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IGNOU BEGC 101 Study Material

IGNOU BEGC 101 Study Material

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IGNOU BEGC-101 Study Material

Abhijnana Shakuntala By Kalidasa
Mahabharata By Vyas
Mrichchhakatika by Sudraka
Cilappatikaran

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Monday, January 17, 2022

Define akam and puram poetry

Define akam and puram poetry . Tamil, one of the classical languages of the world has a continuous history of literature for more than 2500 years. The earliest Tamil work, now extant is Tolkappiyam, a treatise on Tamil phonology, morphology, syntax and poetics. (300 B. C) The earliest Tamil literature that has come down to us is popularly known as Sangam literature.

Define akam and puram poetry.

The Pandya line of Tamil monarchs patronized three academies, one after the other, in their successive capitals namely Thenmadurai, Kapaatapuram and the temple city of modern Madurai. Sangam literature is believed to have been authored by the poets who were attached to the third Academy which flourished in Madurai from 300 B. C to 300 A. D. The poems were composed by poets drawn from almost all the sections of the ancient Tamil society and belonging to different villages and towns. These poems were later compiled and made into nine anthologies called Eṭṭuttokai and Pattuppāṭṭu.

 

The Akam poetry and Its Characters

The theme of love dealt with Akam is not in relation to any particular man or woman. It is love that is universal in its sweep. The ancient poets took care that even by suggestion the lovers are not to be identified. These love poems are dramatic monologues. In them, we don’t hear the voice of the composers. No poem is addressed to the reader.  The characters of the Akam poetry are limited. The hero and the heroine are the main characters. The confidante of the heroine occupies the next place of importance. The other characters are the friend of the hero, the parents and brothers of the heroine, the charioteer of the hero, the aides, panan, patini, velan, hetaera, parappan, dancer, bystanders, village folk and other minor characters. Some of these characters are not vocal, but their ideas are referred to by other characters. The father and the brother of the heroine remain mute participants. There is almost no mention of the hero’s parents.

 

The Sevenfold Division of Akam Poetry

The Akam poems are highly conventional. They are based on well-established and strict literary tradition, the knowledge of which is a basic necessity to understand and appreciate the poems. The grammarian Tolkappiyar divides the Tamil country into four distinct geographical regions and each one of them is a world by itself. They are the pastoral, montane, riverine and littoral regions which are presided over by Lord Tirumal, Lord Murukan, Lord Indira and Lord Varuna respectively. There is also a fifth division, the wasteland, which is temporary in nature and it is presided over by Goddess Kotravai.  These regions are denoted as Mullai, Kurinci, Marutam, Neythal and Palai in Sangam poems. The lands are named after the plants peculiar to the respective regions. These names, by extension of meaning also denote the Tinais, the love life of the people and the literature belonging to the Tinais.

 

According to Tolkappiyar, the theme of love is sevenfold. They are,

1. Kaikkilai

2. Kurinci

3. Mullai

4. Marutam

5. Neytal

6. Palai

7. Peruntinai.

Of these, Kaikkilai is unrequited love and Peruntinai is mismatched love.The other five are compositely called Aintinai (the five tinais) and Anpin Aintinai (the five structured on true love)

 

The Puram Poetry

The Puram division has seven Tinas or divisions corresponding to the seven divisions or Tinais of Akam. This theory is peculiar to Tolkappiyam. But in later ages, this seven fold division gave place to the twelve fold division. It is followed in the grammatical works like the Pannirupadalam and the Purapporul venba maalai. The compilers of the Sangam poems have adopted the later day classifications. According to the later tradition, the following will be the various divisions.

  • Vetchi – Stealing away of the cattle of the enemies
  • Karanthai – Redemption of the stolen cattle
  • Vanji – A king’s march against a foe with his armies
  •  Kanchi – The defensive warfare by the attacked king
  • Uzhinai – Seize of a fort by an invader
  • Nochi – Defense of the fort
  • Tumpai – Heroic exploits and personal valour of kings and warriors
  • Vagai – Victory in war and excellence in other pursuits of every section of the community
  • Padan – Singing the glory of patrons and victorious kings and seeking rewards
  • Podhuviyal – Special themes dealing with higher values of life and experiences of loss and sorrow
  • Kaikilai – One-sided attachment
  • Perunthinai – Relationship between unequal people and its sorrows

 Define akam and puram poetry . Every Tinai has anumber of subdivisions called Turais. Every Turai is an integral aspect of the corresponding Tinai which define the particular activity of war, the glorification of patrons, and other higher aspects of life.

