Thursday, July 1, 2021

MPA 016 DECENTRALISATION AND LOCAL GOVERNANCE Solved Assignment 2021-22

 

MPA 016 DECENTRALISATION AND LOCAL GOVERNANCE Solved Assignment 2021-22

MPA 016 DECENTRALISATION AND LOCAL GOVERNANCE Solved Assignment 2021-22: All IGNOU Assignment Free of Cost available at our website. IGNOU University always being in picture due to its IGNOU Assignment Date Extended. In this post Student will Get MPA 016 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Easily.

MPA 016 DECENTRALISATION AND LOCAL GOVERNANCE Solved Assignment 2021-22


MPA 016 DECENTRALISATION AND LOCAL GOVERNANCE   Solved Assignment 2021-22, MPA 016 Solved Assignment 2021-22, MPA 016 Assignment 2021-22, MPA 016 Assignment, IGNOU Assignments 2021-22- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for Programme for the year 2021-22. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself. They don’t got to go anywhere else when everything regarding the Assignments are available during this article only.

MPS 003 INDIA: DEMOCRACY AND DEVELOPMENT Solved Assignment 2021-22

 

MPS 003 INDIA: DEMOCRACY AND DEVELOPMENT Solved Assignment 2021-22

MPS 003 INDIA: DEMOCRACY AND DEVELOPMENT Solved Assignment 2021-22: All IGNOU Assignment Free of Cost available at our website. IGNOU University always being in picture due to its IGNOU Assignment Date Extended. In this post Student will Get MPS 003 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Easily.

MPS 003 INDIA: DEMOCRACY AND DEVELOPMENT Solved Assignment 2021-22


MPS 003 INDIA: DEMOCRACY AND DEVELOPMENT   Solved Assignment 2021-22, MPS 003 Solved Assignment 2021-22, MPS 003 Assignment 2021-22, MPS 003 Assignment, IGNOU Assignments 2021-22- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for Programme for the year 2021-22. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself. They don’t got to go anywhere else when everything regarding the Assignments are available during this article only.

MSOE 004 Urban Sociology Solved Assignment 2021-22

 

MSOE 004 Urban Sociology Solved Assignment 2021-22

MSOE 004 Urban Sociology Solved Assignment 2021-22: All IGNOU Assignment Free of Cost available at our website. IGNOU University always being in picture due to its IGNOU Assignment Date Extended. In this post Student will Get MSOE 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Easily.

MSOE 004 Urban Sociology Solved Assignment 2021-22


MSOE 004 Urban Sociology   Solved Assignment 2021-22, MSOE 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22, MSOE 004 Assignment 2021-22, MSOE 004 Assignment, IGNOU Assignments 2021-22- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for Programme for the year 2021-22. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself. They don’t got to go anywhere else when everything regarding the Assignments are available during this article only.

MSOE 003 Sociology of Religion Solved Assignment 2021-22

 

MSOE 003 Sociology of Religion Solved Assignment 2021-22

MSOE 003 Sociology of Religion Solved Assignment 2021-22: All IGNOU Assignment Free of Cost available at our website. IGNOU University always being in picture due to its IGNOU Assignment Date Extended. In this post Student will Get MSOE 003 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Easily.

MSOE 003 Sociology of Religion Solved Assignment 2021-22


MSOE 003 Sociology of Religion   Solved Assignment 2021-22, MSOE 003 Solved Assignment 2021-22, MSOE 003 Assignment 2021-22, MSOE 003 Assignment, IGNOU Assignments 2021-22- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for Programme for the year 2021-22. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself. They don’t got to go anywhere else when everything regarding the Assignments are available during this article only.

MSOE 002 Diaspora and Transnational Communities Solved Assignment 2021-22

MSOE 002 Diaspora and Transnational Communities Solved Assignment 2021-22

MSOE 002 Diaspora and Transnational Communities Solved Assignment 2021-22: All IGNOU Assignment Free of Cost available at our website. IGNOU University always being in picture due to its IGNOU Assignment Date Extended. In this post Student will Get MSOE 002 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Easily.

MSOE 002 Diaspora and Transnational Communities Solved Assignment 2021-22


MSOE 002 Diaspora and Transnational Communities   Solved Assignment 2021-22, MSOE 002 Solved Assignment 2021-22, MSOE 002 Assignment 2021-22, MSOE 002 Assignment, IGNOU Assignments 2021-22- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for Programme for the year 2021-22. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself. They don’t got to go anywhere else when everything regarding the Assignments are available during this article only.

MSOE 001 Sociology of Education Solved Assignment 2021-22

 

MSOE 001 Sociology of Education Solved Assignment 2021-22

MSOE 001 Sociology of Education Solved Assignment 2021-22: All IGNOU Assignment Free of Cost available at our website. IGNOU University always being in picture due to its IGNOU Assignment Date Extended. In this post Student will Get MSOE 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Easily.

MSOE 004 Sociology of Education Solved Assignment 2021-22


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MSO 004 Sociology in India Solved Assignment 2021-22

 

MSO 004 Sociology in India Solved Assignment 2021-22

MSO 004 Sociology in India Solved Assignment 2021-22: All IGNOU Assignment Free of Cost available at our website. IGNOU University always being in picture due to its IGNOU Assignment Date Extended. In this post Student will Get MSO 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Easily.

MSO 004 Sociology in India Solved Assignment 2021-22


MSO 004 Sociology in India   Solved Assignment 2021-22, MSO 004 Solved Assignment 2021-22, MSO 004 Assignment 2021-22, MSO 004 Assignment, IGNOU Assignments 2021-22- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for Programme for the year 2021-22. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself. They don’t got to go anywhere else when everything regarding the Assignments are available during this article only.

