedy that is responsible for causing all types of environmental issues. Water pollution, resources crisis, gender imbalance, pollution, land pollution, urban sprawling, deforestation, over production are some common examples of dangerous effects cause by overpopulation.

Despite efforts taken by the government in terms of family planning in many countries, overpopulation is difficult to control at the international level. This has become more like a subjective concern and no method seems to be 100% efficient to resolve the problem of overpopulation.

At present, tons of garbage are produced by each household each year. Items that can be recycled are sent to the local recycling unit while other items become a part of the landfills or sent to third world countries. Due to an increase in demand for food, shelter, and house, more goods are produced. This resulted in the creation of more waste that needs to be disposed of.

Most waste is buried underground in landfill sites. The presence of huge landfill sites across the city poses serious environmental concerns. It affects human health, degrades soil quality, affects wildlife, causes air pollution, and results in climate change.

Acid rain simply means rain that is acidic in nature due to the presence of certain pollutants in the atmosphere. These pollutants come in the atmosphere due to the car or industrial processes. Acid rain can occur in the form of rain, snow, fog, or dry material that settle to earth. Acid rain may cause due to erupting volcanoes, rotting vegetation, and sea sprays that produce sulfur dioxide and fires, bacterial decomposition, and lightening generate nitrogen dioxide.

6. It is not only the environment but human beings also who are in danger.

i) What dangers face them when they are poor?

Some of the most important problems faced by poor in our society are as follows: 1. Social Discrimination 2. Housing 3. Subculture of Poverty.

After 46 years of planning, India is still one of the poorest countries in the world. Other countries, much smaller than India, have surged for­ward. Of the world’s poor, every third person is an Indian, and the number is on the increase.

Some of the variables on which the poor differ from others are de­gree of participation in the labour force, kind of employment, characteristics of family, degree of knowledge of the larger society, po­litical awareness, awareness of social and economic rights, and value orientations in politics, religion and social customs. Ross and Blum (1969:3941), however, maintain that the poor are different but in matters of degree rather than of kind.

The employers, the rich, the officials and even the government look down upon the poor. They are considered lethargic, inefficient and a burden on the society. They are harassed, humiliated and discriminated against at every level. Being unrepresented and powerless, they are al­ways the targets of attack and hostility by the powerful.

They have to face the challenges of illiteracy and social prejudice. They lack collec­tive power and whenever they make an effort to unite at the local or micro level against the politically, economically and socially stronger sections of the society (who view these efforts as threats to their domi­nance) they are crushed.

They have to pay a higher interest rate for credit. They are accused and labeled as undisciplined, immature, having very little foresight. They receive little or no attention in offices they visit. Whenever a theft or a crime is reported to the police, the police first rush to the areas inhabited by the poor as if it is only the poor who commit crimes. They are rarely considered reliable, dependent and trust­worthy. The hostile attitude of the society at every stage thus, lowers their self-image, creates in them a feeling of inferiority and curbs their efforts of gaining means to help themselves.

7. How can poverty be removed?

Poverty entails more than the lack of income and productive resources to ensure sustainable livelihoods. Its manifestations include hunger and malnutrition, limited access to education and other basic services, social discrimination and exclusion as well as the lack of participation in decision-making. Various social groups bear disproportionate burden of poverty.

The World Social Summit identified poverty eradication as an ethical, social, political and economic imperative of mankind and called on governments to address the root causes of poverty, provide for basic needs for all and ensure that the poor have access to productive resources, including credit, education and training. Recognizing insufficient progress in the poverty reduction, the 24th special session of the General Assembly devoted to the review of the Copenhagen commitments, decided to set up targets to reduce the proportion of people living in extreme poverty by one half by 2015. This target has been endorsed by the Millennium Summit as Millennium Development Goal 1.

Poverty eradication must be mainstreamed into the national policies and actions in accordance with the internationally agreed development goals forming part of the broad United Nations Development Agenda, forged at UN conferences and summits in the economic, social and related fields. The Second United Nations Decade for the Eradication of Poverty ,  proclaimed by the General Assembly in December 2007 aims at supporting such a broad framework for poverty eradication, emphasizing the need to strengthen the leadership role of the United Nations in promoting international cooperation for development, critical for the eradication of poverty.

A social perspective on development requires addressing poverty in all its dimensions. It promotes people-centered approach to poverty eradication advocating the empowerment of people living in poverty through their full participation in all aspects of political, economic and social life, especially in the design and implementation of policies that affect the poorest and most vulnerable groups of society. An integrated strategy towards poverty eradication necessitates implementing policies geared to more equitable distribution of wealth and income and social protection coverage.

A social perspective on poverty should contribute to the debate on the effectiveness and limitations of current poverty reduction strategies. Poverty analysis from a social perspective requires thorough examination of the impact of economic and social policies on the poor and other vulnerable social groups. Poverty and Social Impact Analysis (PSIA) serves as a tool to assess both the economic and social impact of reforms on different social and income groups. Properly conducted PSIA contributes to national debate on policy options and helps to promote national ownership of development strategies and could contribute to the operationalization of Copenhagen’s commitments.

 poverty in the world is rising rather than declining, and the data provided by the World Bank, echoing that poverty is decreasing, is flawed.They also argue that extending property rights protection to the poor is one of the most important poverty reduction strategies a nation can implement. Securing property rights to land, the largest asset for most societies, is vital to their economic freedom.The World Bank concludes that increasing land rights is 'the key to reducing poverty' citing that land rights greatly increase poor people's wealth, in some cases doubling it.It is estimated that state recognition of the property of the poor would give them assets worth 40 times all the foreign aid since 1945. Although approaches varied, the World Bank said the key issues were security of tenure and ensuring land transactions were low cost. In China and India, noted reductions in poverty in recent decades have occurred mostly as a result of the abandonment of collective farming in China and the cutting of government red tape in India.

