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1. What is a computer? What are various features of computer?


 A computer is a programmable device that stores, retrieves, and processes data. The term "computer" was originally given to humans (human computers) who performed numerical calculations using mechanical calculators, such as the abacus and slide rule. The term was later given to mechanical devices as they began replacing human computers. Today's computers are electronic devices that accept data (input), process that data, produce output, and store (storage) the results (IPOS).

Computer overview

Below is a picture of a computer with each of the main components. You can see the desktop computer, flat-panel display, speakers, keyboard, and mouse in the picture below. We've also labeled each of the input devices and output devices.

various features of computer

  • ·        Speed
  • ·        Storage capacity
  • ·        Accuracy
  • ·        Diligence
  • ·        Versatility
  • ·        Automatic
  • ·        Electronic
  • ·        Word length
  • ·        Non-intelligence


The computers in the past did not have very fast speed. But nowadays due to the Invention of the microprocessor. It has been very fast and performs billions of calculations within a fraction of second-most modern computers perform tasks in a picosecond. 1/1012 the processing speed computer is measured in the Unit of Hertz such as hertz (Hz), kilohertz (kHz), Megahertz (MHz), etc.

Storage Capacity:

A modern commuter can store a large amount of data. Information and program in it. Any data or information can be retrieved at any time. Storage capacity in computers is measured in the following Units.

  • 0 or 1 = 1 bit
  • 4 bits = 1 Nibble
  • 8 bits = 1 Bytes
  • 1024 bytes = 1 KB
  • 1024 kb = 1MB
  • 1024 MB = 1 GB
  • 1024 GB = 1 TB
  • 1024 TB = 1 PT


Accuracy means correctness. The computer never does any mistakes if the instruction, input data, and hardware devices are correct It always performs each and every task with 100% accuracy. But sometimes we get the phrase GIGO (Garbage In Garbage Out) is true to computers.


Unlike human beings, the computer never feels tired and bored to do the same task repeatedly. The computer can perform the same task with the same speed and accuracy for a long time if it is provided with a suitable environment and correct instruction.


A modern computer can perform various types of jobs efficiently. The same computer can be used in banks, offices, shopping centers, cyber, schools, homes, etc, for doing different types of tasks.


Being a programmable machine, a modern computer can be programmed in such as way that it can perform a series of tasks automatically after it has been started Modern digital computer does not need a human operator to give different types of commands.


The modern computer works on the basis of electricity only and most of its parts are electronic devices and are made of semiconductor chips.

Word length:

Word length or word size refers to the number of bits that the CPU can process in parallel at one time. Currently used word lengths are 32, 64, or higher bits word length in the measure of the computing power of a computer the longer the word length the more powerful the computer becomes.

Non- Intelligence:

Although the modern computer is much faster reliable accurate and diligent than a human being an artificial machine computer does not have common sense and intelligence and as a result, computers cannot think and decide like human beings many man-made programs have to be installed in the computer to do various kinds of tasks.


2. What are the basic functions of smartphones?

Smartphones has a lot of uses under its belt and we can’t deny that. Their uses help us in our many daily activities, which makes things easier for us to handle. In regards to this, we figured to highlight five of the most basic and primary functions of our trusty utility buddy, the smartphone. Read further to get to know them.

Calling and texting purposes

Texting and calling are pretty much the primary usage of any communication phone or device. It provides us long-distance communication capability, with our loved ones and serve as a bridge, from the gaps created by boundaries. However, calls and text have been considered as one of the least most used functions of a smartphone, with smartphones usually used for other purposes, which since some of them are part of the list, i won’t consider mentioning them. Calling and texting are the first long-distance communication feat the these devices delivered, yet its continually dying down, since smartphones now feature a lot more than the usual calling and texting function. Though, this isn’t exactly a bad thing, since it showcases the evolution of the communication capabilities of mankind, which gives communication the farthest bridge possible, which almost makes us get up close and personal with our loved ones, without being actually in their presence.

Gaming and entertainment purposes

As a gamer, i didn’t exactly expect that smartphones will be most likely used for the sole purpose of gaming and entertainment, until i learned a lot more about them. Gaming and entertainment applications are a thing of this generation, which is not shocking, since the number of application developers slowly blew like the big bang. Certain applications that provide more than the other apps can provide are continuously being created everyday and the list just keeps going and going. Other sources of gaming and entertainment such as Youtube and different types of emulators, give smartphones more opportunities to provide these types of services, which is undoubtedly amazing for a gamer, such as myself. Options for movie viewing and music has also gotten big, as well as ebooks sources, which is said to say, but is currently threatening the industry of published book works.

Social media and internet browsing purposes

Social media and web browsing can be considered the primary function of smartphones, since smartphones are usually used for these purposes, and some often just buy smartphones to have an easy-to-carry internet browsing machine that fits their pockets. Smartphones have been used this way since the beginning and throughout the evolution of smartphone is also the evolution of improving web browsing as a smartphone service, which greatly increases the possibility of usage of this service in future smartphones that will feature new things on this particular function.

Time checking purposes

This is actually quite sad, since we’re practically replacing a huge item in our history, which is a live clock. Now, digital clocks on our smartphones have played such a huge role in utility that it had seemingly replaced the purposes of live easy-to-carry watches, such as wristwatches. However, truth be told, this is more of a good thing, since utility for checking on time can be within one particular item only, which is our smartphone, rather than having 2 or 3 items to do certain jobs, like a phone for communication and a wristwatch for time checking purposes. The utility that this delivers is outstanding that, its no surprise that people have been using their smartphones for the time checking, even if they have a wristwatch in hand.

3. What advancement can be seen in the sixth generation of computers ?

Over the years, computer system has advanced so rapidly that the functions performed by computers and the speed of their operations have been significantly transformed. With each generation of computers, technological advances are becoming increasingly important. This time, the sixth generation of computers, which are known today, will be discussed.

It could be considered that the sixth generation of computers has its beginning at the end of the twentieth century and the beginning of the twenty-first century, without a completion date since it is still considered to be in development. In effect, the technological advances of the previous generation are maintained in order to improve and/or expand them. The devices generated have the common feature of being designed for personal consumption, which has led to simplification, but at the same time, they are capable of performing different functions.

The adaptation to the new Internet system: From the development of the new tool which opened the doors to a necessary change in technology that was known until now, as was the Internet, a processor was required according to it, which is achieved by microprocessors that operate simultaneously, which promote progress regarding the capacity of computers of this generation.

The need for the microprocessor to work: This microprocessor has more than one circuit. The use of the Large Scale Integration circuit (LSI) and the Very Large Scale Integration circuit (VLSI) was created, which later allowed each circuit to perform different assignments or functions.