MSO 003 Sociology of Development Solved Assignment 2021-22

 

MSO 003 Sociology of Development Solved Assignment 2021-22

MSO 003 Sociology of Development Solved Assignment 2021-22: All IGNOU Assignment Free of Cost available at our website. IGNOU University always being in picture due to its IGNOU Assignment Date Extended. In this post Student will Get MSO 003 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Easily.

MSO 003 Sociology of Development Solved Assignment 2021-22


MSO 003 Sociology of Development   Solved Assignment 2021-22, MSO 003 Solved Assignment 2021-22, MSO 003 Assignment 2021-22, MSO 003 Assignment, IGNOU Assignments 2021-22- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for Programme for the year 2021-22. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself. They don’t got to go anywhere else when everything regarding the Assignments are available during this article only.

MSO 002 Research Methodologies and Methods Solved Assignment 2021-22

 

MSO 002 Research Methodologies and Methods Solved Assignment 2021-22

MSO 002 Research Methodologies and Methods Solved Assignment 2021-22: All IGNOU Assignment Free of Cost available at our website. IGNOU University always being in picture due to its IGNOU Assignment Date Extended. In this post Student will Get MSO 002 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Easily.

MSO 002 Research Methodologies and Methods Solved Assignment 2021-22


MSO 002 Research Methodologies and Methods   Solved Assignment 2021-22, MSO 002 Solved Assignment 2021-22, MSO 002 Assignment 2021-22, MSO 002 Assignment, IGNOU Assignments 2021-22- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of the present session for Programme for the year 2021-22. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself. They don’t got to go anywhere else when everything regarding the Assignments are available during this article only.

MSO 001 Sociological Theories and Concepts Solved Assignment 2021-22

 

MSO 001 Sociological Theories and Concepts Solved Assignment 2021-22

MSO 001 Sociological Theories and Concepts Solved Assignment 2021-22: All IGNOU Assignment Free of Cost available at our website. IGNOU University always being in picture due to its IGNOU Assignment Date Extended. In this post Student will Get MSO 001 Solved Assignment 2021-22 Easily.

MSO 001 Sociological Theories and Concepts Solved Assignment 2021-22


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Tuesday, May 18, 2021

The cohesive and conflict dimensions of religion in India

The cohesive and conflict dimensions of religion in India

 The cohesive and conflict dimensions of religion in India

India is characterized by more ethnic and religious groups than most other countries of the world. Aside from the much noted 2000-odd castes, there are eight "major" religions, 15-odd languages spoken in various dialects in 22 states and nine union territories, and a substantial number of tribes and sects. Three ethnic or religious conflicts have stood out of late: two occurred in the states of "Assam and Punjab; another, the more widely known Hindu-Muslim conflict, continues to persist. The Assam problem is primarily ethnic, the Punjab problem is based on both religious and regional conflicts, while the HinduMuslim problem is predominantly religious.

ETHNIC CONFLICT IN ASSAM 

The three conflicts mentioned, Assam has attracted the largest attention of late. Not since the 1947 partition of India have so many people been killed and uprooted as a result of ethnic or communal violence. By most available reports now, mob violence has claimed four thousand lives, rendered about 200,000 homeless, and forced a large number to leave the state for protection elsewhere. The immediate occasion of this bloodshed was the election held in February, though conflict and tension have been present for the last three years. In Assam, three culturally disparate groups have been in collision: the Assamese, the Bengalis (both of which have segments of Hindus and Muslims) and the tribals, which are localized communities.

Historical Pattern of Migration 

Assam has had the highest rate of population growth in India since the beginning of this century. Migration into the state accounts for a substantial part of this growth. Most migrants came from Bengal, including what is now Bangladesh (known as East Bengal before the 1947 partition and East Pakistan from 1947-71). Bengali migrants were both Hindus and Muslims. Bengali Hindus started arriving after the British created tea plantations in the middle of the nineteenth century. Because of their educational advantage over Assamese, they were better suited to man the growing administrative and professional machinery.

Bengali Muslims on the other hand, were mainly peasants. They originated predominantly in East Bengal, a highly populated area with low agricultural productivity and a fragmented landholding pattern incapable of supporting large families. In contrast, Assam was less populated, many areas were unsettled, and there was less pressure on the land. Bengali peasants made large tracts of waste, flooded and forested land habitable and productive along the southern bank of the Brahmaputra River, an area that is also populated by indigenous tribal groups, especially the Lalung.

Overall Bengali dominance began to manifested itself in various ways. They held urban professions, their language was more developed and widely used in Assam, and their educational and even numerical superiority became more than evident. With the halting spread of education in the twentieth century, the Assamese middle class slowly emerged, and with the growth of the Assamese middle class, the seeds of what has been called "little nationalism" were sown in Assam.

Post-Independence Developments

After the partition of 1947 and the transfer of a very large Bengali Muslim district of Sylhet to East Pakistan, the Assamese middle class came to power for the first time in about a century. Through expanded educational programs and the use of Assamese as a language in the university, this newly acquired power, electorally buttressed, was used to consolidate the position of the Assamese middle class against Bengali dominance in administrative services and professions. On the other hand, the various tribes on the lower ranges were less developed than both of these contending communities. Depending on the preponderance of one or the other in their local context, they felt pressured, even exploited, culturally, economically and politically by both groups. 