8. What have Indians down the ages respected?

The concept of respecting elders is not wrong.What is wrong is the DEFINITION OF “ELDERS”. The original and genuine meaning in Vedic society is VRIDDHA, that is defined BY WISDOM AND EXPERIENCE AND NOT BY THE AGE OF THE BODY.
So a young person who has greater realisation and wisdom is “elder” compared to a foolish senile person who never learned anything in life and made a mess of the lives of everyone around, and the planet in whatever measure was possible.
The concept of seniority in the Vedic system encompasses not just this life, but the entire existence and personal evolution of the individual.
Again, when we have a distorted understanding of the Vedic termonology, based on GROSS BODILY IDENTIFICATION, we make a big mess out of everything.

Indian culture is to respect everybody - elders, women, children, teachers etc. When you respect others, you will experience happiness that is everlasting. Just because you respect everyone does not mean you are weak and can't protect your interests. Respecting others does not mean one has to accept whatever is said. One must learn to disagree, discuss, argue pleasantly and respectfully. Do this only if you want and not out of any compulsions. Respecting others must be a voluntary act without expectations.

Different cultures have different attitudes and practices around aging and death, and these cultural perspectives can have a huge effect on our experience of getting older.

While many cultures celebrate the aging process and venerate their elders, in Western cultures — where youth is fetishized and the elderly are commonly removed from the community and relegated to hospitals and nursing homes — aging can become a shameful experience. Physical signs of human aging tend to be regarded with distaste, and aging is often depicted in a negative light in popular culture, if it is even depicted at all.

“There’s so much shame in our culture around aging and death,” Koshin Paley Ellison, Buddhist monk and co-founder of the New York Zen Center for Contemplative Care, told the Huffington Post. “People themselves when they’re aging feel that there’s something wrong with them and they’re losing value.”

Psychologist Erik Erickson argued that the Western fear of aging keeps us from living full lives. “Lacking a culturally viable ideal of old age, our civilization does not really harbor a concept of the whole of life,” he wrote.

Here’s what we can learn from other cultures, both past and present, about embracing the aging process.

The Western cultural stigma around aging and death doesn’t exist in Greece. In Greek and Greek-American culture, old age is honored and celebrated, and respect for elders is central to the family.

Arianna Huffington described an experience of Greek elderly respect in her book, On Becoming Fearless:

“Ten years ago I visited the monastery of Tharri on the island of Rhodes with my children. There, as in all of Greece, abbots are addressed by everyone as ‘Geronda,’ which means ‘old man.’ Abbesses are called ‘Gerondissa.’ Not exactly terms of endearment in my adopted home. The idea of honoring old age, indeed identifying it with wisdom and closeness to God, is in startling contrast to the way we treat aging in America.”

The Western cultural stigma around aging and death doesn’t exist in Greece. In Greek and Greek-American culture, old age is honored and celebrated, and respect for elders is central to the family.

Arianna Huffington described an experience of Greek elderly respect in her book, On Becoming Fearless:

“Ten years ago I visited the monastery of Tharri on the island of Rhodes with my children. There, as in all of Greece, abbots are addressed by everyone as ‘Geronda,’ which means ‘old man.’ Abbesses are called ‘Gerondissa.’ Not exactly terms of endearment in my adopted home. The idea of honoring old age, indeed identifying it with wisdom and closeness to God, is in startling contrast to the way we treat aging in America.”

Q.9. When can a programme of population control be successful?

Semen analysis, usually the first and most commonly performed test at infertility consultations, is the WHO reference test that measures mainly traditional sperm parameters (WHO, 2010b). Although semen analysis is routinely used to evaluate the male partner in infertile couples, sperm measurements that discriminate between fertile and infertile men are not well defined, and they provide relevant but limited prognostic information about fertility. In most of these men, no specific cause of spermatogenic failure is identifiable. A comprehensive workup for men (such as semen analyses, hormonal studies, genetic, and radiological evaluation) may provide medical treatment options to restore fertility and avoid the need for expensive technology options (Ramasamy, Stahl, & Schlegel, 2012). The lack of attention to these male factors will delay making decisions about AHR, which may in turn adversely affect outcome.

Male fecundity has been defined as the potential male capability to induce pregnancy independently of female condition (Cavallini, 2015). However, in the same document that contains this definition, a few lines later, the age of the woman as one of the factors determining male infertility is included, while stressing how correction of male fertility should be performed in relation to female age. It is yet another example of the lack of attention to male reproductive health. This is also another one reason, argued by Culley et al. (2013), to explain the lack of research into men and infertility: the focus of the diagnosis and treatment of infertility in both reproductive science and clinical practice on women’s bodies.

In the same way, there has been less research about the experiences of men than of women affected by infertility, and less research about men and fatherhood than women and motherhood . Nor is there any systematic evidence, with male factor infertility, about men’s medical and emotional care during treatment, about the sources of information and support they use and their effectiveness, about their desire for fatherhood, or about the consequences of treatment of assisted reproduction without success among men with fertility problems, among other things (Culley et al., 2013).

A small and promising body of evidence has studied some of the most important psychological and social aspects of infertility in men and has explored the implications of its results for comprehensive clinical care and future research (eg, Fisher & Hammarberg, 2012; Hammarberg, Baker, & Fisher, 2010; Petok, 2015; Wischmann & Thorn, 2013). Some of the more recent studies provide very relevant information that contributes significantly to those still unknown areas of male infertility experience. Some of this research has explored the psychological consequences of being diagnosed as infertile or being a member of an infertile couple, and enough evidence of social and psychological strain has been found among male infertility patients (Wischmann & Thorn, 2013). However, most of the studies are often based on clinical samples, so it is difficult to sort out to what extent distress is the result of the condition of infertility itself and to what extent it is an effect of infertility treatment (Culley et al., 2013).

Reports of men’s emotional reactions to a diagnosis of male factor infertility are not consistent either. Some of these study’s highlights include that the diagnosis and initiation of treatment in men appear to be accompanied by high anxiety levels, and unsuccessful treatment can lead to a state of lasting sadness (Fisher & Hammarberg, 2012). The consequences for these cases appear to be more important, with more distressed and more negative responses to infertility than among those where there is no male factor infertility.