Advances in memory: The primary memory needs to be operated from chips. These manage to replace later what was being used (the memory of magnetic rings), by the memory of silicon chips, which are increased to a level of speed and efficiency.

The micro and macro development of machines: It allowed a computer level extension, at micro level, with personal computers or PCs, laptops and operating systems for making smart phones, and also at the macro level, with supercomputers.

The increase of Internet functionality: From its functionality is required to reach all possible places, which allowed the creation of wireless networks, such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and WiMAX.

Multimedia advances: Two areas of association from the development of computer multimedia, which will allow the union of images or text with sound. The DVD (Digital Video Disk or Digital Versatiel Disk) is later established, forming a storage unit for video, image and sound content.

Functionality according to devices at micro level: It was not only thought at the industrial level, but also at a more personal-functional level, which made it possible for computers to stop being so necessary and be simplified in devices such as tablets, smartphones, and other mobile devices, which had the possibility of performing some of the functions of a PC at a simpler and faster speed.

Laptops: Device that had most of the functionality of a desktop computer, but with the utility of being able to be moved, allowing a daily use without the need to be in a fixed place. It also has a rechargeable battery, which allows its use without requiring a fixed electrical charge for a period of time stipulated.

Pocket computers (PDAs): Pocket computers, Personal Digital Assistant, had the purpose of serving as a portable personal organizer, designed in a size easy to move and for specific purposes, such as calendar, notepad, reminders, among others.

Multimedia devices: Devices that allowed the union of several areas, such as text, sound, animation and video, which contributes to a multi-sensitivity scope, since it was not possible to perform a single activity, but several as a whole. For example, the option of watching videos from a laptop is an example of this.

Mobile Devices: These mobile devices or pocket computers had the functionality of being particularly small, allowing them to be moved on a day-to-day basis, however, they are capable of performing many of the functions of a PC, with memory and storage capacity and with connection to wireless networks, such as the Internet. This allows easy handling and great efficiency when using it.



4. Distinguish between Analog computer and Digital Computer?

1. Analog Computer :

Analog computer system is the very old computer system which operates on the mathematical variables in the form of continuously changeable physical quantities/entities like mechanical, electrical, hydraulic, etc. They use continuous values rather than discrete values so they work on analog signal. At the time of at the time of the 1950s–1960s these analog computers were first used. Analog computers are limited in accepting the problems and also they can never be extremely accurate.

2. Digital Computer :

Digital computers are the computer systems/machines which uses the binary number system, which has two digits: 0 and 1 and performs many computational tasks. It processes the data represented in discrete and the main three components of digital computers are input, processing and output. The first digital computer was designed for numerical computations in the late 1940s. Digital computers give results with more accuracy as it is not dependent upon physical quantities for processing a task.

Difference between Analog Computer and Digital Computer: Analog computers were formerly widely used, but are now less popular. Analog computers function with continuous signals, but digital computers can only work with discrete signals. In the below-mentioned sections, we will see what are analog computers, digital computers, and the basic difference between analog computer and digital computer.

The way they handle and process data is the primary difference between analog computer and digital computer. Digital computers work by receiving and processing data in binary form (0 and 1), whereas analog computers work indefinitely, regardless of input variables such as temperature or current. Let us check the difference between analog computer and digital computer in the upcoming sections.

Along with the functions of these two types of computers, there is a lot of other difference between these two. Here, let us discuss the difference between analog computer and digital computer in the table given below.

An analog computer system is a very ancient computer system that operates on mathematical variables in the form of constantly changing physical quantities/entities. They work on analog signals because they employ continuous values rather than discrete values. These computers were utilized for the first time in the 1950s. Analog computers are restricted in their ability to tolerate issues and can never be exceedingly precise.

An analog computer is a form of computer that operates constantly, regardless of the input fluctuations. Instability in current, temperature, electric, and mechanical parts are examples of these variances. Thermostats and thermometers are the greatest examples of analog computers

An analog computer system is a very ancient computer system that operates on mathematical variables in the form of constantly changing physical quantities/entities. They work on analog signals because they employ continuous values rather than discrete values. These computers were utilized for the first time in the 1950s. Analog computers are restricted in their ability to tolerate issues and can never be exceedingly precise.

An analog computer is a form of computer that operates constantly, regardless of the input fluctuations. Instability in current, temperature, electric, and mechanical parts are examples of these variances. Thermostats and thermometers are the greatest examples of analog computers

Analog computers are used mainly in Engineering and Scientific applications. Let us check the characteristics of analog computers are listed below.

·        They have high power consumption.

·        They are less reliable than digital computers.

·        These computers use signal generators and a network of resistors and capacitors.

·        They have very low or limited memory. 

·        The speed of analog computers is comparatively low.


5. How the computers have changed the healthcare ?

Improved patient care

Efficient and functional medical equipment is fundamental to quality patient care. Computers are now capable of monitoring information such as heart rate and blood pressure. They can also provide alerts to make staff aware of any anomalies.

Some of the more advanced computer systems can even assist doctors during surgical procedures, which can help to make operations quicker, easier, and more effective.

Storing medical data

Doctors and nurses no longer need to use a pen and paper for note-taking. Today, patient information is entered into a computer and saved to an electronic database. Storing data in a computer helps to eliminate human error, as medical personnel sometimes find it difficult to read the handwriting of a fellow practitioner.

Access to information

Fast access to important information is imperative in the healthcare industry. Doctors and nurses can now log on to internet databases with thousands of medical research papers and other helpful data. This information enables healthcare professionals to learn more about diseases and treatments they may not be overly familiar with.

Inventory management

Previously, medical personnel would have to check and record all inventory manually. Not only was this extremely time-consuming, but mistakes were common.

Knowing what medications are available is essential for effective patient care, so it is vital that staff can easily keep inventory accurate and up-to-date. Computers can track inventory and alert healthcare professionals when stock is running low.

Having an efficient inventory system eliminates other problems like loss or theft. Medical personnel log all prescriptions in the database and the system highlights any discrepancies immediately.



There are about 100,000 diseases currently known to medical practitioners around the world, but without the benefits introduced by healthcare technology, some of them could be difficult to diagnose.

Doctors can use computer software to examine a patient and monitor readings like blood pressure and heart rate. Other programs allow doctors to take computerized, three-dimensional CT scans, MRIs, and x-rays to locate any abnormalities. Modern medical imaging techniques can help doctors make a more confident diagnosis.

 Data protection

Before the use of technology within the healthcare industry, doctors and nurses stored sensitive patient information in a paper-based filing system. This kind of system is an inefficient and much less secure way of storing patient data, and breaches of confidentiality have led to many lawsuits.

Computers allow medical personnel to store patient information in a secure database that is only accessible with a password.

