Friday, August 6, 2021

The History of Measurement Of Intelligence

The History of Measurement Of Intelligence

Explain the concept of IQ. Describe the history of measurement of intelligence 

IQ, short for intelligence quotient, is a measure of a person’s reasoning ability. In short, it is supposed to gauge how well someone can use information and logic to answer questions or make predictions. IQ tests begin to assess this by measuring short- and longterm memory. They also measure how well people can solve puzzles and recall information they’ve heard — and how quickly. Every student can learn, no matter how intelligent. But some students struggle in school because of a weakness in one specific area of intelligence. These students often benefit from special education programs. There, they get extra help in the areas where they’re struggling. IQ tests can help teachers figure out which students would benefit from such extra help. IQ tests also can help identify students who would do well in fast-paced “gifted education” programs. Many colleges and universities also use exams similar to IQ tests to 7 | P a g e select students. And the U.S. government — including its military — uses IQ tests when choosing who to hire. These tests help predict which people would make good leaders, or be better at certain specific skills. It’s tempting to read a lot into someone’s IQ score. Most non-experts think intelligence is the reason successful people do so well. Psychologists who study intelligence find this is only partly true. IQ tests can predict how well people will do in particular situations, such as thinking abstractly in science, engineering or art.

MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Free Or leading teams of people. But there’s more to the story. Extraordinary achievement depends on many things. And those extra categories include ambition, persistence, opportunity, the ability to think clearly — even luck. According to Huitt (2003), there are a few basic principles that most cognitive psychologists agree with: The mental system has limited capacities, i.e. bottlenecks in the flow and processing of information, occur at very specific points A control mechanism is required to oversee the encoding, transformation, processing, storage, retrieval and utilization of information. This control mechanism requires itself processing power and that varies in function of the difficulty of the task. There is a two-way flow of information. Sensory input is combined with information stored in memory in order to construct meaning. The human organism has been genetically prepared to process and organize information in specific ways. The first modern intelligence test in IQ history was developed in 1904, by Alfred Binet (1857-1911) and Theodore Simon (1873-1961).

The French Ministry of Education asked these researchers to develop a test that would allow for distinguishing mentally retarded children from normally intelligent, but lazy children. The result was the Simon-Binet IQ test. This IQ test consists of several components such as logical reasoning, finding rhyming words and naming objects. The score for the IQ test in combination with a child's age, provides information on the intellectual development of the child: is the child ahead of or lagging other children? The IQ was calculated as (mental age/chronological age) X 100. The test came to be a huge success, both in Europe and America.

MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Free The key assumption behind evolutionary epistemology is that animals are active learners or ‘knowers’. In the present study, I updated the concept of natural learning, developed 8 | P a g e by Henry Plotkin and John Odling-Smee, by expanding it from the animal-only territory to the biosphere-as-a-whole territory. In the new interpretation of natural learning the concept of biological information, guided by Peter Corning’s concept of “control information”, becomes the ‘glue’ holding the organism–environment interactions together.

The control information guides biological systems, from bacteria to ecosystems, in the process of natural learning executed by the universal algorithm. This algorithm, summarized by the acronym IGPT (information-gain-process-translate) incorporates natural cognitive methods including sensing/perception, memory, communication, and decision-making. Finally, the biosphere becomes the distributed network of communicative interactions between biological systems termed the interactome. The concept of interactome is based on Gregory Bateson’s natural epistemology known as the “ecology of mind”. Mimicking Bateson’s approach, the interactome may also be designated “physiology of mind”—the principle behind regulating the biosphere homeostasis. The universal capacity of organisms, from bacteria to animals, to actively sense their local environments and adjust to them intelligently, reflects the universal capacity to learn (Plotkin 1982; Bradie 1986; Gontier 2006; Watson et al. 2015; Watson and Szathmáry 2016; Bradie and Harms 2017). In the evolutionary sense, all organisms are active learners or ‘knowers’.

MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Free The processes behind natural learning are at the heart of evolutionary epistemology. According to the branch of evolutionary epistemology known as EEM (evolutionary epistemology mechanisms): (1) organisms are knowledge systems, (2) evolution is the process of knowledge acquisition and (3) there are features shared by all forms of the evolutionary knowledge acquisition (Plotkin 1982). Learning enables organisms to intelligently adjust to local environments and calls for further learning and further adjustments—organisms are engaged in an endless process of natural epistemology or biological intelligence (Slijepcevic 2018). Furthermore, the process of learning is not one sided. As organisms learn about their local environments and adjust to them, local environments become their learning partners (Lewontin 1978; Okasha 2005).

Local environments, represented by diverse groups of organisms, learn about adjusting actions of their organismal partners and intelligently adjust to their partners’ adjustments. This is the biosphere-wide cybernetic process that includes all species and all organisms (Bateson 1979). In this process, organisms of the same species communicate with each other through natural languages (Ben-Jacob 1998; Ben-Jacob et al. 2004) and different forms of semiosis (i.e. habits, codes), as they are at work in ecological systems and explored by contemporary biosemiotics (Kull et al. 2008). On the other hand, organisms from different species communicate through the process of cross- 9 | P a g e kingdom communication based on biosemiotics (McFall-Ngai et al. 2013; Jarosz et al. 2014).

MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Free Given that the nature of communicative interactions is cybernetic or informational, biological information becomes an essential ingredient in the process of natural learning. The role of information in natural learning featured prominently in writings of EEM proponents (e.g. Plotkin 1982; Plotkin and Odling-Smee 1982). However, very little can be found in the EEM literature about the actual concept of biological information and how this concept integrates into the process of natural learning. The aim of the present paper is to integrate the original EEM’s understanding of natural learning by Plotkin (1982) and Plotkin and Odling-Smee (1982) with cybernetic, information theory and systems theory views, using bacteria as a model system. I start by presenting the EEM’s take on the concept of information and the role of information in natural learning (Sect. 2).

I then outline the concept of biological information that combines information theory and its more recent derivatives appropriate for biological systems, in particular, “control information” of Corning (2007) (Sect. 3) and information processing by bacteria (Ben-Jacob 1998, 2009; Ben-Jacob et al. 2004) (Sect. 4). In the final part of the paper (Sect. 5), I present a synthetic outlook of information processing and natural learning in biological systems. This chapter discusses measuring of intelligence by Francis Galton, J. McK. Cattell, and Alfred Binet. Charles Spearman abhorred the program that would separate the mind into a loose confederation of independent faculties of learning, memory and attention. Although most intelligence researchers today probably accept that the general factor is to stay, they remain sharply divided on its explanation. These disagreements go well beyond a rejection of Spearman's specific suggestions that g is either mental energy or the eduction of relations and correlates. Spearman saw that he needed to provide a psychological or (better still) a neurobiological explanation of g. The two favorite paradigms for this program of research were inspection time (IT) and choice reaction time (RT). Aided by the new technologies of brain imaging, research on intelligence, working memory, and other so-called executive functions has begun to point to some of the brain structures common to them all.

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