Friday, August 21, 2020

The factors contributing to the making of India's foreign policy

 The factors contributing to the making of India's foreign policy

What is Foreign Policy?

The factors contributing to the making of India's foreign policy. Foreign Policy are often defined as a group of principles, decisions and means, adopted and followed by a nation for securing her goals of national interest in diplomacy . policy defines the goals of national interest then tries to secure these through the exercise of national power.


Definitions of Foreign Policy:

1. “Foreign Policy is that the system of activities evolved by communities for changing the behaviour of other states and for adjusting their own activities to the international environment.” —George Modelski

2. “Foreign Policy is that the substance of nation’s efforts to market its interest’s vis-a­-vis other nations.” —Normal Hill

3. “Foreign Policy is that the key element within the process by which a state translates its broadly conceived goals and interests into concrete courses of action and to achieve these objectives and preserve its interests.” —Padelford and Loncoln

4. “Foreign Policy may be a thought out course of action for achieving objectives in foreign relations as dictated by the ideology of national interest.” —Dr. Mohinder Kumar


The policy of every Nation Contains:

1. a group of principles, policies and decisions adopted and followed by the state in diplomacy .

2. Objectives, goals or aims of national interest which are to be secured.

3. Means to be used for achieving the goals of national interest.

4. Broad policy principles and decisions for conducting diplomacy .

5. Assessment of the gains and failures of the state in respect of its goals of national interest.


6. Policies, decisions and action-programmes for maintaining continuity or change or both in diplomacy .


The factors contributing to the making of India's foreign policy. “A student of policy analyses the actions of a state towards external environment (i.e., other states) and therefore the conditions, usually domestic, under which those actions are formulated.” —Holstei

“The study of policy includes both the study of national objectives to be achieved and therefore the means used for securing these.” —Ceeil V. Crabb

In simple words, it are often observed that policy may be a set of principles and decisions, an idea of action and an idea out course of action adopted and employed by a nation for conducting relations with other nations and every one international actors with a view to secure the well-liked and defined goals of her national interest.


Elements of Foreign Policy:

The factors contributing to the making of India's foreign policy The policy of a nation is formulated and implemented by its policy makers. In doing in order that they take under consideration the state al interest of the nation, the interior and external environment, the national values, the policy goals and decisions of other nations and therefore the nature of international hierarchy . These constitute the factors/elements of policy .


1. Size of State Territory:

The factors contributing to the making of India's foreign policy, The size of a state is a crucial factor of its policy . Size influences the psychological and operational environment within which the foreign policy-makers and public respond. It includes, as Rosenau says, both human and non-human resources. Nations with large human and non-human resources always attempt to be big powers and that they have better chances of becoming big powers in diplomacy .

Foreign Policy of an enormous sized state is sure to vary from the policy of a small-sized state. Public and foreign policy-makers of massive sized states are definitely governed by their desire to be big powers within the World. Size has been an element within the foreign policies of the U.S.A., Russia, China, India, Brazil, France et al. . The factors contributing to the making of India's foreign policy, Large sized states, with few exceptions, always formulate and use a lively policy and thru it these play a lively role in diplomacy .


However, size alone isn't an independent determinant of policy . Resources and capabilities of the state aren't always dependent upon size. The countries of the center East, even with small sizes but with the most important quantity of oil resources, are playing quite active role in diplomacy . Japan is comparatively alittle sized state and yet its role in diplomacy has been active and influential.


Israel, despite being alittle sized state has been influencing the course of politics among nations. Before 1945, Britain, with alittle size, could play the role of a major power . Large size poses the matter of defence, security and maintenance of communications. within the absence of natural boundaries, the massive size of a nation fairly often creates the matter of relations with neighbouring states. Despite being the massive sized states, Australian and Canadian foreign policies haven't been very active. Russia may be a large sized state but its role in contemporary diplomacy continues to be weak.


2. Geographical Factor:

Geography of a state is comparatively the foremost permanent and proconvertin of its policy . The topography of land, its fertility, climate and site are the main geographic factors which influence the policy of a nation. These factors determine both the requirements also because the capability to satisfy the requirements of the people of a nation.


Suitable geographical factors can help and encourage the state to adopt and pursue higher goals. The role played by English Channel within the development of england as a serious naval power and consequently as an imperial power is documented . The influence of the Atlantic on the US policy has been always there. Indian policy now definitely bears the influence of the geographical location of India because the largest littoral state of the Indian Ocean The factors contributing to the making of India's foreign policy .


The relatively unhelpful geographical conditions of Canada are an element within the determination of its policy . The territorial expanse makes it difficult for other nations to consider securing an outright military victory over Russia. the situation of Pakistan too has influenced its relations with India, China and therefore the Central Asian republics. The geographical distance from Pakistan has been an element within the policy of Bangladesh.


The natural resources and therefore the food production capacity of a nation is directly linked with its geography. These factors also are important factors within the formulation and implementation of policy . Adequate existence of important natural resources—minerals, food and energy resources—have been helping factors of the US and Russian foreign policies.


Food shortage was a source of limitation on Indian policy within the 1950s & 1960s. commodity shortage are hitting hard the policy and relations of Russia. Large quantities of oil have made it possible for the West Asian and Gulf nations to adopt oil diplomacy as a way of their foreign policies.


Geography, intrinsically is a crucial and permanent factor of policy , yet it's not a deterministic factor. The revolutionary developments in communications and modern warfare, and therefore the ability of countries to beat geographical hindrances have attended reduce the importance of geography.


3. Level and Nature of Economic Development:

The factors contributing to the making of India's foreign policy, One of the most reasons why the US policy has been fairly often successful in securing its national objectives, particularly in reference to the poor and economically lowly placed states of the planet is that the high degree of its economic development. The developed countries of our times are highly industrialized and economically developed states. These can use aid as a tool for securing their policy goals.


The global perspectives and policies of the 2 super-powers (1945-90) were again governed by their vast economic and industrial resources and their needs for foreign markets and trade. In fact, all economically and industrially developed nations (Group of seven plus one, countries in particular) are now playing a more an active role in diplomacy than the lowly developed and developing countries.


The strong commitment of the foreign policies of the lowly developed and developing countries to the explanation for a replacement International Economic. Order is again a symbol of the role of economic factors of diplomacy .


The level of economic development also determines the scope of relations that a nation wishes to determine with other nations. The policy of Japan within the contemporary times is directly and fundamentally associated with its economic development. The military preparedness and military strength of a nation is again directly associated with the factor of economic development and industrialization. The factors contributing to the making of India's foreign policy, Only industrially and economically developed nations can hope to become major and stable military powers.


Economic power constitutes a fundamental dimension of national power in contemporary times and at present; it are often used more effectively for securing policy goals. The US economic power has been a serious instrument of its policy . Economic weakness of Russia has forced it to vary its policy towards the U.S.A. and other countries. Steadily developing India economy has definitely given a lift to India’s foreign relations. Thus, the extent and nature of economic development, industrialization and modernization are important factors of policy .