Traditionally, research into the consequences of infertility has indicated greater distress in women than men, independently of the cause of infertility, but these conclusions have not always been backed by research data and may be a reflection of outdated gender stereotyping (Edelmann & Connolly, 2000). As Joja, Dinu, and Paun (2015) revealed, few studies concluded that men are not less impaired by their infertility than women; what is more, the results of more recent studies with sophisticated methodological designs showed that the emotional impact of infertility may be quite balanced and that men suffer as well (Joja et al., 2015; Wischmann & Thorn, 2013). Edelmann and Connolly (2000) also indicated that more distress reactions in women may reflect differences in the way men and women have been socialized.

As for the social sphere, Schmidt, Holstein, Christensen, and Boivin (2005) reported that distress in the social domain was high for both men and women who had not achieved a pregnancy in 12 months of treatment. In general, both infertile men and women often show difficulties in the social sphere, but more difficulties revealing their problems of infertility are reported by men . It has been proved that communication and disclosure of reproductive problems is effective and beneficial for reducing the stress associated with infertility and its treatment, because it involves greater access to social support networks and increases the probability of seeking help or remaining in treatment; however, this revelation in the case of men seems to be associated with infertility perceived as a stigma. Some studies have found that men who kept infertility a secret reported a lower sense of well-being and higher levels of psychological distress.

Qualitative research also has shown that male infertility is often accompanied by feelings of lesser masculinity and is lived as an extremely awkward and stigmatizing experience for many men, particularly by association of fertility with virility in the normative construction of masculinity. Infertility can indeed threaten self-esteem and psychological health because of its potentially stigmatizing nature, thereby isolating men from potential sources of support.

Nowadays, men’s infertility remains much more stigmatized than women’s, and a man’s diagnosis has potentially profound consequences for a his sense of his own masculinity. The stereotypical masculinity denies that vulnerability exists in men, promotes the appearance of toughness and emotional control, minimizes the need for assistance from the others, and suggests a preoccupation with sex, leading to the idea of male infertility merging with impotence or virility. In low-income settings, this vulnerability is increased by the lack of access to and limited knowledge of reproductive care, including risks to fertility (Fisher & Hammarberg, 2012).

Especially important are the approaches, such as Bell (2015), which point to the need to explore the similarities between men and women who have experienced infertility. The similarities and common aspects between these experiences enable individuals, according to the author, to overcome parallelism that does even more to silence the experience of male infertility and perpetuates differences with the women’s experiences. In short, the social construction of gender based on the idea of difference in the field of AHR may lead to experiences of particular vulnerability for both men and women, reproducing situations of profound inequality.

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10. Why do some poor people want large families

At Compassion, we believe that every child is a precious gift from God: 'Children are a heritage from the Lord, offspring a reward from him,' Psalm 127:3. Each child has a purpose, and whether a family chose to expand for social, cultural, religious or economic reasons, it is our responsibility as a society to care for our most vulnerable. Here we take a look at some of the factors that contribute to larger families.

Because child mortality rates in the developing world are so high, parents may intentionally have large families because the grim reality is that sometimes children don’t survive. In Burkina Faso, a shocking 8.5 per cent of children will die before reaching their fifth birthday; in Haiti, it’s 6.7 per cent. For comparison, in Australia, the same figure is 0.4 per cent.

Generally, the higher the degree of education and GDP per capita a country has, the lower the birth rate. In Burkina Faso, one of the world’s poorest countries, less than one-third of the country can competently read and write. Here, the average number of kids a mum has is between five and six. In Australia, where the literacy rate is 99 per cent, the average couple has 1.77 children. Women with some formal education are more likely than uneducated women to use contraception, marry later, and have fewer children.

There are a few reasons why education is connected to a lower birth rate:

Increasing girls’ participation in school over time also decreases fertility rates. An educated woman is likely to marry at a later age and have fewer children. A study in Guatemala found that for each additional year a young woman spent in school, the age at which she had her first child was delayed approximately six to 10 months.

Educating girls also helps women control how many children they have. UNESCO estimates 60 per cent fewer teenage girls in sub-Saharan Africa and South and West Asia would become pregnant if they all had a secondary education.

In some countries, a woman’s role is expected to be as a wife and mother. This may often mean she gets married younger and begins having children sooner.

In developing countries, one in every three girls is married before age 18. Married girls are often under pressure to become pregnant as soon as possible. This typically means an end to a girl’s education, which can limit her life choices and help perpetuate the cycle of poverty.

An estimated 225 million women in developing countries would like to delay or stop childbearing, but are not using any method of contraception. Most of these women live in the poorest countries on earth. In Africa, one in four women of reproductive age have an unmet need for modern contraception. This is due to many reasons, including limited information, options of contraceptive methods and access to contraception, or cultural or religious opposition and poor quality of available services. Supply chains often don’t extend to remote or rural areas, where families in extreme poverty tend to live.

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11.  What is the irony in the life of a silk worm?

A material that is made of thin and continuous strands is known as fibre. Fibre is of two types, natural fibre and synthetic fibre. The fibres which are obtained from plants and animals are natural fibres whereas synthetic fibres are man-made fibres. Some examples of natural fibres are cotton, jute, flax, silk etc whereas examples of synthetic fibres are nylon, polyester and many more. Silk is a type of natural fibre also an animal fibre. Silkworm is responsible for the spinning of silk. A silkworm is reared to obtain silk.

The larva of the Bombyx mori moth is the silkworm. Silk has been made for at least 5000 years or maybe more in China. The moth is important because it produces silk. It is completely dependent on humans, and it no longer lives in the wild. Silkworms eat mulberry leaves. Silkworms are native to northern China. The domesticated B. mori and the wild Bombyx Mandarina can still breed and produce hybrids.