Despite the existence of an international border, the migration from East Pakistan continued alongside migration from West Bengal. There is considerable dispute over the actual magnitude, but the most comprehensive estimate shows that between 1961 and 1971 the proportion of Assamese declined for the first time and that of Bengali speakers increased; between 1971 and 1981 itself, as many as 1.2 million migrants were added to a population of 14.6 million in 1971. Moreover, the number of registered voters increased dramatically from 6.5 million in 1972 to 8.7 million in 1979, a rise which cannot be totally attributed to the coming of voting age to the previously ineligible. This last discovery of the Election Commission was, in fact, the starting point of the present phase of the organized student movement supported by large sections of the Assamese middle class. The movement has wide-ranging demands including development of Assam and greater share of benefits from its rich national resources, including oil, for the Assamese. 

Why the issue of deportation of "illegal aliens" has come to be the focus of the movement needs some explanation. Despite the general anti-Bengali sentiment, the expulsion of migrants that came from West Bengal -these migrants are predominantly Hindus - could not be brought about legally or politically. Interstate movement and residence are perfectly legal in India, and the Assamese economy and society, despite the antagonism, is inextricably linked with West Bengal. On the other hand, the "post-1947 place of origin" of migrants from Bangladesh, largely Muslim, makes them "aliens" and their migration, for political purposes, can be called "illegal." The students thus found a ground for demanding their expulsion. Additionally, these Muslim migrants provided unstinted support to the Congress Party, now represented by Mrs. Gandhi, and the party in turn patronized them, so much so that local politicians of the Congress Party seem to have put aliens on the electoral rolls irrespective of whether or not they had Indian citizenship.

The debate between Verrier Elwin and G.S. Ghurye regarding tribes in India

The debate between Verrier Elwin and G.S. Ghurye regarding tribes in India

 The debate between Verrier Elwin and G.S. Ghurye regarding tribes in India

The Framing of the Tribal Question: Elwin and Ghurye 

The autonomy and independence of tribal people in India is circumscribed by the legal regime laid out in the fifth and the sixth schedules of the Constitution of India. Their population is distributed over all states, except Chandigarh, Delhi, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Laccadive, and Pondichery. A large percentage inhabits a large contiguous geographical belt that divides India into the Northern and Southern parts. This belt extends from the North East Frontier region into the Santal Parganas and the Chotanagpur plateau in West Bengal and Bihar into Orissa and Andhra Pradesh in the Southeast into Madhya Pradesh in Central India up to Rajasthan, Gujarat and Maharashtra in Western India. Outside this belt there are pockets inhabited by tribal people in North and South India. 

The tribal population is socially, culturally, economically and politically differentiated on account of the different histories of interaction between them and the non-tribal people. There are only a few places where tribal people dwell in deep-forest, and continue to practice shifting cultivation for instance, in Abujhmarh in Bastar (Madhya Pradesh) and in Koraput and Phulbani (in Orissa). A majority of them however, live on wastelands, in settled agriculture regions, in towns and cities. Their mode of earning livelihood varies from teaching in schools and colleges to white collar jobs to running small shops to industrial entrepreneurs. Economically, a large number are poor because either they are landless labour or they are cultivators with small unproductive land holdings. Some are rich and some belong to the middle class. The tribal workforce is distributed over the following categories: cultivators, agricultural workers, livestock, forestry workers, mining and quarry workers, construction workers, workers in the trade and commerce sector, workers in the transport, storage and communications sector, and workers in other services (this includes white collar jobs, schoolteachers, etc.).

Nationalist freedom struggle and tribals

The nationalist freedom struggle was not rooted in the tribal and peasant movements. The Indian National Congress questioned neither the repressive legislation nor the cultural policy. It could not draw upon the heritage of these movements because it had internalised this cultural policy: it did not reject the way tribals were being thought of and talked about, as backward and primitive people. Nor was any question asked as to whether regulative state control was absolutely necessary. Congress justified protection and criticised exclusion. This, it was observed, later prepared the way for development programmes. It was expected that these would enable the tribal people to absorb the normative order of industrial modernisation. Tribal protest was considered an indication of their inability to adjust, adapt and change. Those who argued for their assimilation subscribed to the norms of mainstream development under the British regime. They were unaware of the contribution the tribal forest dwellers could make to the struggle for freedom and independence. Questions concerning their knowledge and  its relation to their way of life were ignored even though they were highlighted by tribal protests. 

Constituent Assembly Debates and Tribal people 

The Constituent Assembly debates too did not question the validity of both ‘excluded’ and ‘partially excluded areas’, or the view that tribals were backward. Nor did they draw upon the traditions of tribal and peasant movements to find out their mode of participation in the making of Independent India. They sought to deal with a problem that arises from a situation where cultural pluralism and politico-economic inequality are copresent and co-exist, namely, of social justice in an iniquitous social structure without re-examining the secularist policy of non-interference on questions of social and cultural differences. Article 16(4) and Article 335 were formulated to deal with this problem (this will be discussed later). The debates on this and other related issues were within the theoretical framework of the liberal political tradition of governance left behind by the British.

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The major features of descent and alliance approach to study kinship in India

The major features of descent and alliance approach to study kinship in India

 The major features of descent and alliance approach to study kinship in India

Alliance Theory

Features of descent and alliance approach to study kinship in India His work was motivated by the question of how arbitrary social categories (such as those within kinship, race, or class) had originated. He was also concerned with explaining their apparent compulsory quality, or presence within the “natural order,” in societies. In The Elementary Structures of Kinship (1949), Lévi-Strauss turned to kinship to try to answer these questions. His model became known as the alliance theory of kinship. Most anthropologists viewed incest taboos as negative prohibitions that had a biological basis (to prevent the inheritance of negative genetic traits) or reflected a particular nexus of cultural rules about marriage. In contrast, Lévi-Strauss saw incest taboos as positive injunctions to marry outside the group. These “positive marriage rules,” which state that a spouse must be from a certain social category, were the titular “elementary structures” in The Elementary Structures of Kinship.