Define akam and puram poetry


The Puram poetry covers all areas of experience related to the socio-political life of ancient Tamils. Define akam and puram poetry . It also includes in it the ripe experience of wise men and saints. It ranges over vast thematic landscapes of praises of heroic exploits, just rule of kings and their munificent patronage of bards and poets and other groups of suppliants. The Puram poems form the main source of information for writing the social history of the Tamils.

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The theme of love and marriage in Abhijnana Shakuntala

 The theme of love and marriage in Abhijnana Shakuntala Throughout Shakuntala, duty and love are closely intertwined. This connection is in keeping with the importance of dharma (duty) in Hindu practice at the time. Dharma, along with artha (material success) and kama (desire), was understood to be one of the primary goals of human existence, while the ultimate goal of that existence was to attain moksha, or liberation from worldly existence. In the play, there is particular tension between dharma and kama.

The theme of love and marriage in Abhijnana Shakuntala

Perhaps no other faith glorifies the notion of love as Hinduism. This is evident from the amazing variety of mythical love stories that abounds Sanskrit literature, which is undoubtedly one of the richest treasure hoards of exciting love tales. Classical love legends from Hindu mythology and folklore of India are both passionate and sensuous in content, and never fail to appeal to the romantic in us. These fables stretches our imagination, engage our emotions and, entertain us. The legend of the exquisitely beautiful Shakuntala and the mighty king Dushyant is a thrilling love story from the epic Mahabharata, which the great ancient poet Kalidasa retold in his immortal play 'Abhijnanashakuntalam'.

While on a hunting trip, King Dushyant of the Puru dynasty meets the hermit-girl Shakuntala. They fall in love with each other at first sight and, in the absence of her father, Shakuntala weds the king in a ceremony of 'Ghandharva'-a form of marriage by mutual consent with mother Nature as the witness. When the time comes for Dushyant to return to his palace, he promises to send an envoy to escort her to his castle.As a fond remembrance he gives her a signet ring.

 

The structure of the play— The theme of love and marriage in Abhijnana Shakuntala - from opposition between duty and love during Shakuntala’s courtship, to failed efforts to harmonize them in the middle of the play, to reconciliation between them in the final act—suggests that reconciling the competing goals of human existence is a lifelong journey, but that when that struggle is faithfully undertaken, it eventually proceeds toward spiritual liberation.

In the description of the love scenes in the Abhijnana Shakuntala, an extravagance of emotion and passion has been displayed. In the play Abhigyan Shakuntalam, myth, legend and dream-vision have been blended with top graphical and conversational dimension to give this love story more depth and a multilayered texture. The world in Shakuntalam is a world of fairies, enchantment and myths. The hero of the play Dushyanta meets Shakuntala in the forest and this meeting is similar to the meeting between Savitri and Satyavan in Sri Aurobindo’s epic Savitri. The forest serves as the meeting point for the couples and Nature has been used as a backdrop to enhance the romantic effect of the romantic tale. The opening lines take the readers into a world of romance and adventure. The king leaves his kingdom to enter a new kingdom. It is a mythical world where the thin border line between realism and romance vanishes.

The theme of love and marriage in Abhijnana Shakuntala The opening pages of the play present Shakuntala as the child of Nature and often she is compared with flowers like Jasmine. The king belongs to other world which is alien to Nature. The theme of love and marriage in Abhijnana Shakuntala , When Shakuntala visits the king, she suffers. This is her movement from Nature to the materialistic world. Later when the king is left behind by Shakuntala, he is filled with a feeling of remorse. Twice he enters the sacred region, first the tapovan, the hermitage of Kanva, and later the hermitage of Maricha. Before the king can enter this world, he has to be purified. First he proves his worth by battling the forces of darkness and disorder that threaten the order of the universe, observes Thapar.

So Kalidasa presents two different worlds in this play. They are the green world of Nature and the gilded world of the royal court which are poles apart. There is no reconciliation Act I and VII present the hermitage of Kanva and Maricha that enjoy the bliss of Nature. Imagery is rich with the descriptions of flowers and honey bees hovering over them and the perennial water springs in the Himalayas. The colour imagery suggests the display of colour from the natural world, the flora and fauna. Here the lotus is golden and the place for meditation a lush green sylvan surrounding with deer jumping around the jeweled caves where celestial nymphs dance. The Hemkoot mountain is the abode of sage Maricha which represents a world of perfection. It is rightly said that words are the key to open doors for imagination on its journey of exploration into the fictional world.