Final thoughts

Technology is an essential tool that benefits the medical field in many ways. Not only does it make many processes more efficient, but it is now also actively helping nurses, doctors, and surgeons save lives. Technology has revolutionized the healthcare industry, and it will continue to do so in the future.

When healthcare first became digitized, computers were used in the healthcare system predominantly for administrative uses. However, in recent years, computers have become more common place across a wide variety of medical facilities for a range of different applications from laboratories to operating rooms to medical computer carts in every ward, and the technology continues to advance rapidly. Read on to learn more about how computers have revolutionized medical care.


IGNOU BCOS 183 Previous Year Solved Question Paper 

6. What are benefits of computers in business?

The importance of computers in our society can be seen in every aspect of our lives. The rise in popularity of computers and the internet has completely changed our society in the last 20 years. This is true for business as much as any other aspect of our daily lives. Computers have even been responsible for entirely new business concepts, and the internet has spawned countless new ways for small business owners to create their own companies. It's not just high tech virtual companies that are benefiting from computers and the internet; traditional brick-and-mortar stores are finding multiple ways to increase their bottom line by using computer technology.

Traditionally, franchise businesses had support systems that connected multiple shops to help each other through tough times. Virtually all other small and medium independent businesses had to handle every problem with very little aid. Today, businesses in every industry have formed groups online to help members benefit from the combined knowledge of everyone involved. Your labor problem may have a solution that was conceived across the country, while you may have just the answer to someone else's production or marketing troubles. While it would make little sense to join forces with the restaurant down the block 50 years ago, helping out a fellow restaurateur who lives on the opposite coast today is the ideal way to pay it forward.

The most effective marketing campaigns today rely on branding instead of individual sales offers. Just as multinational corporations concentrate on getting their name out and relying on this to convert sales, small businesses are taking advantage of the power of the internet to work this same concept. Studies have shown that up to 80 percent of people will check out a business online before they visit it in person. With the right search engine optimization on your company website, you can rank on the first page of any Google search engine keyword, giving your business a head start with anyone searching for a plumber in Omaha or a barbecue restaurant south of Detroit.

Traditionally, businesses viewed materials stored onsite and inventory as business assets. Today, because of the internet and the concept of just-in-time inventory, they're seen as wasted space and money. Just-in-time inventory is a system designed to cut waste and increase efficiency by only receiving goods as they're needed. This greatly reduces the cost of inventory. Using this method requires much tighter inventory control, but it frees up money otherwise invested in inventory, allowing business owners to invest in other parts of the business or to increase their bottom line.

Business owners are finding benefits of computer and internet use in every part of their business. Computers are more accurate than humans, reducing the number of errors in inventory, payroll and labor computation. In many cases, computers can cut down the number of hours employees are needed onsite, reducing labor costs across the board. Management is finding their jobs changing, with computers cutting down on the number of hours needed on basic bookkeeping tasks and allowing managers to spend more time hands-on with their employees.

7. Explain the Computer Hardware?

Computer hardware is a collective term used to describe any of the physical components of an analog or digital computer. The term hardware distinguishes the tangible aspects of a computing device from software, which consists of written, machine-readable instructions or programs that tell physical components what to do and when to execute the instructions.

Hardware and software are complementary. A computing device can function efficiently and produce useful output only when both hardware and software work together appropriately.

Computer hardware can be categorized as being either internal or external components. Generally, internal hardware components are those necessary for the proper functioning of the computer, while external hardware components are attached to the computer to add or enhance functionality.

Want to know what hardware is in your computer? Become a computer pro with our quick guide to these essential components and their roles.

Quite simply, computer hardware is the physical components that a computer system requires to function. It encompasses everything with a circuit board that operates within a PC or laptop; including the motherboard, graphics card, CPU (Central Processing Unit), ventilation fans, webcam, power supply, and so on.

Although the design of hardware differs between desktop PCs and laptops due to their differences in size, the same core components will be found in both. Without hardware, there would be no way of running the essential software that makes computers so useful. Software is defined as the virtual programs that run on your computer; that is, operating system, internet browser, word-processing documents, etc.

Although a computer can function only when both hardware and software are working together, the speed of a system will largely rely on the hardware used.

When building up a new computer, or simply replacing old parts, you may need to know the specific hardware in your computer. The purpose of this guide is therefore to help you understand the inner-workings of your computer.

The 21st century is considered an era of technologies and machines so much so that it is hard for any person to stay away from the use of computers and the system. In fact, we as a nation have a leading industry in the field of software and are competing to set a global market for computer hardware. 

Taking into consideration the importance and the goal of Digital India, the subject of computers has to be given due attention and consideration. The team of experts keeps analyzing the demand of the industries and economy and thus comes up with such a structure of study material which will help the students to build a connection with the current scenario. 

In this particular article, we will learn about the following topics and concepts - 

  • ·        What is Hardware
  • ·        Types of computer hardware
  • ·        Motherboard 
  • ·        Monitor
  • ·        Keyboard
  • ·        mouse
  • ·        Relationship between hardware and software
  • ·        Key learnings from the Chapter
  • ·        Frequently asked questions


Hardware (sometimes abbreviated to HW) can be defined as the physical components that a computer system needs to function. This distinguishes it from software, which consists of written instructions that tell the physical components what to do.

8. How the evolution of computers has reduced the employment opportunities?

It's impossible to overstate the profound impact of computer technology on employment trends and workforce structure in the modern economy. Thinking back as recently as the 1980s, the same decade in which computer use in the U.S. went from just over a quarter of the workforce to nearly half according to a study by Princeton economist Alan Krueger, career fields such as computer programming scarcely existed, yet workers also completed jobs that have today been automated by computers. Computers impact employment by both creating and destroying jobs, but, more than anything, by changing the nature of the jobs available.

Generally associated with increases in workplace productivity, computers allow each employee, using quick technologies such as email and Internet fact-checking, to accomplish more with every hour of work. While increases in productivity allow some employers to scale back on hiring, the reality is that more productive workers are a better labor investment, and employers interested in growing their businesses are actually more likely to hire new people and expand. As an industry in itself, computer technology also creates jobs in new fields like programming, computer-aided design and animation, Internet marketing and online publishing.

While computers have spawned entire new career fields, their introduction has also displaced many workers, especially in low-skill jobs such as warehouse clerks and basic data processing that were among the first to be replaced by automated computer technology. In sectors like manufacturing that grow more slowly and require large capital investments to do so, improvements in productivity brought about by computers can justify layoffs long before enough capital is available to invest in job-creating improvements like new factories.

