Friday, August 6, 2021

Discuss Sternberg’s Information

Discuss Sternberg’s Information

Critically discuss Sternberg’s Information processing approach

Information processing is the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer. As such, it is a process that describes everything that happens (changes) in the universe, from the falling of a rock (a change in position) to the printing of a text file from a digital computer system. In the latter case, an information processor (the printer) is changing the form of presentation of that text file (from bytes to glyphs).The computers up to this period function on the basis of programmes saved in the memory, they have no intelligence of their own. Sternberg's theory of intelligence is made up of three different components: creative, analytical, and practical abilities (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012). Creativeness is the ability to have new original ideas, and being analytical can help a person decide whether the idea is a good one or not.

MPC 001 Solved Assignment-2021-22 Free "Practical abilities are used to implement the ideas and persuade others of their value" (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012 p. 21). In the middle of Sternberg's theory is cognition and with that is information processing. In Sternberg's theory, he says that information processing is made up of three different parts, metacomponents, performance components, and knowledge-acquisition components (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012). These processes move from higher-order executive functions to lower-order functions. Metacomponents are used for planning and evaluating problems, while performance components follow the orders of the metacomponents, and the knowledge-acquisition component learns how to solve the problems (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012). This theory in action can be explained by working on an art project. First is a decision about what to draw, then a plan and a sketch. During this process there is simultaneous monitoring of the process, and whether it is producing the desired accomplishment. All these steps fall under the metacomponent processing, and the performance component is the art. The knowledge-acquisition portion is the learning or improving drawing skills.

Information processing theories of intelligence offer a potentially rich yet generally unexplored theoretical forum for conceptualizing and investigating learning disabilities. The purpose of this article is to advance our understanding of the nature of specific learning disabilities by using Sternberg's (1985) triarchic theory of human intelligence as a framework for expanding the componential-deficit approach. Specifically, deficient cognitive strategies and inadequate knowledge in certain domains may result from learning disabled individuals' inability to (a) selectively encode, compare, and combine information, or (b) automatize information processing. In addition, this article emphasizes the importance of the experiential, contextual, and motivational history of the learning disabled individual in understanding his or her componential deficits.

MPC 001 Solved Assignment-2021-22 Free Robert Sternberg is an American psychologist and professor who is best known for his theory on intelligence and creativity. Learn about Sternberg's views on intelligence, information processing, the basic mental processes, and more. In cognitive psychology, information processing is an approach to the goal of understanding human thinking. Information processing may more specifically be defined in terms used by Claude E. Shannon as the conversion of latent information into manifest information (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2011). Latent and manifest information is defined through the terms of equivocation (remaining uncertainty, what value the sender has actually chosen), dissipation (uncertainty of the sender what the receiver has actually received), and transformation (saved effort of questioning - equivocation minus dissipation) (Denning and Bell, 2012).

Within the field of cognitive psychology, information processing is an approach to the goal of understanding human thinking in relation to how they process the same kind of information as computers (Shannon & Weaver, 1963). It arose in the 1940s and 1950s, after World War II (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012). The essence of the approach is to see cognition as being in essence computational in nature, with mind being the software and the brain being the hardware. The information processing approach in psychology is closely allied to the Computational theory of mind in philosophy; it is also related, though not identical, to cognitivism in psychology and functionalism in philosophy (Horst, 2011).

MPC 001 Solved Assignment-2021-22 Free Information processing can be sequential or parallel, which can both be either centralized or decentralized (distributed). The parallel distributed processing in mid-1980s became popular under the name connectionism. In early 1950s Friedrich Hayek was ahead of his time when he posited the idea of spontaneous order in the brain arising out of decentralized networks of simple units (neurons). However, Hayek is rarely cited in the literature of connectionism. The connectionist network is made up different nodes, and it works by a "priming effect," and this happens when a "prime node activates a connected node" (Sternberg & Sternberg, 2012). But "unlike in semantic networks, it is not a single node that has a specific meaning, but rather the knowledge is represented in a combination of differently activated nodes"(Goldstein, as cited in Sternberg, 2012). Intelligence is one of the most complex, talked about concepts within the field of psychology. In the past century, several theories about what constitutes intelligence have been created. Robert Sternberg, an American psychologist, created one of the most wellknown theories of intelligence. Unlike most theories of intelligence, Sternberg's theory calls for the integration of intelligence and creativity.

MPC 001 Solved Assignment-2021-22 Free According to Robert Sternberg's theory, there are three basic mental processes that underlie all intelligent behavior. The three basic mental processes are: Metacomponents Performance components Knowledge-acquisition components Although what is viewed as intelligent in one culture might not be viewed as intelligent in another, the basic mental processes are the same across different cultures. Metacomponents are the executive processes that we use to solve problems, plan what to do, make decisions, and evaluate outcomes. Performance components carry out the directions of the metacomponents. It is performance components that allow us to store information in short-term memory, compare two concepts, compare solutions to the task, etc. Knowledge-acquisition components are what we use to learn and store new information. In other words, metacomponents tell us what to do, performance components actually do it, and knowledge-acquisition components make sure we learn things along the way. For example, you may plan to read a book - that involves metacomponents. When you grab a book off the shelf and actually read it,that involves performance components. If you learn new vocabulary words while reading, that involves knowledge-acquisition components.

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1 comment:

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