Kalidasa has also employed the device of irony in Abhigyan Shakuntalam to heighten the emotional impact of the situation. The use of the curse motif and the ring motif justifies itself. It provides an explanation to the recognition or abhiryan’ of Shakuntala. The theme of love and marriage in Abhijnana Shakuntala,  In fact, this recognition is for Dushyanta who knows the truth only after losing his wife. In the beginning, the king is infatuated with Shakuntala’s perennial beauty and he also enjoys her carnally. He fails to see and experience the transformative side of her personality as he finds her, “..an object of Nature. She is flower to smell, a gem to hold and an ornament to wear. She is hardly a person to him. It is only at the end of the play that he sees her as a person and knows her truly.” Rightly observes Romila Thapar. The theme of love and marriage in Abhijnana Shakuntala.

All the romantic Sanskrit plays, poets have employed highly poetic as well as erotic imagery to describe the beauty of the heroine and the love making. Throughout the play, she is seen constantly changing, developing into a mature woman playing multiple social roles of a wife, a mother and a woman with a transformative touch, in Jungian terms. When one compares Shakuntala of the first Act with the Shakuntala of Act VII, it shows her passage from innocence to experience from the abstract to the concrete, from the hermitage to Hastinapur, and finally from separation to reunion.

  It is said that true love always finds its way. Years later, coincidently the king retrieves his memory back. He breaks down in guilt and shame and yearns for his beloved wife Shakuntala. When he finally meets his son Bharat and Shakuntala in sage Marica’s Hermitage, he breaks down in front of her and begs her forgiveness. This is another display of love, that makes a king break down in front of another person. We can imagine how strong the love of Duhsanta is towards Shakuntala. Shakuntala too forgives her husband and agrees to return back with him. Shakuntala’s life was surrounded by the love and devotion for her husband. Even though she suffered humiliation in his hands, she still managed to forgive him, because her love was pure and deep.

          The story is a beautiful representation of love and romance. Shakuntala’s faith in love forced every energy to reunite the two lovers. The story begins with love and ends with living happily with love, as one of the characteristics of Sanskrit Literature.

The theme of love and marriage in Abhijnana Shakuntala ;  love and marriage in Abhijnana Shakuntala


सदियों पुरानी है ये प्रेम कथा, जब एक मछली ने मिलाया प्रेमी को

एक राजा को वन पुत्री से प्यार हो गया था। दोनों ने शादी की। लेकिन वक्त ने सबकुछ भुला दिया। तब एक मछली ने दोनों को फिर मिलाया। हम बात कर रहे हैं पराक्रमी राजा दुष्यंत और शकुंतला के प्रेम कहानी की। ये कहानी शुरू हुई थी उत्तराखंड के पौड़ी गढ़वाल जनपद स्थित कण्वाश्रम में।

एक बार हस्तिनापुर नरेश दुष्यंत आखेट खेलने वन में गये। जिस वन में वे शिकार के लिये गये थे उसी वन में कण्व ऋषि का आश्रम था। कण्व ऋषि के दर्शन करने के लिये महाराज दुष्यंत उनके आश्रम पहुंच गये। पुकार लगाने पर एक सुंदर कन्या ने आश्रम से निकल कर कहा, “हे राजन! महर्षि तो तीर्थ यात्रा पर गये हैं, किन्तु आपका इस आश्रम में स्वागत है।

उस कन्या को देख कर महाराज दुष्यंत ने पूछा, “बालिके! आप कौन हैं?” बालिका ने कहा, “मेरा नाम शकुन्तला है और मैं कण्व ऋषि की पुत्री हूँ।उस कन्या की बात सुन कर महाराज दुष्यंत आश्चर्यचकित होकर बोले, “महर्षि तो आजन्म ब्रह्मचारी हैं फिर आप उनकी पुत्री कैसे हईं?”

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No you yourself must mention it in the right way to Dhrtarastra, the first of the Kurus, O Saubala. I shall not be able to bring up the matter.

 No, you yourself must mention it in the right way to Dhrtarastra, the first of the Kurus, O Saubala. I shall not be able to bring up the matter. Above lines are taken from the Mahabharata Written by Vyas. Duryodhana is conservative to not disaffect his abettors and apprehensive of the ties he must maintain with musketeers.