Looking at the workforce as a whole, one of the more contentious issues surrounding the effects of computers on employment is that is creates and destroys jobs at different ends of the economy. Computers tend to create high-paying, high-skill technical jobs and destroy low-paying, low-skill jobs. From a social perspective, the problem is that low-skill workers don't tend to have the job training necessary to seek the high-skill jobs created and, unless a society invests the gains from the top of the economy in changing that situation, the workforce becomes increasingly polarized.

Beyond the impacts of computers on the jobs we hold, the devices also change the way we do our jobs. Combined with information technology tools such as Internet messaging and file transferring, computers allow for greater flexibility in working arrangements. This flexibility can improve quality-of-life factors for workers with systems like Internet freelancing, telecommuting and the ability to work internationally, but it also introduces risks such as a lack of job security, fewer opportunities for interactions with peers and co-workers and reduced possibilities of having basic benefits such as health insurance.

Technology -- including everything from physical devices to information technology networks -- has a deeply transformative influence on the modern world and economy. From changing consumer preferences to reshaping the way businesses produce and market goods, technology can be seen even in the smallest details of day-to-day business operations, increasing the productivity of workers and investments, accelerating economic activity, promoting interdependence between industries and allowing for the continual deployment of new technologies -- and also creating new business risks.

9. Explain the evolution of computers over the years.

Although computers seem like a relatively modern invention, computing dates back to the early 1800s. 

Throughout computing history, there has not been a lone inventor or a single first computer. The invention of the computer was incremental, with dozens of scientists and mathematicians building on their predecessors. The modern computer, however, can be traced back to the 1930s.

Keep reading to learn how the computer has changed throughout the decades. 

Konrad Zuse created what became known as the first programmable computer, the Z1, in 1936 in his parent's living room in Berlin. He assembled metal plates, pins, and old film, creating a machine that could easily add and subtract. Although his early models were destroyed in World War II, Zuse is credited with creating the first digital computer. 

John Mauchly created the ENIAC during World War II to help the Army with ballistics analytics. The machine could calculate thousands of problems each second. The large-scale ENIAC weighed 30 tons and needed a 1,500-square-foot room to house the 40 cabinets, 6,000 switches, and 18,000 vacuum tubes that comprise the machine. 

Some call this invention the beginning of the computer age.

The JOHNNIAC was completed in 1954 and was used by RAND researchers. The massive machine weighed just over two tons with over 5,000 vacuum tubes. This early computer operated for 13 years or 51,349 hours before being dismantled. 

Up until 1965, computers were reserved for mathematicians and engineers in a lab setting. The Programma 101 changed everything, by offering the general public a desktop computer that anyone could use. The 65-pound machine was the size of a typewriter and had 37 keys and a printer built-in. 

The Italian invention ushered in the idea of the personal computer that would last to this day. 

The Xerox Alto was created in the '70s as a personal computer that could print documents and send emails. What was most notable about the computer was its design, which included a mouse, keyboard, and screen. This state-of-the-art design would later influence Apple designs in the following decade. 

The Alto computers were also designed to be kid-friendly so that everyone — no matter the age — could operate a personal computer. 

When Steve Jobs introduced the first Macintosh computer in 1984, Consumer Reports called it a "dazzling display of technical wizardry." Like the Xerox Alto, the Macintosh had a keyboard, a mouse, and a small 9-inch screen. The computer — which weighed in at 22 pounds and cost $2,495 — was applauded for its interface of windows and icons. 


The iMac G3 was launched in 1998 after Steve Jobs' return to Apple in 1997. The computer quickly became known for its Bondi blue, clear casing. The 38-pound iMac included USB ports, a keyboard, and a mouse. It was meant to be portable and customizable. 

The company sold 800,000 computers in the first five months, saving Apple from extinction. The iMac is also notable because it was the first time Apple used the "I" to name its products, explaining it stood for "internet," "innovation," and "individuality." 

10. What are the various advantages and disadvantages of computers?

Multitasking Multitasking – Multitasking Multitasking is one among the main advantage of computer. Person can do multiple task, multiple operation at a same time, calculate numerical problems within few seconds. Computer can perform millions or trillions of work in one second.

Speed – Now computer isn’t just a calculating device. Now a day’s computer has vital role in human life. One of the most advantages of computer is its incredible speed, which helps human to finish their task in few seconds.

Cost/ Stores huge – Amount of knowledge it’s a coffee cost solution. Person can save huge data within a coffee budget. Centralized database of storing information is that the major advantage which will reduce cost.

Accuracy – One among the basis advantage of computer is which will perform not only calculations but also with accuracy.

Data Security – Protecting digital data is understood as data security.

Task completer – Completes tasks that might be impossible for humans to complete.

Communication – Computer helps the user in better understanding and communication with the other devices.

Productivity – The level of productivity gets automatically doubled as the computer can done the work at very fast.

Reduces work load – Information are often accessed by more then one person with the necessity for work to be duplicated.

Reliability – Computers can perform same sort of work repeatedly without throwing up errors thanks to tiredness or boredom, which are quite common among humans.

Storage – The pc has an in-built memory where it can store an outsized amount of knowledge . You can also store data in auxiliary storage devices.

·        A Computer does things faster than humans

·        Availability of Information

·        Computers help you save your time

·        Students can attain a variety of knowledge

·        Entertainment Use

 Computer has making human life faster because of its incredible speed,Accuracy and storage, with which human can save anything and search it out easily when needed. We can say computer a versatile machine because it is very flexible in performing their jobs. but Computers have several important advantages and disadvantages.

Multitasking is one of the major advantage of computer. Person can perform multiple task, multiple operation, calculate numerical problems within few seconds. Computer can perform trillion of instructions per second.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Computer: Can you imagine your work, your life, and a world without technology? No, not at all. Today, without looking at your computer, you don’t even start your day. Without technology and without using a computer, life is not possible. With the changing times and technology, the computer has also changed. Though the computer is a man-made device, today, everyone is dependent on this device. The human brain cannot remember thousands of data and information thus, imagining a life without a computer is impossible. Did you know computers have passed five generations? Each generation of the computer has brought a new change to the world of computers.

11. What are the various classifications of computers?

The computer systems can be classified on the following basis: 

1. On the basis of size.

2. On the basis of functionality. 

3. On the basis of data handling. 

Computers are classified based on the size, type and capacity of their work, which is called classification of computers.

Another name of the classification of computers is known as classes of computers. There are many types of computers available nowadays.

Computers are also available in a different size, different capacity and different type. Explain Classification of computer with examples and pictures.

1 : Micro computer : It is small in size also known as a pc (personal computer). It is inexpensive and lightweight.

Desktop computer. It is very common and used in offices, library, homes and universities atc. They have small size and low cost.