KINSHIP SYSTEM

i) Kinship Groups: Kin relationships provide both a method of passing on status and property from one generation to the next effective social groups for purposes of cooperation and conflict. So we need to identify the form of descent or of tracing one’s relationships. In other words, we speak of the social groups within which relatives cooperate and conflict. That is why, we need to describe kinship groups. 

ii) Kinship Terminology: The list of terms used by the people to refer to their kin relationships expresses the nature of kinship system. This is why by describing kinship terminology, we are able to throw light on the kinship system. Most features of the kinship system of any society are usually reflected in the way kinship terms are used in that society. Generally a person would apply the same term to those relatives who belong to the same category of kin relationships. In this case, these relatives would also occupy similar kinship roles. In describing a kinship terminology, it is usual to denote the speaker by the name of ego. The word ego means I in Latin and refers to the first person singular pronoun. The speaker or ego can be either the male or the female. Secondly kinship terms can be divided into two types. One covers the terms of address. This means that certain kinship terms are used when people address each other. Then there are those terms, which are used for referring to particular relationship. These are known as terms of reference. Sometimes, the two types may be expressed by one term only. Thirdly, you would also like to learn how to write long kinship terms in short. For example, if we wish to write mother’s brother’s daughter, we may do so by writing mbd. Take another example, father’s sister’s daughter’s son can be described as fzds. Here, ‘z’ stands for sister and ‘s’ for son. In the same way you can write in short ffbd for father’s father’s brother’s daughter. This method of writing kinship terms is useful when one is describing various sets of kinship terms. 

iii) Marriage Rules: Just as kinship groups describe the form of kinship system found in a society, so also rules for marriage, categories of people who may/ may not marry each other, relationships between bride-takers and bridegivers provide the context within which kin relationships operate. Talking about these issues gives us an understanding of the content of kin relationships. It is therefore necessary to speak of marriage rules for understanding any kinship system. 

iv) Exchange of Gifts: Sociologists like to describe social relationships between various categories of relatives. As there are always two terms to any relationship, kinship behaviour is described in terms of pairs. For example, the parent-child relationship would describe kinship behaviour between two generations. In the two units on kinship system in North and South India, we are not dealing with any particular social group. We cannot therefore describe kinship behaviour. Instead we consider the chain of gift giving and taking among the relatives for understanding the behavioural aspects of kinship system. This discussion gives us an idea of how kinship groups interact and kinship roles are played by particular kin persons.

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The significance of village studies in India during the 1950s

The significance of village studies in India during the 1950s

 The significance of village studies in India during the 1950s

The tradition of village studies in India is as old as the tradition of empirical research in social sciences. Scientific understanding of Indian society began with village studies. Though traditionally study of villages was common to many social science disciplines, the idea of the village as the unit of investigation turned out to be central to sociologists and social anthropologists. In fact, the development of sociology and social anthropology in India has its origin in the village studies. Although village studies started during the colonial period, it continued to dominate the anthropological-sociological studies till the 1960s and beyond. However, village studies in India do not have a uniform tradition in terms of style and temper. 

It has undergone significant changes over the decades in response to national and global concerns. The interest in village studies in India was greatly influenced by both colonialism and planning. Social anthropology and sociology in India originated in response to the realisation on the part of the colonial government that knowledge of Indian social life and culture, which was mainly organised and shaped in the villages, is essential for its smooth administration. The British administrators as well the social scientists were encouraged to study village communities to have first-hand comprehensive information, particularly on the caste system and tribal life, and the associated socio-economic and political organisations. 

As noted by Jodhka (1998), village was recognized as a “natural” entry point to the understanding of the traditional Indian society and for documenting the patterns of its social organization and it emerged as the ultimate signifier of the authentic native life, a place where one could observe the “real” India and develop an understanding of the way local people organized their social relationships and belief systems. Hence, the survey reports of Francis Buchanan, the Gazetteers of Walter Hamilton and Edward Thornton came out in the beginning of the nineteenth century and subsequently routine Imperial as well as District Gazetteers were written which depicted mainly the Indian village life. With the introduction of new land revenue policy, studies were undertaken to understand the village communities and the prevalent land tenure systems, as they were necessitated primarily for determining revenue assessments and demarcating boundaries of revenue villages. 

The publication of the report of Royal Commission on Agriculture 1926 which revealed the miserable conditions of the farm population made the colonial government aware of the need to intervene in the village affairs and drew attention of the leaders of the freedom struggle. Hence, the first wave of village studies emerged with a view to collect detailed and comprehensive information on villages. This prompted economists like Harold Mann and Kanitkar (1921) to investigate into land ownership, cropping pattern, and other agricultural practices, occupational structure and the like which laid sound foundation for village studies and stimulated many scholars and government agencies to undertake studies in other parts of India. Subsequently, many village surveys were also made by several institutions1 and individual scholars2 which motivated further studies on village India. There was growing recognition of the fact that in order to understand the facts of village life independent studies are crucial rather than depending on reports and surveys made by the colonial administrators.