Further, when Sakuni urges Duryodhana to speak to the king about permitting a challenge of the bones, Duryodhana goes on a back bottom and is reluctant to speak to his father. He conversely persuades Sakuni to take the task of presenting the matter to the king in “ the right way”. See how he articulates his vacillation, “ No, you yourself must mention it in the right way to Dhrtarastra, the first of the Kurus, O Saubala. I shall not be suitable to bring up the matter”

 The Mahabharata is an ancient Indian epic where the main story revolves around two branches of a family-the Pandavas and Kauravas-who, in the Kurukshetra War, battle for the throne of Hastinapura. Simple into this narrative are several lower stories about people dead or living, and philosophical dialogues. Krishna-Dwaipayan Vyasa, himself a character in the epic, composed it; as, according to tradition, he mandated the verses and Ganesha wrote them down. At verses, it's the longest grand lyric ever written, generally allowed to have been composed in the 4th century BCE or earlier. The events in the grand play out in the Indian key and girding areas. It was first recited by a pupil of Vyasa at a snake- immolation of the great-grandson of one of the major characters of the story. Including within it the Bhagavad Gita, the Mahabharata is one of the most important textbooks of ancient Indian, indeed world, literature.

 So that the family line didn't die out, Satyavati summoned her son Vyasa to macerate the two queens. Vyasa had been born to Satyavati of a great savant named Parashar before her marriage to Shantanu. According to the laws of the day, a child born to an unattached mama was taken to be a step- child of the mama's hubby; by that commemorative, Vyasa could be considered Shantanu's son and could be used to immortalize the Kuru clan that ruled Hastinapur. Therefore, by the Niyog custom, the two queens each had a son of Vyasa to the elder queen was born a eyeless son called Dhritarashtra, and to the youngish was born an else healthy but extremely pale son called Pandu. To a maid of these queens was born a son of Vyasa called Vidur. Bheeshm brought up these three boys with great care. Dhritarashtra grew up to be the strongest of all tycoons in the country, Pandu was extremely professed in warfare and archery, and Vidur knew all the branches of literacy, politics, and statesmanship.

  With the boys grown, it was now time to fill up the empty throne of Hastinapur. Dhritarashtra, the eldest, was bypassed because the laws barred a impaired person from being king. Pandu, rather, was culminated. Bheeshm negotiated Dhritarashtra's marriage with Gandhari, and Pandu's with Kunti and Madri. Pandu expanded the area by conquering the sorrounding areas, and brought in considerable war booty. With effects running easily in the country, and with its resources full, Pandu asked his elder family to look after the state affairs, and retired to the timbers with his two women for some time off.



For futher details - No, you yourself must mention it in the right way to Dhrtarastra, the first of the Kurus, O Saubala. I shall not be able to bring up the matter.

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Examine the theme of love and marriage in Abhijnana Shakuntala?

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“Perish the sinful thought, why are you out to sully your family’s honour; and to make me fall; you are like a river that crumbles its banks to muddy its crystal stream, and uproots the tree growing by its edge.

“Perish the sinful thought, why are you out to sully your family’s honour; and to make me fall; you are like a river that crumbles its banks to muddy its crystal stream, and uproots the tree growing by its edge. A native of Mysore, India, Attipat Krishnaswami Ramanujan grew up during the ultimate part of English rule in India, exposing him to the languages that would form his life's work as a minstrel and translator. Ramanujan's work reveals that artistic tradition in India is a conflict between the social English identity of the country as well as its major andpost-colonial ethnical individualities. His work, a admixture of the complex languages of which he was a master, is a product of flowing, tropical syntax and extremely concentrated composition.

“Perish the sinful thought, why are you out to sully your family’s honour; and to make me fall; you are like a river that crumbles its banks to muddy its crystal stream, and uproots the tree growing by its edge.

The following lines taken from A River by AK Ramanujan . The Poem Situated at center of Madurai city. Madurai is the megacity of tabernacles and muses. According to the minstrel, the sole concern of the before muses was to sing of the beauty of the megacity, its tabernacles and its swash. In every summer the swash dries up making the beach visible. As the water position of the swash decreases the beach looks like caricatures of mortal. In addition to the beach, there are straws and woman hair under the islands with gravel bars and patches of form each over them.

There are also shining wet monuments that look like sleeping crocodiles, and those that are dry tend to be water-buffaloes with no hair relaxing in the sun. No minstrel, still, sings of this. They just sing of the stormy season, without mentioning the mournings of the common people caused by the thunderstorm swash.

 The minstrel claims he observed the deluge of the swash during the thunderstorm. People everyplace spoke about the rising water position of the swash and the number of cobbled way in the bathing place that it had submerged. It also took three vill homes, a pregnant woman and a couple of cows by the humorous name of Gopi and Brinda.