Notebook computer. It is also small in size and rechargeable battery and lightweight. It was used by students as a Notebook (Register/Copy) to solve assignment.

Laptop computer. It is placed on lap when used. It is portable, Rechargeable, lightweight and low cost.

Handheld computer. It is also called pulm top. It is very small and can be put in pocket, also called PDA (Personal Digital Assistant).

2 : Mainframe computer. It has very large size than micro computer, have high speed, large memory and expensive. It is used for special purposes and for special organisation. It can process millions of instructions in one minute. Used an ATM (Automated teller machin), census and in airline companies for ticking and schedule.

3 : Super computer. It is the most powerful and large in size. It is used for special purposes by special organisation. It can process trillions of instructions per second. It can be used for weather forecasting, special effects in movies, automobile designing. First super computer was developed by IBM Sequoia. These once used for research and exploration by NASA.

Super computers : The super computers are the most high performing system. A supercomputer is a computer with a high level of performance compared to a general-purpose computer. The actual Performance of a supercomputer is measured in FLOPS instead of MIPS. All of the world’s fastest 500 supercomputers run Linux-based operating systems. Additional research is being conducted in China, the US, the EU, Taiwan and Japan to build even faster, more high performing and more technologically superior supercomputers. Supercomputers actually play an important role in the field of computation, and are used for intensive computation tasks in various fields, including quantum mechanics, weather forecasting, climate research, oil and gas exploration, molecular modeling, and physical simulations. and also Throughout the history, supercomputers have been essential in the field of the cryptanalysis. 

eg: PARAM, jaguar, roadrunner.

Mainframe computers : These are commonly called as big iron, they are usually used by big organisations for bulk data processing such as statics, census data processing, transaction processing and are widely used as the servers as these systems has a higher processing capability as compared to the other classes of computers, most of these mainframe architectures were established in 1960s, the research and development worked continuously over the years and the mainframes of today are far more better than the earlier ones, in size, capacity and efficiency. 
Eg: IBM z Series, System z9 and System z10 servers.

Mini computers : These computers came into the market in mid 1960s and were sold at a much cheaper price than the main frames, they were actually designed for control, instrumentation, human interaction, and communication switching as distinct from calculation and record keeping, later they became very popular for personal uses with evolution. 
In the 60s to describe the smaller computers that became possible with the use of transistors and core memory technologies, minimal instructions sets and less expensive peripherals such as the ubiquitous Teletype Model 33 ASR.They usually took up one or a few inch rack cabinets, compared with the large mainframes that could fill a room, there was a new term “MINICOMPUTERS” coined 
Eg: Personal Laptop, PC etc. 

Micro computers : A microcomputer is a small, relatively inexpensive computer with a microprocessor as its CPU. It includes a microprocessor, memory, and minimal I/O circuitry mounted on a single printed circuit board.The previous to these computers, mainframes and minicomputers, were comparatively much larger, hard to maintain and more expensive. They actually formed the foundation for present day microcomputers and smart gadgets that we use in day to day life. 
Eg: Tablets, Smartwatches. 

12. How the smartphones have replaced computers?

“Good things come in small packages”, goes a popular adage. One glance at the pocket-friendly smartphone and you will find it hard to deny that nothing can be truer than this age-old saying! Look around you and you will notice how this portable electronic device has pervaded almost every vital aspect of our lives. Packing a wide gamut of cutting-edge features and functions into its compact body, the 21st century mobile phone has long overcome its one-time identity of an electronic gadget that was primarily used to store contacts, make and receive calls and send texts to firmly position itself as an unbelievably smart device that has successfully replaced and outdated many critical gadgets that were essential for the smooth functioning of our daily life and is fast replacing several others, including the bulky personal computers whose sales have remained stagnant or shown a downward trend ever since there has been an increase in the popularity and penetration of the versatile smartphones.

Today, one can hardly imagine a day without the support of these multipurpose phones that have made our lives unbelievably convenient by allowing us to perform a host of seemingly simple but crucial tasks with just a few swipes and taps of our fingertips. Wondering what makes these intelligent cell phones a one-stop destination for our varied needs? Here’s a brief outline of few of the key reasons that make these pint-sized devices a befitting successor to their burly predecessors.c

Since their inception, computers were much in demand for their sharp processors and robust CPUs that converted tons and tons of raw data into meaningful information within a matter of few seconds. Think of the flagship smartphones of today and you will realise that these modern day minicomputers, which are enabled with beefier batteries, are equally adept in handling huge volumes of data owing to their superior processing powers that are comparable to that of a mid-range desktop computer. With internal storages hovering between 16 GB and 128 GB for majority of the smartphones available in the market along with the provision to further amp up the storage capability with an external memory card, your computer need not be summoned anymore to archive your treasured photos & videos and confidential office files.

The highly portable cell phones have made it possible for us to calculate and compute, respond to emails, take notes and create graphs & presentations on the go without having to rely upon our desktops or laptops to execute these basic functions that were once their leading attributes. With all-time access to the entire suite of Microsoft Office, 24*7 availability of the internet via Wi-Fi and mobile data networks and improved network speeds, you can literally access your important business emails on your lightweight phone even in the wee hours of the morning or while chilling out in one of the remotest corners of the earth!

The advent of the ‘access on-demand’ mobile apps have truly catapulted the humble cell phones into an extraordinary league of their own and have mercilessly shattered the dominance of many household gadgets that were once considered non-negotiable for their life-saving functions. It is a known fact that consumers these days are spending a significant portion of their digital time on their mobile devices and 80% of that time is utilized in browsing mobile apps.

 Take a moment to go back in time and envision the world that existed before the invention of these high-end phones and tablets. Need to check your account balance? Get your bank passbook updated. Time to pay your utility bill? Drop a cheque to the nearest branch. Looking for the best eatery in town? Reach out to your friend, look up the newspaper adverts or search the net on your computer. Festive season round the corner and your wardrobe needs a serious upgrade?

 Jostle your way through the maddening crowd and spend hours haggling over the exorbitant prices of goods that are on display. Want to know what’s happening around you and across the globe? Pick up the newspaper and have an insightful read. Lost your way around and can’t discern the exact route? Call someone reliable or ask a passer-by to help you with the directions.


Think you would like to get your heart and pulse rate checked? Visit the doctor! Can’t wait any longer to capture the panoramic view in front of you? Bring out your expensive DSLR camera and go ‘click, click’. Dying for some serious entertainment? Make a dash for your gaming console or LED TV and spend hours on your 3D games or favourite blockbusters.

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13. Explain the various components of computer hardware and software.