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The social background of the emergence of sociology in India

The social background of the emergence of sociology in India

 The social background of the emergence of sociology in India 

As a discipline of academic interest, it is of recent origin. Though the roots of sociological writings go back to the Greek and the Roman philosophy; it emerged as a new discipline only in the first half of the 19th century, as a response to the crisis caused by the French and the industrial revolutions. Earlier, History, Economics, Political Science, and Philosophy attempted a study of various problems related to society. Later, when man was confronted with complexities of social life, it became necessary to establish a separate discipline for the study of society. The social, economic, political and intellectual background of the 18th century Europe facilitated the emergence of sociology. It emerged in European society corresponding to its socio-historical background which had its origin in the Enlightenment period. This period embodied the scientific, technological, intellectual and commercial revolutions in Europe on the one hand; and the French revolution of 1789 on the other. 

The Enlightenment period stretched from 14th to 18th century and had given rise to force of social change which rocked the feudal monarchy and church in Europe. Similarly, the industrial revolution in England brought about deep rooted changes in the nature of society and role of individual in the society. We find the growth of sociology as a discipline is a product of Western intellectual discourse. However, writings about society can be traced back to the ancient Indian mythological, religious and spiritual texts such as the Veda, Upanishads, Puranas, Smritis, writings of Kautilya and Sukracharya that talk volumes about rites, laws, customs, economy, polity, culture, morality, aesthetics and science. All these writings are replete with insights concerning social order and stability, mobility, human interrelationship and social governance. 

For instance, Kautilya’s Artha Shastra is a monumental treatise on political economy and Shukracharya’s Niti Shastra offers vast wisdom on morality, social customs, ethics, folkways and mores. “Charaksamhita” of 8th century B.C advise the healers to take into account the norms, values and customs of the people who would come to them. Most of the classical accounts of Indian Society can be found in the writings of Meghasthenes, the Greek ambassador to the court of Chandragupta Maurya. Detailed socio-cultural description of Indian society is also found in the works of three Chinese travelers,Fa-hien(400-411 A.D),Yoan Change (624-644 AD) and 1-Tsing (671-695 AD). Similarly, a sort of sociological approach may be marked in the famous Aarab traveler Al-Bironi’s (973-1030) description of the social life and customs of the people. 

Valuable information on socio-cultural conditions and daily life of people of India are available from the narratives of Ibn Batutta (1333-1347). Famous Muslim scholar in Akbar’s court (1556-1605) Abul Fazal is known for his work “Ain-i-Akbari”. It gives a wonderful description of society in all its aspects in Akbar’s time. Abd-al-Rahman Ibn-khaldun (1332-1406) the famous Islam scholar is known for his popular treatise “Muqaddamah” where he describes the rise and fall of states and gives stress on geographical and climatic factors as causes of social change. However the above scholars were not sociologists in the modern sense. But they were keen observers of social life and society and thereby providing valuable material for sociology. 

During British period, the rapid acquisition of knowledge of Indian Society and the intensification of missionary activities began to develop from 1760 onward. Missionaries and British officials made earnest effort to study the social life and culture of people of India. Dr. François Buchanan conducted an ethnographic survey of Bengal in 1807 which is still considered as a brilliant work of sociological importance. In 1816, Abbey Dubois, a French Missionary in Mysore wrote a book entitled “Hindu Manners, Customs and Ceremonies” which is regarded as a valuable sociological document. Famous social reformer Raja Rammohan Roy’s writings on religion, women and society continue to excite the intellectual discourse for their rich sociological content. Besides, Vivekananda Dadabhai Naroji, M.G. Ranade and many others also added the much needed intellectual stimulus to the larger discourse of ‘individual and society’ in India. The making of Indian Sociology can be traced back to this intellectual climate and its corresponding socio-cultural milieu.

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Monday, May 17, 2021

The idea of ethno-development

The idea of ethno-development

 The idea of ethno-development

Ethnodevelopment is the means of countering ethnocide by enabling ethnic, minority, and/or exploited groups to revive values of their specific culture with a focus on strengthening their ability to resist exploitation and oppression and especially, their independent decision-making power through more effective control of the political, economic, social, and cultural processes affecting their development. Ethnodevelopment is a policy established in response to ethnocide, where indigenous cultures and ways of life are being lost due to large-scale development and exploitation in certain developing countries around the world. This large-scale development could include urban development in rural communities and exploitation of natural resources including building dams, mines, or clear-cutting forests. Typically self-led ethnodevelopment is favoured, where the indigenous peoples are involved in creating a plan for their future development and organization of communities in a way that follows their tradition beliefs and customs.

Outside intervention on indigenous minorities can have devastating effects. The effects include the growth of the more dominant society and encroachment on the traditional lands and subsequent displacement of peoples from resource rich land to the peripheries; the destruction of normal means of livelihood and interactions with habitat; an increase in trade debts and a decline in self-governance due to new political, legal and educational systems and the deterioration of traditional religious and cultural values.

The most common responses to the effects have been to retreat or assimilate, which can lead to extreme poverty, welfare requirements, social dislocation, alcoholism, and prostitution. Ethnodevelopment is proposed to end the increasing vulnerability of minority groups and produce a degree of economic, social, and political equality. One of the first steps in overcoming these trends is to reverse the notions about dominant Western developmental models and recognize the variability in traditional cultures, practices and values these populations have. The emergence of Neoliberalism in developing countries instigated a reduction of subsidies, and fiscal cutbacks that most indigenous and rural livelihoods were based on. In many Latin American countries with large populations of indigenous peoples such as Ecuador, Bolivia, Mexico, and Guatemala, the elimination of rural development programs in the 1980s and 1990s provided an incentive for indigenous outcry and protestations.