The silkworm (female) lays about 300 eggs at a time. The silkworm that is a female silkworm lays eggs on the leaves of mulberry trees. The eggs are covered all around with gelatinous secretion by which they stick to the leaves. The female moth i.e., female silkworm lays eggs and dies after laying eggs. The reason behind this is as she does not eat anything during all this process so the silkworm dies. The eggs are placed in a cool place so that they can be stored for a long time. In a favourable condition, they hatch into larvae. Larvae are produced in about 2 weeks from eggs at a varying temperature between 18 degree Celsius to 25 degree Celsius. IGNOU BEGC 131 Important Questions and Answers

In China, the discovery of the silkworm’s silk was first invented by the wife of the Yellow Emperor, Leizu. It was around the year 2696 BC. According to the book written in the 13th century, she was drinking tea under a tree and a cocoon fell into her cup of tea. She picked it out of the tea and as it started to wrap around her finger, she slowly felt something warm. When the milk ran out, she observed a small cocoon. In an instant, she got that this cocoon is the source of the silk. She taught this to the people and it became a common process. IGNOU BEGC 131 Important Questions and Answers

Khotan is an oasis on the southern edge of the Taklamakan Desert. It one of the first places outside of inland China to start cultivating silk. In the far past, the Chinese protected their knowledge to produce silk. It is said that a Chinese princess smuggled eggs to Khotan and hidden them in her hair. After all, the way to cultivate silk was transmitted to Western Asia, Europe and many more places.

Japanese people also love silk. The people in japan started cultivating and weaving silk at an earlier age. According to the Records of the book Three Kingdoms, Japan exported silk to Wei, a kingdom in the northern part of the China mainland, in the 2nd century. It takes 5000 silkworms to produce a single kimono.

The life cycle of the silk moth starts when a female silk moth or female silkworm lays an egg. The larvae are hatched from the eggs of the silk moth or female silkworm. The silkworms feed on mulberry leaves and it gives rise to pupa. In the pupa stage, a weave is netted all around itself by the silkworm to hold itself. After that it swings its head, spinning a fibre that is made of a protein and becomes a silk fibre. Several caterpillars form a protective layer around the pupa. This protective covering is the cocoon. The yarn or the silk thread is obtained from the cocoon of the silk moth. The life cycle of the silkworm is in stages as given below

Stage 1: Egg

The first stage of the life cycle of the silkworm is an egg. The egg is laid by a female moth or female silkworm that is mostly the size of small dots. A female moth lays more than 300 to 350 eggs at a time. Usually, in the springtime, the eggs hatch due to the warmth. This procedure happens once every year.

Stage 2: Silkworm

In this stage, a hairy silkworm arises after the eggs crack. Basically, the growth of the silkworms happens in this stage.  Silkworms feed on mulberry leaves and consume a large amount of these leaves for around 30 days before proceeding to the next stage.

Stage 3: Cocoon

In this stage, silkworms spin a protective cocoon around themselves as a protective layer. It is the size of a small cotton ball and also made of a single thread of silk.

Stage 4: Pupa

The pupa stage is a motionless stage. In this stage, the pupa is killed by plunging the cocoon into boiling water and unwind the silk thread.

Stage 5: Moth

In this stage, the pupa grows into an adult moth. The female moth lays eggs after mating and the life cycle of the silkworm begins again.

12. What is the difference between the privileged children and those that are underprivileged?

 Throughout the world, people are having more and more conversations about the role privilege has to play in the stories of our lives. But what exactly is privilege, anyway? And how can we use our privilege to help those who have been marginalized by society, especially children? The answers may surprise you. Meaning: Privilege is a benefit or immunity conferred by law on a person or Group of Persons.

According to Dictionary.com, the definition of privilege is “the unearned and mostly unacknowledged societal advantages that a restricted group of people has over another group.”

Here in the United States, you might hear the idea discussed in terms of white privilege – the societal advantages afforded to white people that often pass by unnoticed. Examples of white privilege are everywhere, but primary among them is the ability to move through life without being racially profiled or stereotyped, an experience common among Black and Brown people.

But race is only one category that might qualify a group as being exempt from the particular hardships faced by another group. For example, those who are born into a wealthy family or community are privileged over those who are born into poverty. Those who are born in a country experiencing prosperity and peace are privileged over those who are born in a country torn by war, food insecurity or a natural disaster. When the circumstances of our birth set us up for success in any way, we are privileged. With that in mind, it’s probably fair to say that when we closely examine our lives, most of us are privileged in some form. 

While many of us would like to think that we all operate on a level playing field in life, the reality is that human beings are born into vastly different circumstances – and where, when and how a child is born determines much of who they have the chance to become.

To put the idea of privilege into perspective, around 10 percent of people in the world are currently living on less than $1.90 a day. Many of them are children. In fact, of that 10 percent, around 46 percent are kids under the age of 14.

Underprivileged children are vulnerable to many kinds of harm, from poor access to education and health care to an increased risk of abuse, exploitation and other forms of violence. According to UNICEF, the COVID-19 crisis is expected to hugely increase the number of children living in extreme poverty, rolling back much of the social progress the world has made in the last several decades.

With so many underprivileged children in the world, you might be wondering what concrete action you can take to fight for social justice for kids.

In simple words Privilege means the freedom which a person has i.e. to do or not to do something.

A right involves something to be done or abstained by another person for the benefit of the person with the right.

Money can give people a lot opportunities and privilege. Financially privileged people have no trouble getting materialistic things such as big houses, expensive cars, and jewelry. Being privileged can also provide better scholastic education as well as respect. On the other hand, a lack of money, as a person might guess, limits opportunity and lower a person’s status on the privilege pole. In order for an underprivileged person to have all of those things, they have to work hard to get to get the luxuries of nice houses, cars, and jewelry. As far as education goes, the underprivileged might not go to the best schools but they get an education that will prove to be more valuable in life; they learn to earn respect, appreciate what they have and how to survive with just the necessities and what’s really important in life. So when a person looks at each group and tries to decided with one gets the most out of life, they will see that underprivileged individuals get so much more out of life than a person who came up in affluence and privilege.

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13.  Would you classify the passage as a speech, essay, story or a play?

   Looking toward the classification and description of speech sound - at how speech sounds are produced. We considered the functions the different organs of speech perform in the production of speech sounds. We shall now discuss how speech sounds can be described and classified.

      Normally, when we produce a speech sound, we intend to transmit it so that it is heard. As such, therefore, a speech sound can be studied at three stages - the production stage, the transmission stage and the reception stage. Correspondingly, we can describe and classify a speech sound in articulatory terms, acoustic terms and auditory terms, respectively.