What is Hardware and Software Components? This blog post is about Components of a computer system, in which we are sharing basic information about hardware and software components. Hardware -Computer hardware is the physical components of the system. Anything that can be touched is known as ‘hardware’ and here are some of the hardware explained. Cabinet A cabinet is nothing but the case, either plastic or metallic enclosure that capsules almost all the other hardware. This is being replaced by ‘all-in-one-eye’ design that puts everything in one case. Motherboard Motherboard is a large IC board that connects the other small hardware with the other peripherals.

CPU -Central Processing Unite controls the entire system and it is metaphorically compared to a human brain as it is responsible for the arithmetic and logical functioning.

CHIPSET -A chipset is a mediator that communicates with the CPU and the memory and other internal hardware units.

RAM -Random Access Memory is a temporary storehouse of data which are written and read almost at the same time by the CPU. If the information is not save the information would be lost

ROM -Read Only Memory is another device that stores data and as its name says, the data are only read from the chip but not written. It is a non-volatile memory unit which means that the data will stay in the chip regardless of the power supply.

CMOS battery  -This is a button cell that serves power for the BIOS and the date and time memory. Expansion cards - Fire wire, IDE, ESATA, USB, Ethernet adapter, SCSI etc. are examples of expansion cards. These cards are useful when the computer is to be connected to any other peripheral devices or another computer through a network. Data Storage Devices-Hard Disks are magnetic discs that store data in the digital format. This is a secondary storage device and fundamental component of a computer. Peripheral Devices Any device that is connected to the computer and does not serve the primary purpose is called a peripheral device. Few examples of peripheral devices are

Keyboard – It is the main input which aids in inputting letters and symbols

Mouse – Hardware to control the cursor in a monitor by hovering over a flat surface and performs selection and moving tasks.

Printers and Scanners – Devices that help in printing and scanning. The uses and types change with every environment.

Webcams – Video cameras that stream live video during video chat or record video.

CD drives – Drives that read and write information from a compact disk.

Graphic cards – Components that help in controlling and enhancing graphics.

SOFTWARE Hardware is usually operated with a platform and this platform is called software. It has a collection of information and instructions and it branches out into two categories; System Software[bios] checks all peripherals i.e. printer, mouse keyboard monitor and hard drive dvd drive before the user gets to use operating system i.e. windows XP Operating System software is the one that connects the, hardware and the user through graphical interfaces. This has a set of functions that are non-task specific and helps the user to control, manage and integrate individual hardware. Application software is programs that help in accomplishing specific tasks. It may have a single program or a package of programs. Operating systemslike WINDOWS, UNIX, LINUX and OS X are examples of system software and image viewers, text and spread sheet editor, video/audio players etc. are examples of application software. CSD, Technology, Technical, Assignment help Application Software: Software that enables the user to meet their requirements i.e. Word: Building CV’s PowerPoint: Presentations Excel: budgeting and forcaste Access: database Components of a Computer System is provided by the industry's top most qualified writers with the guaranteed good marks, We are posting free units solutions so scholars can explore the our assignment help and get review the quality of our work.

 Every computer is composed of two basic components: hardware and software.

hardware includes the Physical features, which are every part that you can either see or touch, for example: monitor, case, keyboard, mouse, and printer.

The part which activates the physical components cs alled software. It includes the features that responsible for directing the work to the hardware. Software can be divided int othe programs and data.

von-Neumann architecture of the computer

Von-Neumann computer consists of two main components: memory and CPU. The rest of the computer can be viewed as input/output devices for the two main components. This concept has not yet been overcome and even the latest computers still come from von-Neumann architecture. 

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14. How computer in organisations leads to improved communication?

Whether it be internal or external, communication is important to the life of any business. Computers play a big role in corporate communications, with ways of communicating with computers including email, instant messaging, videoconferencing and more. While the size and nature of your business will determine how much you use computers in your company’s communications, you should know how you could take advantage of technology to improve your company’s bottom line.

Almost any business, small or large, needs to use computers to communicate nowadays. Customers expect to be able to find information about a business online and communicate via email. Many businesses now use instant messaging tools like Slack internally to coordinate inside and outside the office.

Social media, accessible through a computer or a smart phone, has also become a major tool for communicating with customers and the public. Many businesses find it valuable to maintain presences on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram or other platforms.


Zach recently graduated from college and has been trying to land a new job. He has started sending his resume out to employers and has gone on a few interviews. Over the last few months, he has become dejected and does not believe he will find employment. He stopped to see his father, who is also his mentor, to see if he could give him any advice on job-hunting. After speaking with his dad, he slowly realized that he was an oblivious college graduate who was not communicating appropriately with potential places of employment.

Almost all of Zach's communication has been through computer-mediated communication tools. This is when any type of electronic equipment is utilized to communicate a message. The electronic equipment can be smartphones, tablets, laptops, desktops, etc. Let's take a look at each type Zach has used in his job search.

Let's start with the one technological innovation that makes all others possible. There are many advantages to computer usage as a communication tool in an organization.

The biggest advantage is the ability to work anywhere at any time. Many companies allow their employees to work from home because of this technology. Portable laptops let many companies allow workers to travel or work from home without sacrificing any productivity.

Employees also have the ability to multitask, which can increase overall productivity for the organization. For example, an employee on a laptop can respond to work queries while eating lunch at a restaurant.


A major disadvantage to having a workplace that relies on computers is technology overload, which is when workers feel overwhelmed by the constant influx of work and information through technology. Many workers feel burned-out, as they cannot escape from their daily work environment. Their boss can contact them at any point, and messages from work can come pouring in 24 hours a day. Zach is already feeling pressure from his limited use of technology to job-search. He constantly checks his messages to see if he has a job interview. He is afraid to go anywhere without his smartphone in case he misses job news.

In addition, computer-mediated communication changes group interaction. Group or teamwork done via technology has some major differences from the traditional model. A boss or leader might find it hard to keep control of the group dynamics when everyone's relating electronically instead of physically.

15. How are computers bringing medical revolution?

Dr. Daniel J. Thomas CSci CEng FBCS paints a picture of how augmented reality, artificial intelligence and other cutting edge technologies can save lives and possibly the NHS too.

We each consist of approximately 37.2 trillion cells, 200 different types of cell, 78 organs and 206 bones. True to say, there is nothing more complex on this planet than the human body. Each of our biological systems is vital to sustain us, as is the diagnosis, repair or replacement of these systems when needed.

The 21st century medical environment is complex. To maintain this, the NHS costs £116 billion per annum (2015), of which 75 per cent of this budget is spent on the cost of treating chronic diseases. It is estimated that healthcare costs will rise to 35 per cent of UK GDP by 2050 unless innovative methods of diagnosis and treatment are found.

Because of this, the government has highlighted that the ‘management of chronic conditions is a necessary and key part of achieving sustainable, effective and efficient health and social care services’.