Davis’s vision built on positive qualities of indigenous societies, such as ethnic identity and capacity to mobilize labor, capital, and other resources for shared goals. Davis maintained that development involving indigenous peoples must be built “upon the cultural strengths of the indigenous populations…[and] entail their active participation”. He favored programs that aimed at “enhancing the ability of the indigenous organizations to design their own development strategies and formulate their own development projects”.

a)               From economic growth to human development The growth of colonial economics of development has generated dependencies of colonial countries on their rulers. The colonial rulers are mainly the European countries. It has been experienced that such dependencies has not created any environment of proper industrialisation in the colonial countries, although some development has been taken place in the interest of colonial rulers. In the name of the development the European or colonial countries have destroyed native manufactures as found in case of textile manufacturing in India and sabotage efforts at industrialisation in Egypt, Turkey and Persia.

b)           Sustainable development Sustainable development needs development approach from within the community. Earlier it was felt that technological and capital transfer from other countries would bring development. This has been gradually found ineffective in continuity of development process of society. Groups of scholars believe that to make the development sustainable there should be participatory and community based programme. The development approach should be identified by the local people themselves on the basis of their own needs. The designing and the implementation of the project principles and techniques suited to the local people are developed with the help of local people from whom the development planning is being designed. Since it is the development for the people the development process essentially depends on people’s participation. Development cannot be successfully imposed on a society from outside. The sustainable development put stress on the participatory aspects of the local people on decision making process that affects their lives. The people for whom development programme has been adopted must take part in planning and the execution of every aspects of the programme. 

c)           Culture consideration in development During the colonial period colonised societies have tended to modernise themselves for their own development. They have tried to adopt the attributes of modern societies, i.e., their colonial rulers. Therefore, modernisation and development mean westernisation of colonised societies and culture. The process has established strong trend in social transformation. But this approach and belief have started to decline along with development of colony-free national culture. Culture has gradually become a part of development studies. Along with the World Commission on Culture and Development in 1996 there has been increase of importance of the cultural dimensions and development. Now culture is not considered as an obstacle to the development process, rather as influential factor for development of a society. 

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Contribution of Dependency Theorist to explain unequal economic systems

Contribution of Dependency Theorist to explain unequal economic systems

 Contribution of Dependency Theorist to explain unequal economic systems

Dependency theory is the notion that resources flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former. It is a central contention of dependency theory that poor states are impoverished and rich ones enriched by the way poor states are integrated into the "world system". This theory was officially developed in the late 1960s following World War II, as scholars searched for the root issue in the lack of development in Latin America.

The theory arose as a reaction to modernization theory, an earlier theory of development which held that all societies progress through similar stages of development, that today's underdeveloped areas are thus in a similar situation to that of today's developed areas at some time in the past, and that, therefore, the task of helping the underdeveloped areas out of poverty is to accelerate them along this supposed common path of development, by various means such as investment, technology transfers, and closer integration into the world market. Dependency theory rejected this view, arguing that underdeveloped countries are not merely primitive versions of developed countries, but have unique features and structures of their own; and, importantly, are in the situation of being the weaker members in a world market economy.

Income inequality, in economics, significant disparity in the distribution of income between individuals, groups, populations, social classes, or countries. Income inequality is a major dimension of social stratification and social class. It affects and is affected by many other forms of inequality, such as inequalities of wealth, political power, and social status. Income is a major determinant of quality of life, affecting the health and well-being of individuals and families, and varies by social factors such as sex, age, and race or ethnicity.

On a global level, income inequality is extreme by any measure, with the richest 1 percent of people in the world receiving as much as the bottom 56 percent in the early 21st century. Within the United States, income inequality is much greater than in most other developed countries. In 2014, the richest 1 percent received 22 percent of total income, and the top 10 percent of U.S. households received about 60 percent of total income. 

Kinds Of Income Inequality : One’s occupation is a central basis for differences in income for most people. In more-developed countries such as the United States, wages and salaries are the major source of income for most households, while property, including capital gains, is the major source for the most affluent. Income inequality can be studied within countries, between countries, or across the world’s population without regard to national boundaries.
 

The theory arose as a reaction to modernization theory, an earlier theory of development which held that all societies progress through similar stages of development, that today's underdeveloped areas are thus in a similar situation to that of today's developed areas at some time in the past, and that, therefore, the task of helping the underdeveloped areas out of poverty is to accelerate them along this supposed common path of development, by various means such as investment, technology transfers, and closer integration into the world market. Dependency theory rejected this view, arguing that underdeveloped countries are not merely primitive versions of developed countries, but have unique features and structures of their own; and, importantly, are in the situation of being the weaker members in a world market economy.

Income inequality, in economics, significant disparity in the distribution of income between individuals, groups, populations, social classes, or countries. Income inequality is a major dimension of social stratification and social class. It affects and is affected by many other forms of inequality, such as inequalities of wealth, political power, and social status. Income is a major determinant of quality of life, affecting the health and well-being of individuals and families, and varies by social factors such as sex, age, and race or ethnicity. 

Despite popular belief that income inequality largely reflects individual differences in talent and motivation, there are also significant structural and cultural causes, such as segmented labour markets, discrimination, institutionalized racism and sexism, gender roles, and family responsibilities. Other legal, political, and economic factors—such as corporate power, degree of private versus public (or common) ownership and control of resources, collective-bargaining frameworks, and minimum-wage laws—also affect income levels independently of individual traits. Income inequalities can have different implications for levels of well-being in different countries, depending on whether other basic needs such as housing, health care, and food are largely market-based and on whether people have access to productive resources such as land, water, and technology.

