Sunday, April 12, 2020

Methods of Teaching Notes for UGC NET paper 1


Methods of Teaching

A pedagogics comprises the principles and methods employed by teachers to enable student learning. These strategies are determined partly on material to be taught and partly by the character of the learner. For a specific pedagogics to be appropriate and efficient it's to be in relation with the characteristic of the learner and therefore the sort of learning it's alleged to cause . Suggestions are there to style and selection of teaching methods must take under consideration not only the character of the topic matter but also how students learn. In today's school the trend is that it encourages tons of creativity. it's a known incontrovertible fact that human advancement comes through reasoning. This reasoning and original thought enhances creativity.


The approaches for teaching are often broadly classified into teacher centered and student centered. during a teacher-centered approach to learning, teachers are the most authority during this model. Students are viewed as "empty vessels" whose primary role is to passively receive information (via lectures and direct instruction) with an end goal of testing and assessment. it's the first role of teachers to pass knowledge and knowledge onto their students. during this model, teaching and assessment are viewed as two separate entities. Student learning is measured through objectively scored tests and assessments.


In Student-Centered Approach to Learning, while teachers are authority during this model, teachers and students play an equally active role within the learning process. The teacher's primary role is to teach and facilitate student learning and overall comprehension of fabric . Student learning is measured through both formal and informal sorts of assessment, including group projects, student portfolios, and sophistication participation. Teaching and assessments are connected; student learning is continuously measured during teacher instruction. Commonly used teaching methods may include class participation, demonstration, recitation, memorization, or combinations of those .


A) Instructor/Teacher Centred Methods
Here the teacher casts himself/herself within the role of being a master of the topic matter. The teacher is looked upon by the learners as an expert or an authority. Learners on the opposite hand are presumed to be passive and copious recipients of data from the teacher. samples of such methods are expository or lecture methods - which require little or no involvement of learners within the teaching process. it's also for this lack of involvement of the learners in what they're taught, that such methods are called “closed-ended”.


methods of teaching notes, ugc net paper 1


(b) LEARNER-CENTRED METHODS
In learner-centred methods, the teacher/instructor is both an educator and a learner at an equivalent time. within the words of Lawrence Stenhouse, the teacher plays a dual role as a learner also “so that in his classroom extends instead of constricts his intellectual horizons”. The teacher also learns new things everyday which he/she didn’t know within the process of teaching. The teacher, “becomes a resource instead of an authority”. samples of learner-centred methods are discussion method, discovery or inquiry based approach and therefore the Hill’s model of learning through discussion (LTD).



(c) CONTENT-FOCUSED METHODS
In this category of methods, both the teacher and therefore the learners need to fit into the content that's taught. Generally, this suggests the knowledge and skills to be taught are considered sacrosanct or vital . tons of emphasis is laid on the clarity and careful analyses of content. Both the teacher and therefore the learners cannot alter or become critical of anything to try to to with the content. An example of a way which subordinates the interests of the teacher and learners to the content is that the programmed learning approach.

(d) INTERACTIVE/PARTICIPATIVE METHODS
This fourth category borrows a touch from the three other methods without necessarily laying emphasis unduly on either the learner, content or teacher. These methods are driven by things al analysis of what's the foremost appropriate thing for us to learn/do now given the situation of learners and therefore the teacher. They require a participatory understanding of various domains and factors.



Evolution of teaching methods

Ancient education
About 3000 BC, with the arrival of writing, education became more conscious or self-reflecting, with specialized occupations like scribe and astronomer requiring particular skills and knowledge. Philosophy in ancient Greece led to questions of educational method entering national discourse.
In his literary composition The Republic, Plato described a system of instruction that he felt would cause a perfect state. In his dialogues, Plato described the Socratic method , a sort of inquiry and debate intended to stimulate critical thinking and illuminate ideas.
It has been the intent of the many educators since, like the Roman educator Quintilian, to seek out specific, interesting ways to encourage students to use their intelligence and to assist them to find out .



Medieval education
Comenius, in Bohemia, wanted all children to find out . In his the planet in Pictures, he created an illustrated textbook of things children would be conversant in in lifestyle and used it to show children. Rabelais described how the scholar Gargantua learned about the planet , and what's in it.
Much later, Rousseau in his Emile, presented methodology to show children the weather of science and other subjects. During Napoleonic warfare, the teaching methodology of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi of Switzerland enabled refugee children, of a category believed to be unteachable, to learn. He described this in his account of an academic experiment at Stanz.



19th century
The Prussian education system was a system of mandatory education dating to the first 19th century. Parts of the Prussian education system have served as models for the education systems during a number of other countries, including Japan and therefore the us . The Prussian model required classroom management skills to be incorporated into the teaching process.

20th century
Newer teaching methods may incorporate television, radio, internet, multi media, and other modern devices. Some educators believe that the utilization of technology, while facilitating learning to a point , isn't a substitute for educational methods that encourage critical thinking and a desire to find out . Inquiry learning is another modern pedagogics . a well-liked pedagogics that's getting used by a huge majority of teachers is hands on activities. Hands-on activities are activities that need movement, talking, and listening, it activates multiple areas of the brain. "The more parts of your brain you employ , the more likely you're to retain information," says Judy Dodge, author of 25 Quick Formative Assessments for a Differentiated Classroom (Scholastic, 2009)


Factors Affecting Teaching

Research Aptitude

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