The integration of information technology in the medical sector offers the evolution in information-focused healthcare, which can potentially lead to a revolution in patient treatment.

The NHS has truly embraced and integrated information technology into all parts of its service. From patient record data, which are now stored electronically, to the potential use of artificial intelligence (AI) technology such as that of DeepMind envisaged by Google (which is planned to directly be able to analyse huge amounts of patient and operational healthcare data). We are now entering into an exciting dawn and the powerful landscape of computer-aided medicine.

In the most fundamental of forms, using computer systems to sift through huge datasets to establish patterns could offer a vital proving ground before its progression into other vital areas. This would lead not just towards the conventional yet vital applications of managing bed space and medication tracking, but this powerful partnership could evolve to identify patterns in degenerative diseases, detect and track ward infection trends and could help the NHS in minimising outbreaks of disease.

Also among the most useful possibilities is in reading medical images and integrating this information to be used in the vital services. This remains to be the most powerful near-term potential for everyday medicine.

Although the complexity of modern-day medicine is now becoming increasingly difficult, can we bring all of this information directly to the hands of the medical professional during everyday life to lend a digital hand?

The first current glimpse into this approach is through the use of augmented reality interfaces (ARI), which remains to be the next frontier in on-demand information lead medicine. This can allow for the different elements in the digital medicine landscape to be integrated together.

The efficient use of data to become interactive 3D information can be directly used towards enhancing medical outcomes. The next stepping stone is on towards integrating augmented reality devices for the purpose of the presentation of real time information.

During the preoperative phase of a procedure, the surgeons will have a mental image of what needs to be carried out. Marking structures of interest on radiographic images that can be superimposed on live video camera images allows a surgeon to simultaneously visualise the surgical site and the overlaid graphic images, creating a so-called semi-immersive environment.

16. What are the advantages of computers to the society?

Ever since the first IBM PC was sold in 1981 and the bundling of Microsoft's Windows Operating System on subsequent easy-to-use PCs, computers have revolutionized the way individuals, students and enterprises work, communicate, live, educate and entertain. Computers are now integral to virtually every possible human and non-human activity. The benefits of computers to society are manifold. Our generation strives to be the quick paced society which we are known to be. To do so, our generation uses computers to their full potential in order to do more tasks and to do them at a faster pace. Computers benefit the business and personal world by being able to do the following more efficiently: buying and selling products, communicating throughout the world, enhancing our knowledge, job influences, entertainment, research, and paying bills. We’re now capable of creating new, more and better quality tasks via computer technology. Computers also benefit society with the enhancement of knowledge of medicine which creates more effective treatments for a healthier and longer life. Computers are improving healthcare through robotics and research. We communicate operation results and any surgical problems easily and immediately between healthcare providers all over the world. Using robotics, surgeons can now perform surgeries in remote and/or distant countries without ever leaving their resident hospital. education, computers have changed the way we are able to acquire knowledge and attend school. In the past, school was a physical building we had to attend. Today, we can "attend" school completely online, never having to step foot outside of our homes, or attend both online and on a college campus in what is known as a blended course. We are able to invest our time differently and accomplish more. The convenience of computers is that we are able to access the computer 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and 365 days a year. This also gives our society time to expand our knowledge and create new opportunities for our selves.

Being crucially important to the human race, computers have ultimately altered the way today’s society works, communicates, entertains, and educates. There is hardly any field of career left where technology isn’t essential; every small action performed in a job ultimately goes through some kind of a computer. In the end, being able to communicate and engage in this fast-paced manner enhances productivity levels by a great amount. One area this advancement of computers has immensely impacted is the business field. All businesses use computers to keep track of accounts, money, or make transactions. No longer will it take days, or even weeks, to communicate with someone that might not be located in one’s vicinity, as a computer allows one to easily send and receive emails with just a click of a button.

Another field that has come a long way since the production of computers is the entertainment area. Without the exceptional special effects put into an action movie with the help of our advanced technology, the audience would most likely not enjoy the show, resulting in the potential collapse of the entertainment business. For example, imagine watching the epic science fiction film, Avatar, but without any special effects put into it…it certainly would not be as entertaining as the power of computers transformed it to be. Hence, computers are able to keep both consumers and sellers satisfied, while still continuing to integrate into the everyday lives of average individuals.

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17. How can computers ensure more security and safety of confidential information?

Data confidentiality is a basic security service for data protection. In cloud computing, providing such a service is of great importance because of the following characteristics of cloud computing, which will increase the risk of data breach: remote data storage, lack of network perimeter, third-party cloud service providers, multitenancy, and massive sharing of infrastructure. In addition, because cloud computing, by its very nature, integrates many existing and new techniques, it will inevitably introduce new security risks due to both system design flaws and its implementation flaws. The challenges in providing satisfying security assurance in terms of data confidentiality exist in the following folds: data security versus usability, system scalability, and dynamics. To ensure data confidentiality, the most straightforward method is to encrypt all the sensitive data for storage, processing, and transmission. While data encryption provides a satisfying level of security protection, there are several subtle and challenging issues to be addressed, which we can list as follows:

  • ·        How to efficiently distribute data decryption keys to authorized cloud users
  • ·        How to efficiently deal with user dynamics, in particular user revocation
  • ·        How to efficiently handle data dynamics in terms of data modification
  • ·        How to guarantee accountability of users
  • ·        How to enable computation over encrypted data

The first three questions are related to the issue of key management. In particular, efficient key distribution is always a sophisticated issue in large-scale application scenarios. Because cloud computing provides elastic and scalable computing resources to potentially large-scale applications, it is very likely that there will be a large volume of data and a large number of users presented in the system. It is a challenge to efficiently and securely distribute the key(s) to authorized users when the users enter the system as it usually requires the data owner to stay online providing the key distribution service. User revocation is another prohibiting issue as it is in traditional cryptography. In many cases, user revocation will involve broadcasting the updated secrets/keys to all the users in the system and/or re-encryption of existing data stored in the cloud. Similarly, data dynamics would also involve data re-encryption and/or re-distribution of decryption key(s), which would represent a huge computation and communication overhead in the system. In large-scale systems, an ideal solution is to make data encryption operation independent from, or having minimal impact on, the process of key distribution in the sense that any modification/re-encryption of data will not introduce a(n) update/re-distribution of the decryption key. For this purpose, special attention should be paid to the system design as well as the choice of the underlying cryptographic primitive(s). Such an issue is particularly related to cryptography-based data access control. In Section 15.2.7, we will present detailed discussion on the issue as well as the related solutions.

18. What is Plastic Money?

The use of plastic money came through technology. Plastic money is your debit or credit card, although it can also refer to the wire transfers of funds from one bank to another. Let us get a more holistic idea of what plastic money is.