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The relationship between Gender and Development

The relationship between Gender and Development

 The relationship between Gender and Development

Gender is a complex variable that is a part of social, cultural, economic and political contexts. It is also relevant for the work of civil society movements. Gender refers to socially constructed differences between men and women, whereas Sex refers to biological differences between men and women. Being socially constructed, gender differences vary depending on age, marital status, religion, ethnicity, culture, race, class/caste and so on. Sexual differences vary little across these variables.

Development analysts have recognized now for several decades the need to ensure that gender is examined and integrated into development projects.  In integrating gender into development, practitioners are responding to the priority needs of women and men, and being aware of what benefits or adverse effects could impact either.

Why is Gender Relevant for Development?

In taking account of gender, development practitioners and social movement activists are looking at disparities that exist in male and female rights, responsibilities, access to and control over resources, and voice at household, community and national levels. Men and women often have different priorities, constraints and preferences with respect to development and can contribute to, and be affected differently by, development projects and campaigning interventions. To enhance effectiveness, these considerations must be addressed in all program and campaign design and interventions. If such considerations are not addressed thoughtfully and adequately, these interventions can lead not only to inefficient and unsustainable results, but may also exacerbate existing inequities. Understanding gender issues can enable projects to take account of these and build in capacity to deal with inequitable impacts and to ensure sustainability.

When we talk about Gender Equality, we are referring to a combination of legal equality and equal opportunities including opportunities to speak out. More often, this is about making better opportunities in all of these areas for women. 

Women’s rights are protected by many international instruments and laws. The best known is probably the Convention for Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW, 1979) – a UN Treaty  adopted by the General Assembly  in 1979 and signed initially by 64 states in July the following year.  An optional protocol was later developed setting out a mechanism by which states would be held accountable to the treaty. There have been subsequent international declarations and pledges which have been used as bench marks to measure progress in relation to specific women’s issues. These include the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action (1995), and the Millennium Development Goals (2001) which include gender considerations in almost half of the clauses. The MDGs have been mutually reinforcing; progress toward one goal affects progress toward the others. But, the third goal addresses gender equality specifically. The successor Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), due to be adopted in 2015 as part of a broad Sustainable Development Agenda, include achieving ‘gender equality and empower all women and girls’ as the proposed Goal 5.

Historical trends in integrating gender into development

An early approach involved targeting women by project design and interventions which focused on women as a separate group. This was commonly referred to as WID (Women in Development). Critics of this approach pointed out that this did not address men, and a later model usually referred to as GAD (Gender and Development)  concentrated more on project design and interventions that were  focused on a development process that transforms gender relations. This aimed to enable women to participate on an equal basis with men in determining their common future. The Gender Equality approach is therefore about men and women and is thus a more comprehensive approach to analysis and design of development interventions because it takes into account the situation and needs of both men and women. It aims to involve both women and men in addressing their development problems, to reform institutions to establish equal rights and opportunities, and to foster economic development which strengthens equal participation.  Such an approach aims to redress persistent disparities in access to resources and the ability to speak out.

It has also been recognised by specialists and activists in this field that the behaviour of men needs to be addressed in the context of gender work. Unless men challenge themselves as to the ways in which their own behaviour, attitudes and upbringing perpetuates gender inequality, gender injustice and gender violence, nothing will change. For more than two decades now, a growing number of programmes addressing these issues have been developed in various parts of the world and the learning shared and adapted to new contexts.  Among the most well known have been the programmes of Puntos de Encuentro and Cantera in Nicaragua, and its programmes on male behaviour change.  

Another example, Stepping Stones, a small group intervention using participatory learning to help improve sexual health, began in Uganda but was adapted for different countries across sub Saharan Africa including Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania and Zambia, as well as for the Philippines. Its community training package “aims to encourage communities to question and rectify the gender inequalities that contribute to HIV/AIDS, gender based violence and other issues”  and again focussed on behaviour change.

Gender and social movements

Throughout the globe people are organising both to challenge and end gender injustice in all areas of our social, economic, political, and cultural lives. To be successful, however, these struggles need to include and prioritise gender equality within their own organisational structures as well as being part of the analysis and methodology for change. This is a deeply political issue at a variety of levels.  Although social movements are trying to address this, activists still come up against strong resistance to changing gendered politics and practices even within the contexts of movements and allied organisations. Nevertheless, when it comes to making an impact on transforming gender power relations, social movements are crucial.

Integrating gender perspectives into social movements and activism is not just about 'including' women or 'thinking about' men and gender minorities. It means considering what a gendered politics provides in terms of alternative ways of being, seeing and doing that in themselves serve to transform patriarchal power relations. Women's rights and gender justice issues have been approached  in a variety of ways by different social movements, but some common parameters can be outlined which facilitate a supportive environment for gender-just movement building.  For example, affirming the importance of tackling gender inequality and patriarchal power as an integral component of justice and naming this as an explicit priority; engaging positively in internal reflection and action on women's rights and gender justice, providing support for women’s leadership and participation in all aspects of social movements, tackling gender based violence and harassment. Ensuring equal role/rank distribution in organisational structures, making sure participation is equal, taking account of caring for family members, taking account of the fact that women may be targeted in retaliation by those in society who feel threatened by gender justice as a change to traditional roles. 