Whether you are writing an essay, an article or a description, classification paragraphs are the perfect way to communicate pivotal information in a concise, informative way. A classification paragraph establishes a main idea and discusses the subcategories of that topic, comparing and contrasting them with each other. Read a few short classification paragraph examples to get you started with learning about how they should be structured and what they are.

Classification paragraphs clearly define a subject and sort it into subcategories. They start with a main idea, using the rest of the paragraph to explain a series of secondary ideas. The first sentence should be a topic sentence to let the reader know what the rest of the paragraph will be about. To get started, you can create a bulleted list of subcategories or topics you wish to address in the paragraph and then restructure the information in the paragraph in complete sentences.

Different students attend various types of schools; they can usually be classified as either public, private religious, private nonreligious, or alternative. Public schools are funded by the state, and the majority of students in the United States attend them. Private schools are schools that do not receive federal funding but are instead supported by a private organization or funding from individuals. Private religious schools are based around a particular faith, such as Catholicism, Protestantism, Judaism, and so forth. Religion is part of the everyday lives of the students and they also learn about their faith in addition to regular subjects. On the other hand, private nonreligious schools do not receive state funding and have the ability to make their own rules. Alternative schools can be made up of a variety of different categories, such as the Montessori program or technical schools, which are typically self-paced and hands-on. Most students who attend class in a school building go to one of these types of institutions.

A first date marks the first meeting or outing of two people who are hoping to form a romantic relationship. First dates can be categorized as successful, clingy, boastful, or awkward. Successful first dates include both parties expressing information about what they like, who they are and what they are looking for. Usually, these dates will end in tentative plans for a second one. Clingy dates end up with one of the parties practically begging for information about the other or to begin a relationship with them. In this case, the non-clinger is not interested. On boastful dates, one member of the duo talks about all of his or her skills, talents and abilities while the listening end of the pair is never asked about his or her life. Awkward first dates generally involve lots of silence or one or both of the partners not knowing how to act appropriately. First dates occur every day and generally fall into one of these categories.

14. What is the demand for water in Delhi?

Amid a deadly heatwave building up in various parts of the country, the Delhi government on Thursday said it will supply around 1,000 million gallons of drinking water every day during the summer season as against 935 MGD earlier to meet the rising demand

Sharing its Summer Action Plan, the Delhi Jal Board (DJB) said a total of 1,198 water tankers will be deployed across the city during the peak summer season (April-July) to prevent water scarcity.

Large swathes of India are reeling under a punishing heatwave, with temperatures nearing the 45-degree mark at several places in the national capital. The heatwave is predicted to turn deadlier in the coming days.

"To meet the water requirement of the city residents, especially considering the rising heat this year, the Delhi government is targeting to supply about 1,000 MGD of potable water during the summer of 2022 by optimising all the resources," a statement quoted water minister Satyendar Jain as saying.

Earlier, the DJB supplied 935 MGD of drinking water to the city residents on an average.

"The system has been made efficient and robust so that there is no water scarcity in the summer season. The water minister is personally monitoring the situation," the statement said.

The Delhi government is also keeping a close watch on the level of ammonia in the raw water released from Haryana so that it does not impede the water supply in the national capital.

All the jhuggi-jhopri clusters in the city avail the facility of public hydrants and water tankers. Additional water tankers will be provided if there is scarcity of water, Jain said.
Depending on the requirement during peak summer, the trips of the tankers will be optimised to supplement the demand in the water-deficient areas and regions lacking piped water supply.

The DJB has equipped the tankers with GPS systems to track their movement. It will bring in more transparency and improve the service quality, Jain said.
The board has also replaced old pipelines and fixed leakages to minimise water loss and contamination.

Area-wise timings for water supply will be made available on the DJB website.

The emergency control rooms have been provided with adequate staff, communication facilities and better equipment for grievance redressal and monitoring, the DJB said.

The mercury at the Safdarjung observatory -- Delhi's base station -- is expected to breach the 43-degree mark on Thursday and touch 44 degrees Celsius by Friday, according to the India Meteorological Department (IMD).
The maximum temperature may even leap to 46 degrees Celsius in parts of Delhi, an IMD official said.

Delhi falls in the Core Heatwave Zone (CHZ), comprising the most heatwave-prone areas of the country, along with Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, Chhattisgarh and West Bengal

Massive populations in many parts of the world, including in India, continue to grapple with lack of access to clean and safe water. This paper studies the case of Delhi. It describes the conditions under which water is produced and supplied to domestic consumers in Delhi and explains the capacity of the water and sewerage agency to discharge its duties. The analysis finds challenges in five aspects related to water supply in Delhi: quantity; quality; coverage; use; and disposal. It offers recommendations for collaborative efforts and sustainable solutions to ensure that the people of Delhi are provided adequate supply of safe and clean water.

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15. What is the actual supply?

Actual Supply Order may be placed from time to time against the RCs concluded on the basis of such rate contract(s). The “Schedule of Payment” shall be after Actual Supply of the Partial or Complete consignment under contract agreement. The Actual Supply Start Date meter reading for the Premises will be the meter reading determined by us in accordance with the Industry Rules and Good Industry Practice. Notwithstanding the provisions of Clauses10.1 and 10.2, National Grid will have no liability to the Customer in the event that the Supply Meter Point Reference Number notified in respect of a new Supply Meter Point in accordance with Clauses 10.1 or 10.2 differs from the Actual Supply Meter Point Number. Where we request you to do so, you will also provide a meter reading for the Premises’ Actual Supply Start Date, which will be subject to validation by us. Unless we have exercised our rights under Clause 3.2, we will provide a Supply of Electricity, up to the Maximum Capacity, in respect of each of the Premises, from the Actual Supply Start Date until the end of the Individual Supply Period. Cadent will use reasonable endeavours to ensure that the Supply Meter Point Reference Number notified in respect of a new Supply Meter Point in accordance with this Clause10.1 is the Actual Supply Meter Point Reference Number. Cadent will use reasonable endeavours to ensure that the Supply Meter Point Reference Number notified in respect of a new Supply Meter Point in accordance with this Clause10.2 is the Actual Supply Meter Point Reference Number. Notwithstanding the provisions of Clauses10.1 and 10.2, Cadent will have no liability to the Customer in the event that the Supply Meter Point Reference Number notified in respect of a new Supply Meter Point in accordance with Clauses 10.1 or 10.2 differs from the Actual Supply Meter Point Number. The Supplier shall not be liable for any claims, proceedings, losses, liabilities, costs (including legal costs), damages or expenses arising out of any late or failed Registration of a Supply Point and any consequential delay in the Actual Supply Start Date for that Supply Point, if such late or failed Registration or such consequential delay is caused by a Transfer Objection submitted by the Incumbent Supplier.