 Still, the new muses who are Ramanujan’s contemporary still quote the old muses without paying attention to the present circumstances. They noway talked about the pregnant woman drowned with the halves in her womb. The minstrel imagines that the twines were remonstrating to escape while their mama was drowning but they couldn't and eventually drown to death with their mama. The muses noway presented this heart rendering incident in their runes.



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Examine the theme of love and marriage in Abhijnana Shakuntala?

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Define akam and puram poetry.

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Wednesday, December 15, 2021

How is the veer rasa and the shringara rasa evoked in Abhijnana Shakuntala


How is the veer rasa and the shringara rasa evoked in Abhijnana Shakuntala. Bharata Muni’s ‘Rasa’ principle to begin with originated in his Sanskrit treatise written at the acting arts-Natyashastra. According to the Natyashastra, the dreams of theatre and its factors are to empower aesthetic enjoy and supply emotional rasa. It has its roots withinside the Vedic period, in Rig Veda in addition to Atharvaveda. How is the veer rasa and the shringara rasa evoked in Abhijnana Shakuntala. 

The principle advocates that enjoyment is the favored impact of overall performance arts however now no longer the number one purpose, and the number one purpose is to move the people gift withinside the target target market into some other parallel reality, complete of marvel and bliss, in which he/she stories the essence of his/her recognition and displays on non secular and ethical components. It shows that each item and that means has an emotional impact that diverts the human thoughts with its enjoy and controls the coronary heart and thoughts of an person.

To facilitate the know-how of this principle How is the veer rasa and the shringara rasa evoked in Abhijnana Shakuntala. Bharata Muni has defined all of the feelings in a different way even as studying the shape of these feelings, the manner they sunrise upon the client of an artwork shape and How is the veer rasa and the shringara rasa evoked in Abhijnana Shakuntala. expressed his perspectives upon the members of the family of these feelings with numerous components and their impact at the target target market with literary context.

How is the veer rasa and the shringara rasa evoked in Abhijnana Shakuntala


How is the veer rasa and the shringara rasa evoked in Abhijnana Shakuntala. In post-Vedic literature, the phrase 'Rasa' commonly connotes "extract, essence, juice or a delectable liquid", in the cultured experience. Thus the principle has come to be a completely essential literary principle, which has a reference to human enjoy and is strongly rooted withinside the components of realism.

RASA

How is the veer rasa and the shringara rasa evoked in Abhijnana Shakuntala. A Sanskrit phrase that refers to 'juice', 'extract', and/or 'essence' in the cultured experience. It denotes an crucial mental kingdom, wherein feelings spring to mind withinside the thoughts of a individual whilst witnessing a piece of artwork. When an person observes, reads, and/or listens to any sort of artwork shape, sensory triggers in his thoughts provide upward push to special feelings, taken into consideration as ‘Rasa’. Bharata Muni defined 9 Rasa's or Navrasa. Each Rasa is related to a presiding deity and a selected color. These are:

Shringara – Represents love, splendor, beauty, romance, and devotion.

Presiding Deity: Vishnu

Colour: Light Green

Hasyam – Represents laughter, joy, mirth, comedy, or humour.

Presiding Deity: Shiva

Colour: White

Raudram – Represents fury, anger, and/or frustration.

Presiding Deity: Shiva

Colour: Red

Karunyam – Represents mercy, compassion, pity, or grief.

Presiding Deity: Yama

Colour: Grey

Bibhatsam – Represents disgust and aversion toward some thing that sickens or revolts.

Colour: Blue

Bhayanakam – Represents horror, terror, fear, or anxiety.

Presiding Deity: Yama

Colour: Black

Veeram – Represents courage, pride, bravery, and self-confidence.

Presiding Deity: Indra

Colour: Saffron

Adhbutam – Represents marvel, mystery, interest, and amazement.

Presiding Deity: Brahma

Colour: Yellow

Shantam – Represents peace, tranquility, serenity, and the kingdom of calmness.

Presiding Deity: Vishnu

Colour: Perpetual White

Bharata Muni has offered his principle of Rasa withinside the 6th bankruptcy of Natyashastra, and he stated that “No significant concept is conveyed if the ‘Rasa’ isn't always evoked”.

ABHIJNANASHAKUNTALAM & RASA THEORY

Kalidasa's Abhijnanashakuntalam is taken into consideration the nice paintings to have a look at to get a higher know-how of the Rasa principle.How is the veer rasa and the shringara rasa evoked in Abhijnana Shakuntala. 

