Themes in Sangam poetry


Themes in Sangam poetry-The maximum exciting function of Sangam Literature is the reality that even as maximum of the early Themes in Sangam poetry literary traditions have been spiritual writings in a few shape or the other, Sangam Literature isn't spiritual in that experience.

The poems belonging to what's known as Sangam Literature are primarily based totally on principal themes – love / akam, and heroism/ reward of Kings and their deeds/ puram. But we are able to cope with akam and puram in element as those themes/ feelings shape a important a part of the textual content Cilappatikaran. Themes in Sangam poetry.

Themes in Sangam poetry

The literature of this era turned into made from the subsequent sorts of works:

1. Ettuttokai ( Eight Anthologies)

2. Pattuppattu ( The Ten Long Poems)

3. Tolkappiyam ( A Grammar Treatise )

The Ettuttokai or the Eight Anthologies of gathered poetry are:

1. Kuruntokai

2. Narrinai

3. Akananuru

4. Ainkurunuru

5. Kalittokai

6. Purananuru

7. Patirruppattu

8. Paripatal

Themes in Sangam poetry Themes in Sangam poetry. The topic of the primary 5 anthologies

(Kuruntokai, Narrinai, Akananuru, Ainkurunuru and Kalittokai) of the Ettuttokai or the Eight Anthologies of gathered poetry is love/ akam.

 The topic of the subsequent anthologies (Purananuru and Patirruppattu) is heroism and praises of the Kings and their deeds even as the Eighth Anthology or Paripatal includes poems that cope with love/ akam, heroism/ puram, and the reward of Kings and their deeds. The poems on heroism/ akam are a Themes in Sangam poetryclean extrade from maximum of the early and medieval poetry written withinside the subcontinent as there may be a experience of freshness and the poems aren't slowed down via way of means of the usage of literary conceits and mythological references. However, that isn't to mention that the poems of the Sangam length did now no longer have any reference to spiritual works. 

The Paripatal includes a few poems that cope with mainly 4 deities - Vishnu, Shiva, Durga, and Murugan. Moving directly to the subsequent gathered works, we've got the Ten Long Poems/ the Pattippattu.

The Pattuppattu or The Ten Long Poems include:

1. Kurincippattu

2. Porunararruppatai

3. Cirupanarruppatai

4. Perumpanarruppatai

5. Maturaikkanci

6. Malaipatukatam

7. Pattinappalai

8. Mullaippattu

9. Netunalvatai

10. Tirumurukarruppatai

Themes of Sangam Literature

Themes in Sangam poetry On the premise of interpretation and context, the Sangam literature may be defined into kinds viz. Agam (inner) and Puram (outer). The subjects of Agam are associated with private and human components which includes love and sexual things. The subjects of Puram are associated with human studies and feelings which includes Heroism, Valor, Ethics and Philanthropy. The poems have additionally been categorized on nature issues which can be referred to as Thinai. The issues are as follows:

·        Kurinji (Mountianous Theme).

·        Mullai (Forests Theme)

·        Marutham (Agricultural Land Theme)

·        Neithal (Coastal Theme) Paalai (Desert Theme)

The literature turned into misplaced and forgotten. The Tamil Scholars S V Damodaram Pillai and U V Swamitha Iyer added it into light. They published and posted unique works which includes Tholkappiyam, Nachinarkiniyar urai, Tholkappiyam Senavariyar urai, Manimekalai, Cilappatikaram, Pattupattu, and Purananuru in unique components of the nineteenth century, all with commentaries.

Themes in Sangam poetry Broadly, we are able to divide the Sangam literature in 2 components viz. Patinenmēlkanakku and Patinenkīlkanakku. Out of them, the Patinenmēlkanakku refers back to the oldest surviving Tamil Poetry of the Sangam Age, relationship again to two hundred BC to a hundred BC even as the Patinenkīlkanakku refers to the gathering of 18 poetic works, which belongs to Post Sangam period, and date again to a hundred AD to 500 AD.


This is the gathering of the Sangam Period works. Ettutokai is a huge quantity of the poems that's such as greater than 2000 poems. These works, which can be called “The Eight Anthologies”, are on deferent issues along with Narrinai on love, Kuruntokai on love, Aiankurunuru on erotic love etc. So maximum works of Ettukottai are of Agam style. Most works of Pattuppāttu are of Puram context and that they have works on seasons and picturesque nature of Tamil Country. They are primarily based totally upon the issues of the nature.


Patinenkīlkanakku is the submit Sangam paintings this is of Agam in addition to Puram context. Some crucial factors of a number of those works is as follows:

Naaladiyar turned into composed through Jain priests and the topic is the brief nature of existence and youth. It turned into paintings of Nalatiyar.

Nanmanikkatiga is the gathering of a hundred songs of Vilambi Naganaar and offers conditions / feelings of four kinds of those who can't sleep withinside the night time and they're thief, lovelorn, after money, and traumatic approximately dropping money.

Inna Narpathu describes the matters which have to be averted through the people. It offers with the matters that deliver disappointment along with lovely however disloyal wife, wealth of a miser, existence beneathneath a tyrant and a lovely flower with out fragrance.

Iniyavai Narpathu offers with the matters which have to now no longer be averted through someone and are seeking for even in negative conditions along with gaining knowledge of even through begging, recommendation of discovered persons, healthful children, and now no longer coveting different’s spouse.

Kalavazhi Narpathu offers with battle and politics.

Ainthinai Aimpathu offers with human feelings, love, separation, lovers’ quarrels.

Thinaimozhi Aimpathu additionally offers with the Agam topics along with love, seperation, lover fights etc.

Same is with Ainthinai Ezhupathu.

Same is with Thinaimalai Nurru Aimpathu.

Thirukkural is the primary paintings in all the Dravidian literature which offers with the ehics. It turned into authored through Thiruvalluvar. It is likewise referred to as Kural and is a group of 1330 couplets.

Impact of Sanskrit on Tamil Literature

The Tamil language and literature did now no longer flourish in isolation and turned into prompted through Sanskrit. The Aryans had penetrated the complete of the Tamil Land through sixth century AD and Post Sangam literature carries a few strains of Aryan Culture. Themes in Sangam poetry Influence of Sanskrit is greater at the 5 epics of Tamil Literature, which have been written among 1st century AD to ninth century AD. Out of them Silappatikaram, which turned into written through Ilango Adigal, brother of Senguvattan, a Chera King and who turned into a Jain monk is a pretty seemed epic. The different 4 epics are:

·        Manimegalai that's a Buddhist Religious Work

·        Civaka Chintamani that's a Jain Religious paintings

·        Valayapathi which is likewise a Jain paintings of ninth Century

·        Kundalkesi that's a Buddhist paintings of fifth century through Nagasena.

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