Load Serving Entity in one or more Mitigated Capacity Zones that operates under a long-standing business model to meet more than fifty percent of its Load obligations through its own generation and that is a Public Power Entity, “Single Customer Entity,” or “Vertically Integrated Utility.” For purposes of this definition only: (i) “Vertically Integrated Utility” means a utility that owns generation, includes such generation in a non-bypassable charge in its regulated rates, earns a regulated return on its investment in such generation, and that as of the date of its request for a Self Supply Exemption, has not divested more than seventy-five percent of its generation assets owned on May 20, 1996; and (ii) “Single Customer Entity” means an LSE that serves at retail only customers that are under common control with such LSE, where such control means holding 51% or more of the voting securities or voting interests of the LSE and all its retail customers.

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 16. How is the gap between the demand and supply of water met?

The 2030 Water Resources Group (2030 WRG) was launched at the World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2008 in Davos, Switzerland, to help close the gap between global water demand and supply by 2030.

Since its inception, the Forum-initiated 2030 WRG has grown into a vibrant network of more than 900 partners from the private sector, government and civil society. To date, the 2030 WRG and its network have facilitated over $893 million of financing for water-related programmes and demonstrated tangible results in a number of areas, including agricultural water efficiency, urban and industrial water management, wastewater treatment and improved livelihoods for farmers.

The gap between global water supply and demand is projected to reach 40% by 2030 if current practices continue. In many places, demand is already exceeding sustainable supply, and in others, water scarcity is hindering economic growth. Water insecurity risks triggering a global food crisis, while economic growth and more unpredictable weather patterns increase competition for access to water, impacting citizens, farmers, industries and governments. This means that solutions for addressing the global water crisis must engage multiple stakeholders from all sectors of society.

The 2030 WRG creates a neutral platform where the public and private sectors and civil society can collectively identify and agree on ways to improve water resource management in their countries. This approach brings together relevant parties who would not otherwise meet to discuss water issues – stakeholders including heads of government, ministers who oversee energy, finance and/or economic growth, CEOs, and NGOs and development agencies.

After its launch in 2008, the 2030 WRG was incubated at the Forum from 2010 until 2012, when it was moved to the International Finance Corporation. Since 2018, it has been hosted within the World Bank’s Water Global Practice, forming the key public-private partnership in the practice’s portfolio of multi-donor trust funds. The Forum served as the secretariat during the 2030 WRG’s incubation phase and continues to chair the steering board. It also holds a seat on the 2030 WRG’s governing council, the highest decision-making body.

The 2030 WRG currently has programmes in 14 countries and states: Bangladesh, Brazil (the state of São Paulo), Ethiopia, India (national level as well as the states of Karnataka, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh), Kenya, Mexico, Mongolia, Peru, South Africa, Tanzania and Viet Nam.

By engaging multiple stakeholders in these local programmes, the 2030 WRG is helping the world get back on track to achieving UN Sustainable Development Goal No. 6, which aims to ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all by 2030.

The 2030 WRG creates a neutral platform where the public and private sectors and civil society can collectively identify and agree on ways to improve water resource management in their countries. This approach brings together relevant parties who would not otherwise meet to discuss water issues – stakeholders including heads of government, ministers who oversee energy, finance and/or economic growth, CEOs, and NGOs and development agencies.

After its launch in 2008, the 2030 WRG was incubated at the Forum from 2010 until 2012, when it was moved to the International Finance Corporation. Since 2018, it has been hosted within the World Bank’s Water Global Practice, forming the key public-private partnership in the practice’s portfolio of multi-donor trust funds. The Forum served as the secretariat during the 2030 WRG’s incubation phase and continues to chair the steering board. It also holds a seat on the 2030 WRG’s governing council, the highest decision-making body.

The 2030 WRG currently has programmes in 14 countries and states: Bangladesh, Brazil (the state of São Paulo), Ethiopia, India (national level as well as the states of Karnataka, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh), Kenya, Mexico, Mongolia, Peru, South Africa, Tanzania and Viet Nam.

By engaging multiple stakeholders in these local programmes, the 2030 WRG is helping the world get back on track to achieving UN Sustainable Development Goal No. 6, which aims to ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all by 2030.

17. Why has the demand for water increased during the last two years?

The 2018 edition of the United Nations World Water Development Report stated that nearly 6 billion peoples will suffer from clean water scarcity by 2050. This is the result of increasing demand for water, reduction of water resources, and increasing pollution of water, driven by dramatic population and economic growth. It is suggested that this number may be an underestimation, and scarcity of clean water by 2050 may be worse as the effects of the three drivers of water scarcity, as well as of unequal growth, accessibility and needs, are underrated. While the report promotes the spontaneous adoption of nature-based-solutions within an unconstrained population and economic expansion, there is an urgent need to regulate demography and economy, while enforcing clear rules to limit pollution, preserve aquifers and save water, equally applying everywhere. The aim of this paper is to highlight the inter-linkage in between population and economic growth and water demand, resources and pollution, that ultimately drive water scarcity, and the relevance of these aspects in local, rather than global, perspective, with a view to stimulating debate.

The 2018 edition of the United Nations (UN) World Water Development Report (WWDR) has provided an update on the present trends of clean water availability and future expectations. Water security, the capacity of a population to safeguard sustainable access to adequate quantities of water of acceptable quality, is already at risk for many, and the situation will become worse in the next few decades. Clean water scarcity is a major issue in today’s’ world of 7.7 billion people. The strain on the water system will grow by 2050 when the world population will reach between 9.4 and 10.2 billion, a 22 to 34% increase. The strain will be aggravated by unequal population growth in different areas unrelated to local resources. Most of this population growth is expected in developing countries, first in Africa, and then in Asia, where scarcity of clean water is already a major issue.