Presiding Deity: Shiva

Kalidasa has offered 3 Rasa's i.e. Shringara (Love), Karunyam (Compassion), and Shantam (Peace) on this paintings with the maximum concentration, whilst additionally which includes the closing six in numerous factors.

Shringara Rasa

How is the veer rasa and the shringara rasa evoked in Abhijnana Shakuntala. Shringara Rasa is typical at some stage in the play, as it's far primarily based totally at the subject of affection. The access of Dushyanta, and the outline of his appearance, in conjunction with the response of Shakuntala and her friends, evoke emotions of affection and provide an concept of the extent of beauty and splendor that King Dushyanta possesses. Another example is whilst Dushyanta describes the splendor of Shakuntala, with the aid of using simply providing his perspectives and outline of the arrival of Shakuntala:

Her decrease lip has the wealthy sheen of younger shoots,

her fingers the very grace of soft twining stems;

her limbs captivating as a lovable flower

glow with the radiance of magical youth.

Her garb with the aid of using constantly praising her splendor inspires the emotion of affection withinside the thoughts of the reader. Further, he provides the praise that she isn't always from earth due to the fact her splendor is heavenly:

How should a shape of such matchless splendor

come from the womb of a mortal mom?

The scintillating lightning-flash

does now no longer spring up from the earth.

Their craving for every different, Shakuntala being proven lovesick, Dushyanta's efforts to woo her, their confession of affection to every different, their courtship, and numerous different times evoke the emotions of affection via its special nuances.

Hasyam Rasa

How is the veer rasa and the shringara rasa evoked in Abhijnana Shakuntala. Laughter or Comedy has continually been one of the maximum used factors of literature in enjoyment. The Hasyam Rasa is frequently related to the man or woman of Madhavya, the courtroom docket jester, in times whilst he followed Dushyanta on his searching expeditions and complained approximately the ache he skilled en-route:

Karunyam Rasa

The preliminary acts of the play are content material with love and romance, however from the fourth act, the focal point shifts toward Karunyam Rasa signifying compassion, bringing approximately a sad shift in feelings. The prelude informs approximately the lover's marriage in line with Gandharva rites and the scene indicates Shakuntala engrossed withinside the mind of her lover, fails to take care of Durvasa Rishi, who in his anger curses Shakuntala, evoking emotions of compassion and pity for her, withinside the minds of the target target market.

After this scene, Anasuya pleading with Durvasa Rishi to boost the curse in addition intensifies the surge of feelings, and its essence is typical whilst she visits Dushyanta in his palace and he does now no longer receive her as his spouse, as he can't do not forget his reminiscence at all, because of the consequences of the curse and in flip, doubts her chastity.

Veeram Rasa

The essence of bravery and heroism to begin with seems with the outline of Dushyanta.

Adhbutam Rasa

The Rasa of marvel, surprise, mystery, and amazement seems with the curse of Durvasa, and whilst Anasuya begs with him to lighten the impact of the curse to a few extent; he says that if a token of reputation is offered to her husband, the curse can be lifted. The sudden flip of activities and the interest related to the development of the plot is some thing that Bharata Muni desired to convey, the Adhbutam Rasa could evoke.

Another incident which incites amazement is whilst Dushyanta has the same opinion to preserve Shakuntala in his palace until the delivery of the baby, however she receives taken away to heaven with the aid of using a few womanly shadow of the cosmic realm, to which her mom belonged.

Shantam Rasa

Shantam Rasa has been offered in nearly every of the chapters in a single or the opposite manner. The description of the ashram in conjunction with atmosphere and air of mystery of the character surrounding it offers a experience of calm and serenity to the environment.

At the quit of the fourth bankruptcy, whilst Shakuntala goes to go to Dushyanta withinside the palace, her father-like discern Kanva feels relieved and in peace that Shakuntala is now satisfied together along with her own circle of relatives and it is her new starting in life.

Raudram Rasa

The feeling of anger and frustration is evoked withinside the scenes whilst Durvasa Rishi curses Shakuntala.How is the veer rasa and the shringara rasa evoked in Abhijnana Shakuntala.

The target target market stories a sense of anger and frustration toward Durvasa Rishi and some other example is whilst Dushyanta refuses to just accept Shakuntala as his spouse in conjunction with the demeanor wherein he doubts the chastity of his spouse, despite the fact that he became beneathneath the impact of the curse. Shakuntala's irritated respond to Dushyanta's humiliating claims on her provide upward push to Raudra Rasa:


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