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The social and human dimension to the notion of development

The social and human dimension to the notion of development

 The social and human dimension to the notion of development

The concepts of development and progress are often used in a positive sense to indicate the processes of advancement of individual or of collective phenomena or of objects or of actions. Human society has made a long journey in this; so is the concept of development. For centuries development was understood as progress, thereafter as growth, as change, as transfer of notion, as modernisation and so on. Very recently it is understood (along with economic) as social and human development as well. Human society has progressed and developed through several stages. Indeed, human society has made a ceaseless journey from the stages of savagery to barbarism, from barbarism to civilisation, from theological to metaphysical, from metaphysical to positive scientific, from simple to doubly compound, from doubly compound to trebly compound, from homogenous to heterogeneous, from under-

developed to developed, from ancient to feudal, from feudal to capitalist, from traditional pre-industrial (mechanic solidarity), to industrial (organic solidarity) from pre– rational /pre-capitalist to rational capitalist, from primitive to intermediate, from intermediate to modern, agrarian to industrial, rural to urban and so on. In social science literature, these advancements have been viewed from diverse perspectives or orientations and have been diversely understood in philosophical, political, economic and social terms. This unit delineates the major perspectives on progress and development. We have initially located these concepts in the evolutionary perspectives as elaborated by the classical social thinkers like Morgan, Comte, Spencer, Hobhouse, Marx, Weber, McClelland, Durkheim and Parsons and go on to explain development in economic and social terms as has been visualised in the contemporary world.

Interpretations of individual development have also had powerful social impacts, especially as we have learned more about human embryology and reproductive biology. For those who hold the strongest versions of the view that each individual organism begins from unformed material, the emphasis on epigenetic emergence of form suggests that investing in "nurture" will pay off. It is worth investing in parenting that requires time and energy because this can shape the developmental process. In contrast, those who accept the view that the organism has some clear defining point at which it begins as an individual, and that its form or individuality is in some important sense already set, see much less value in investing in trying to shape what develops. Development in these cases is largely a matter of playing out the intrinsic causes. The dominant version of this interpretation maintains, of course, that heredity sets the individual's differentiation and that development is really just a matter of growth.

Development pattern of the past few decades have shown the following trends: 

                 The high Gross National Product (GNP) growth of the fast growing developing countries has failed to reduce the socio-economic deprivation of substantial sections of their population. 

                 High income for the industralised countries has not been able to provide protection against the rapid spread of social concerns like drug addiction and alcoholism, AIDS, homelessness, violence and the breakdown of family relations. 

                 Significantly, some low-income countries have demonstrated that it is possible to achieve a high level of human development if they skillfully use the available means to expand basic human capabilities.

Human Development

According to the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), human development is a process of analysing people's choices. In principle, these choices can be infinite and change over time. But at all levels of development, the three essential ones are there for people (a) to lead a long and healthy life, (b) to acquire knowledge and (c) to have access to resources needed for a decent standard of living. If these essential choices are not available many other opportunities remain inaccessible. Human development, however, does not end there. Additional choices, ranging from political, economic and social freedom to opportunities for being creative and productive and enjoying personal self-respect and guaranteed human rights are also inseparable parts of human rights. UNDP depicts two sides of human development (a) the formation of human capabilities – such as improved health, knowledge and access to resources; and (b) the people making use of these capabilities for productive purposes— being active in cultural, social and political affairs. 


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The multiple connotations of the term development

The multiple connotations of the term development

 The multiple connotations of the term development

There are several connotations about development, such as development as growth, development as change or transformation and development as modernisation. In economic terms, development as growth refers to an increased capacity to produce consumption goods and a concomitant increase in consumption patterns.

As growth, development very simply may be defined with respect to an increased ability to fulfill basic human needs of food, clothing, shelter, healthcare and education. In a third sense of growth, development has also been defined in terms of expansion of possibilities, an increase in individual choices, capabilities and functioning. Development in the above senses carries with it connotations of being positive, progressive, and natural beneficial and inevitable.

Development as change and transformation refers to the economic, social, political and cultural processes of change in human societies. Development is also understood as modernisation, though some may disagree about them being one and the same thing. Often modernisation being seen as a means to development. In the economic realm it refers to the processes of industrialisation, urbanisation and technological transformation of agriculture. 

In the political realm, it requires a rationalisation of authority in general and a rationalising bureaucracy in particular. In the social realm it is marked by the weakening of ascriptive ties and the primacy of personal achievement in advancement, and in the cultural realm it is the growth of science and secularisation, along with an expansion of the literate population that makes for what has been referred to as a “disenchantment” of the world. Development in this sense of modernity stands for what is understood as Westernisation, where the west stands as the model for the progress of the rest of the world.

As development has meant industrial growth, profits and resources were diverted to feed industry at times ignoring the basic subsistence need of society. It obviously led to the expansion of the market at the cost of livelihoods for many. While it has generated utilities of consumption and luxury, it has also resulted in higher levels of pollution and erosion of natural resources that threaten mankind’s very existence.

The growth-oriented development was accompanied by an increase in inequalities and social disintegration. There was evidence everywhere to show how development itself either left behind or even create a new large area of poverty and stagnation, making for marginalisation and exclusion of sections of populations from the fruits of social and economic progress.

Gunder Frank who perceived the injustices of the existing developmental processes, coined the phrase development of underdevelopment, for held that the process of development that is underway makes some people and regions developed while others are underdeveloped as a result of this global dynamics of the world system.

Economic growth has manifested itself in terms of an internationalisation of the economies of developing nations a boom in the financial capital at the disposal of nations; and increased mechanisation impacting processes and patterns of production and consumption. It has also meant increased concentration of wealth, wide disparities in distribution of wealth, the withdrawal of the welfare state and an increasing role of the military in the political and economic life of countries. 

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