At present, slightly less than one half of the global population, 3.6 billion people or 47%, live in areas that suffer water scarcity at least 1 month each year. According to, the number is even larger, 4.0 billion people, or 52% of the global population. By 2050, more than half of the global population (57%) will live in areas that suffer water scarcity at least one month each year. This estimate by may be an underestimation. The water demand, water resources, and water quality forecast by depends on many geopolitical factors that are difficult to predict. The decline of water resources and water quality only partially discussed in,  may  be much harder to control.

The WWDR focuses on the application of nature-based-solutions (NBS), measures inspired by nature such as the adoption of dry toilets, which will have a negligible effect on the huge problem. More concrete regulatory measures are needed to tackle the clean water crisis, directly acting on water use and conservation. There are major obstacles to providing adequate water planning. First is the refusal to admit that unbounded growth is unsustainable. Overpopulation arguments are portrayed as “anti-poor”, “anti-developing country” and “anti-human”. Population size as a fundamental driver of scarcity is dubbed as a “faulty notion”. This denial is partly responsible for lack of good water planning, supported by overconfidence in NBS. The key points of the WWDR are summarized and discussed in the following sections.

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18. What do you think is the only way to survive?

1. Water

Water is more than just a thirst-quencher. Almost every system in the body is dependent on water in some shape or form. The human body is approximately 60% water. Water regulates body temperature and helps the liver and kidneys flush out toxins. Water lubricates joints and moisturizes the eyes, nose, and mouth. Even oxygen and nutrients are carried to cells by water. Without water the body cannot function. Breathing, sweating, and even going to the bathroom are all ways a person loses water. To maintain a healthy body, people need to replenish water levels and continue drinking water throughout the day. Direct water consumption is best. Beverages such as electrolyte drinks and fruit such as watermelon can help refill the body’s water supply. Standard recommendation is that women drink a minimum of 11.5 cups of water daily and men 15.5 cups.


Food provides essential nutrients to the body. These nutrients are in turn used for energy, cell growth, and repair. Food keeps the immune system happy and, as a result, poor diets often lead to numerous health problems. Food can be broken down into four essential groups: fats, carbohydrates, protein, and vitamins. Fats provide energy and help absorb vitamins. Fats can control cholesterol levels and are essential for growth and development. Carbohydrates are converted to fuel. Fiber is a type of carb that assists in digestion, regulates blood sugar levels, and keeps hunger levels in check. Protein helps the body repair damaged organs, tissues, and bones. Protein is found in every cell in the human body. The digestive tract breaks down proteins into amino acids. There are 20 amino acids the body needs to function properly. And while the body can produce 12, there are still 8 that must be consumed through food. Vitamins play a role in every bodily function. The human body needs 13 types of vitamins to function properly.


Oxygen is breath. Everything else spared, without oxygen, life is not possible. Oxygen is inhaled into the lungs and then dispersed throughout the body by red blood cells. Oxygen gives energy to cells by burning through the sugar and fatty acids that are consumed. The same red blood cells that carry oxygen through the body also carry carbon dioxide out of the body. Exhaling also removes carbon dioxide from the body.

The nervous system

The nervous system is the body’s command center. The nervous system collects data, processes the data, and responds accordingly. The system controls movement by transmitting nerve impulses between the brain and the rest of the body. The messages travel through neurons, synapses, and neurotransmitters. These messages tell the heart to beat, lungs to breathe, and limbs to move. The nervous system even tells the brain how to think. The nervous system has two parts: the central and peripheral. The central nervous system is made up of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system makes up the rest of the body.

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19. Why can they now grow two cash crops in a year?

In this article, I provide an analysis of local decision making surrounding crop commercialization in the Kolli Hills, South India. I argue that in the context of changes in the physical environment, cultivating tapioca (cassava) as a cash crop is a conscious decision made by small farmers based on their perceptions of environmental insecurity. Farmers understand market integration as key to coping with external, uncontrollable changes and to fulfilling household and community aspirations. Decisions to cultivate tapioca have contributed to aspects of community development and increasing political agency on the part of villagers.

Wiley is a global provider of content and content-enabled workflow solutions in areas of scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly research; professional development; and education. Our core businesses produce scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly journals, reference works, books, database services, and advertising; professional books, subscription products, certification and training services and online applications; and education content and services including integrated online teaching and learning resources for undergraduate and graduate students and lifelong learners. Founded in 1807, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. has been a valued source of information and understanding for more than 200 years, helping people around the world meet their needs and fulfill their aspirations. Wiley has published the works of more than 450 Nobel laureates in all categories: Literature, Economics, Physiology or Medicine, Physics, Chemistry, and Peace. Wiley has partnerships with many of the world’s leading societies and publishes over 1,500 peer-reviewed journals and 1,500+ new books annually in print and online, as well as databases, major reference works and laboratory protocols in STMS subjects. With a growing open access offering, Wiley is committed to the widest possible dissemination of and access to the content we publish and supports all sustainable models of access. Our online platform, Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) is one of the world’s most extensive multidisciplinary collections of online resources, covering life, health, social and physical sciences, and humanities.

American Anthropologist is the flagship journal of the American Anthropological Association. The journal advances the Association's mission through publishing articles that add to, integrate, synthesize, and interpret anthropological knowledge; commentaries and essays on issues of importance to the discipline; and reviews of books, films, sound recordings, and exhibits.

A cash crop or profit crop is an agricultural crop which is grown to sell for profit. It is typically purchased by parties separate from a farm. The term is used to differentiate marketed crops from staple crop (or 'subsistence crop') in subsistence agriculture, which are those fed to the producer's own livestock or grown as food for the producer's family.

In earlier times, cash crops were usually only a small (but vital) part of a farm's total yield, while today, especially in developed countries and among smallholders almost all crops are mainly grown for revenue. In the least developed countries, cash crops are usually crops which attract demand in more developed nations, and hence have some export value.