Cards are increasingly being used in place of actual cash. Plastic money refers to these cards. Debit and credit cards represent plastic money. Plastic money has made it easier for us to carry out transactions in our daily lives. It has replaced cash payments across the world and established itself as a necessary form of instant money. It has made it simpler for us to buy items with some of the best credit cards in the market, which we could not otherwise afford.

Benefits of plastic money

Plastic money comes with many benefits, including:

1. Cashless living

Plastic money has not only made our lives easier but has also alleviated the hassles that come with carrying currency. Some of the best credit cards allow us to move around the world without worrying about carrying cash.

2. Better security

One advantage of using credit or debit cards is the decrease in robberies and crimes. Hacking a card's PIN is difficult and necessitates the knowledge of certain procedures. As a result, credit and debit cardholders can be reasonably confident of the security of their funds.

3. Financial freedom

Credit cards allow a person to make a transaction and pay for it even when they do not have the funds. It is incredibly beneficial especially when you are short on cash. Credit cards also reduce the need to rely on others for financial assistance in an emergency. You can use the credit card to fund your requirement and later payback in instalments. Further, a credit card is easy to get. All you need to do is meet your bank’s credit card eligibility criteria, and the card is yours.

4. Ease of doing transactions

Credit cards and debit cards can help make online payments, fund transfers, and other transactions with ease. It is incredibly simple to make payments with plastic money from any location. Furthermore, several online businesses provide discounts when paying using credit and debit cards.

5. Exciting deals and discounts

Every credit and debit card providers offers deals and discounts on shopping. They can help you save more and earn cashback on purchases.

6. Saving on travel

Travelling can be expensive without plastic money. Credit and debit cards provide lounge access and incredible deals on travel bookings. You cannot enjoy the same benefits while using cash, making plastic money a must if you are travelling.

19. Differentiate between LAN and WAN?

Few key differences between LAN and WAN are listed below:

LAN is a computer network established within a small geographic area, such as a house, office or buildings. WAN, on the other side, is a computer network that covers a broad geographical area.

Local Area Network (LAN): LAN is a group of network devices that allow communication between connected devices. The private ownership has the control over the local area network rather than the public. LAN has a short propagation delay than MAN as well as WAN. It covers the smallest area such as College, School Hospital and so on. 

Wide Area Network (WAN): WAN covers a large area than LAN as well as MAN such as Country/Continent etc. WAN is expensive and should or might not be owned by one organization. PSTN or Satellite medium is used for wide area networks. 

What is LAN (Local Area Network)?

LAN refers to a group of computer and peripheral devices that are connected together in one single limited location. LAN can be small or large. It could be a home network with one user or an enterprise network with thousands of devices and users in an office. Private ownership controls the local area network.

A LAN consists of switches, routers, cables, access points, etc. that enable network devices to connect to internal servers, web servers, and other LANs through wide area networks. It is best suitable for sharing resources such as printers, files, games, and other applications. We can implement LAN using Ethernet LAN (Wired connection) and WLAN (Wireless).

What is WAN (Wide Area Network)?

A WAN is a group of LANs or other networks that communicate with one another. It is a network of networks that enables communication and information sharing between devices from anywhere in the world.

It enables organizations to create networks that enable employees, customers, and other stakeholders to work together online, irrespective of their location. A WAN is not confined to a geographical location. However, it might be confined within a state or country.

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20. What is the role of computers in online business?

Computers have propelled organisations far beyond the era of pen, pencil, and folders stashed in dusty storage compartments. Computers are used in a variety of ways in businesses, from generating reports to connecting with clients. The purpose and role of computers in business organization is to support crucial aspects of their operations, such as communication, record keeping, decision making, data analysis, and more. Computers are used to improve every area of the modern workplace. They’re employed in every part of a business, from product development to marketing to accounting and administration. The usage of computers has improved every element of the modern job.Computers have made possible the concepts such as flexible working schedules and remote work forces have become possible enabling employees to work from whenever they want and at whatever time they wish. 

The technical needs of online businesses are as varied as online businesses themselves. While e-commerce has dramatically reduced the barriers to entry for merchants starting a business -- often requiring little more than a computer and an Internet connection to set up shop -- a computer is still an important business investment and requires serious thought. Prospective online business owners should ask themselves a few questions before making an investment in computer hardware.

Computer speed is determined largely by two factors: the processor and the amount of memory. Random Access Memory (RAM) temporarily holds application data so that a computer doesn't have to continuously reread the hard drive, while the processor speed -- measured in gigahertz -- determines how fast a computer can complete operations. If you are planning a business that needs to run complex software applications, such as a graphic design or architectural firm, investing in a fast processor and lots of memory could increase your productivity. If you're just posting items on an auction site, the extra expense may be unnecessary.

The storage capacity of a computer determines how much information you can save to your hard drive. As with processing, additional hard drive space usually comes at an additional cost, but if your online business works in areas like tax preparation or legal services that generate huge volumes of paperwork requiring storage, a big hard drive is probably a good investment. If your computer's hard drive doesn't give you all the space you need, you can always invest in online storage or an external hard drive.

The choice between a laptop or a desktop depends largely on how you choose to run your business. If you usually work in an office or single location, a desktop could be your best option. These are cost-effective and usually have more hardware options like larger screens and more ports for peripherals. If, on the other hand, you travel extensively or frequently attend business meetings or presentation in which you need access to your files, the portability of a laptop makes it an ideal choice.

Although connectivity depends largely on the speeds and conditions offered by your Internet service provider, your computer hardware also has an impact. You need a computer capable of connecting at the speeds and in the ways your business demands, whether that means having ports for an Ethernet connection, a wireless card or even cellular or Bluetooth capabilities. You should analyze your business needs, investigate the different Internet options in your area.

Computers have become essential business tools. They are used in every aspect of a company's operations, including product creation, marketing, accounting and administration. It is critical that business owners take the time to choose the right computers, software and peripherals for their organization. Given the diversity of modern technology, from smartphones and tablets to large desktop systems, the choice of the best tech for your business can be daunting.

Most business processes now involve the use of computers. Here are some of them:

Communications: Companies use computers for both internal and external communications via email, messenger systems, conferencing and word processing.

Research: Businesses can use computers to research industry trends, patents, trademarks, potential clients and competitors via search engines and proprietary databases.

Media Production: Computers are now used to produce different types of media, including graphics, video and audio productions.

Data Tracking and Storage: Although paper files containing hard copy documents are still in use, organizations also store and manage their data using software and the cloud.

Product Development: Developers use computers to create new products and services.

Human resources: Internal HR processes and payroll systems are managed using software and online services.

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