Prices for major cash crops are set in international trade markets with global scope, with some local variation (termed as "basis") based on freight costs and local supply and demand balance. A consequence of this is that a nation, region, or individual producer relying on such a crop may suffer low prices should a bumper crop elsewhere lead to excess supply on the global markets. This system has been criticized by traditional farmers. Coffee is an example of a product that has been susceptible to significant commodity futures price variations.

20. Do the banks give loans to the villagers?

Most development programmes are a grim reminder of how mechanically trying to meet targets can completely undermine the integrity of a veritable economic and social revolution to such an extent that a counter-revolution can be set into motion. But we refuse to learn lessons

Rural banking has come a long way from the days when bankers had their first brush with rural culture. Bankers are now financial anthropologists, and many of them are playing a missionary role in transforming rural societies. However, challenges persist. When rural banking took its baby steps, villagers were shy of loans because they always related them with moneylenders and carried bitter memories of those who had suffered at their hands. The situation today is quite the opposite. People have a savage appetite for loans, but unlike their forebears, they have lost that pristine morality which equated default of loans with the guilt of shame. Banks are piling up mountains of sour loans and governments are brushing them off with buckets of precious public money.

While the positive social and economic impacts of nationalisation were quite evident, the experiment was also an eyeopening lesson in the disaster that mindless bureaucratic programmes can become. Rural banking in India has suffered severely on account of populist measures of the State. What populist leaders wanted was that the cash spigots be turned on permanently. The most fundamental canons and nostrums of banking were thrown to the wind by votehungry politicians. Banks were saddled with mountains of sour loans whose stink leached the entire rural credit system.

The assumptions and suppositions on which nationalisation of banks was premised didn’t hold much water. Delivering development is essentially a government’s job. Bankers were just expected to be financial midwives but were finally entrusted with the task of birthing development. Instead of writing off loans, the government should funnel that money into infrastructural development and allow banks to do their job with professionalism. The new paradigm must recognise the boundaries that separate banking and the government.

The original banking concept, based on security-oriented lending, was broadened after the nationalisation of banks to a social banking concept based on purpose-oriented credit for development. This called for a shift from urban to rural-oriented lending. Social banking was conceptualised as “better the village, better the nation.” However, opening new branches in rural areas without proper planning and supervision of end use of credit, or creation of basic infrastructure facilities meant that branches remained mere flagposts. It was a make-believe revolution that was to lead to a serious financial crisis in the years to come.

The Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) is a grim reminder of how mechanically trying to meet targets can undermine the integrity of a social revolution to such an extent that a counter-revolution can be set into motion. Arguably, India’s worst-ever development scheme, IRDP was intended to provide income-generating assets to the rural poor through the provision of cheap bank credit. Little support was provided for skillformation, access to inputs, markets and necessary infrastructure. In the case of cattle loans, for example, a majority of cattle owners reported that either they had sold off the animals bought with the loan or that those animals were dead. Cattle loans were financed without adequate attention to other details involved in cattle care: fodder availability, veterinary infrastructure and marketing linkages for milk among others.

Working for the poor does not mean indiscriminately thrusting money down their throats. Unfortunately, IRDP did precisely that. The programme did not attempt to ascertain whether the loan provided would lead to the creation of a viable longterm asset. Nor did it attempt to create the necessary forward and backward linkages to supply raw material or establish marketing linkages for the produce. Little information was collected on the intended beneficiary. IRDP was principally an instrument for powerful local bosses to opportunistically distribute political largesse. The abiding legacy of the programme for India’s poor has been that millions have become bank defaulters through no fault of their own.

People erroneously came to believe that the State had all the answers to their problems. Governments, international financial institutions and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) threw vast amounts of money at creditbased solutions to rural poverty, particularly in the wake of the World Bank’s 1990 initiative to put poverty reduction at the head of its development priorities. Yet, those responsible for such transfers, had ~ and in many cases continue to have ~ only the haziest grasp of the unique demands and difficulties of rural life.

An even more serious problem is the possible chilling effect of subsidies on the commercial provision of competing and offering potentially better services to the poor. Subsidising finance has severely undermined the motivation and incentive for market-driven financial firms to innovate and deliver. As in other areas of development, the use of public funds is easy to justify in the interest of improving access and thereby promoting pro-poor growth. Such subsidies, of course, need to be evaluated against the many alternative uses of the donor or scarce public funds involved, not least of which are alternative subsidies to meet education, health and other priority needs for the poor themselves. In practice, such a costbenefit calculation is rarely made. Indeed, the scale of subsidy is often unmeasured.

Most development programmes are a grim reminder of how mechanically trying to meet targets can completely undermine the integrity of a veritable economic and social revolution to such an extent that a counter-revolution can be set into motion. But we refuse to learn lessons, particularly because populist politicians consider it a sure way to burnish their electoral fortunes.

All these highlight how an unenlightened politician can play havoc with the financial systems. The execution of most development programmes lacked the soul of a genuine economic revolution because it was not conceived by grassroots agents but was assembled by starry-eyed mandarins, who had picked up bits and pieces about financial inclusion from pompous newfangled and half-baked ideas generated at seminars and conferences. Cheap loans, followed with periodical waivers and write-offs, have been the hobby horse of armchair experts and lazy policymakers.

This is however not to obscure the cutting-edge role public banks have played in financial inclusion. These banks have been the backbone of the socioeconomic agenda of the government. In any rural area, the role of a public bank is not confined to banking but encompasses a more holistic developmental agenda. They are the one-stop shop for all financial needs of the local rural populace, including insurance, financial literacy, remittance amongst others.

Similarly, we have to have a rural-centric bank model. The present urban-centric model has shown that it is a recipe for disaster when used in villages. Rural areas have special characteristics and local needs. We need to hire local people, need to understand local needs. The whole model has to be driven by high-grade technology and a few simple products that can be tailored to local needs. Let us hope that the wisdom gleaned from our learning is harnessed towards the right destination.

A poverty eradication programme must mop up the surplus with the elite classes. These two pre-requisites call for strong political will to implement much needed structural reforms. Besides, the Government must aim at a strategy for development of the social sector ~ the key component should be population control, universal primary education, family welfare and job creation, especially in rural areas. These and other aspects of poverty alleviation have not received much importance in our planning.


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