IGNOU MRW 006 Solved Assignment 2024-25


MRW 006 Solved Assignment 2024-25

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Course Code: MRW 006

Assignment Code: MRW 006 ASST/TMA/2024-25

Marks: 100

NOTE: All questions are compulsory

Note: Attempt all the questions and submit this assignment to the Coordinator of yourstudy centre. Last date of submission for July 2023 session is 31st October, 2023 and for January 2024 session is 30th April 2024.

Q.1 a) Explain in detail the biotic and abiotic degradation of plastic.

Plastic degradation refers to the breakdown of plastic materials into smaller components, which can occur through both biotic (involving living organisms) and abiotic (non-living) processes. These degradation processes play a significant role in the environmental fate of plastics and their potential to persist in ecosystems. Let's delve into the details of each:

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Biotic degradation involves the action of living organisms such as bacteria, fungi, algae, and other microorganisms that possess enzymes capable of breaking down certain types of plastics. However, it's important to note that not all plastics are biodegradable, and even among those that are, the degradation process can be slow and may not result in complete breakdown.

Biodegradable Plastics: Some plastics are designed to be biodegradable, meaning they can be broken down by microorganisms into simpler compounds like water, carbon dioxide, and biomass. These plastics are typically made from natural materials such as corn starch, cellulose, or other plant-based polymers. Microorganisms secrete enzymes that can hydrolyze the polymer chains, breaking them into smaller molecules that can be metabolized.

Microbial Action: Various microorganisms have been found to degrade plastics under suitable environmental conditions. For example, certain bacteria like Pseudomonas and Bacillus species have been reported to degrade plastics like polyethylene and polypropylene. These microorganisms produce enzymes like lipases and proteases, which can break down the polymer chains.

Environmental Factors: Factors such as temperature, moisture, pH, and the presence of oxygen can influence the rate of biotic degradation. Warmer temperatures generally accelerate microbial activity, leading to faster degradation. Adequate moisture and oxygen levels are also important for microbial growth and enzyme activity.

Abiotic degradation involves non-living processes such as photodegradation and thermal degradation, where plastics break down due to exposure to environmental factors like sunlight, heat, and mechanical stress.

Photodegradation: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation from sunlight can cause photochemical reactions in plastics, leading to their degradation. UV radiation breaks the polymer chains, causing the plastic to become brittle and fragment into smaller pieces. This process is particularly relevant for plastics exposed to outdoor environments, such as littered items or marine debris.

Thermal Degradation: Heat can accelerate the breakdown of plastics through thermal degradation. When plastics are subjected to high temperatures, such as those found in industrial processes or natural settings like wildfires, the polymer chains can undergo chemical reactions such as oxidation, chain scission, and cross-linking, leading to degradation.

Mechanical Degradation: Mechanical stress, such as abrasion from wind, waves, or friction with other materials, can physically break down plastics into smaller fragments. This process, often referred to as mechanical weathering, contributes to the fragmentation of plastic debris into microplastics, which can persist in the environment for extended periods.

The degradation of plastics, whether biotic or abiotic, has significant environmental implications. While biodegradation offers the potential for reducing the accumulation of plastic waste in ecosystems, it is often slow and may not occur under all environmental conditions. Moreover, the byproducts of biodegradation can still contribute to pollution if they are not fully assimilated by microorganisms.

Abiotic degradation processes like photodegradation and thermal degradation can fragment plastics into smaller particles, increasing their surface area and potential for environmental contamination. Microplastics, which result from the fragmentation of larger plastic items, pose risks to aquatic and terrestrial organisms through ingestion, bioaccumulation, and the transport of associated pollutants.

In summary, both biotic and abiotic degradation processes play roles in the environmental fate of plastics. Understanding these processes is essential for developing strategies to mitigate plastic pollution and minimize its impacts on ecosystems and human health.

b) Describe the Relationship between Gross National Product (GNP) and Municipal Solid Waste Generation.

Q.2 Highlight elaborately about the location criteria and data collection of landfill. How to estimate landfill cost based on Preliminary Design?

Q.3 Mention principle components of enzyme. Describe the factors affecting enzyme activity.

Q.4 Describe the methods of pyrolysis and combustion & mention the significance of these processes in biomass conversion.

Q.5 a) Describe supercritical fluid extraction?

b) Differentiate between ultrasound assisted and pressure assisted solvent extraction.

Q.6 Define meta genomics. State mathematical model for bacterial growth.

Q.7 Define bio refining. Discuss about the development and use of process models to predict the economic output of the considered bio refinery process.

Q.8 Describe the processes of transformation of Biogas into Renewable Natural Gas.

Q.9 Explain in detail the national hydrogen energy mission.

Q.10 Write short notes on ANY TWO of the following:

a) Butanol

b) Characteristics of fuels utilized in SI engine

c) Production of Ethanol


MRW 006 Handwritten Assignment 2024-25

MRW 006 Solved Assignment 2024-25: We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done - 8130208920

Important Note - You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.

Submission Date :

31st March 2023 (if enrolled in the July 2024-25 Session)

30th Sept, 2023 (if enrolled in the January 2024-25 session).

IGNOU Instructions for the MRW 006 Assignments

MRW 006 Bioenergy Conversion and Utilization Assignment 2024-25 Before ate mpting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.

3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).

4. Use only foolscap size paper for your response and tag all the pages carefully

5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.

6. You should write in your own handwriting.

GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignment MRW 006023-24

MRW 006 Solved Assignment 2024-25 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a STATISTICS IN PSYCHOLOGYal order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.

2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.

3. Presentation: Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

IGNOU Assignment Front Page

The top of the first page of your response sheet should look like this: Get IGNOU Assignment Front page through. And Attach on front page of your assignment. Students need to compulsory attach the front page in at the beginning of their handwritten assignment.

ENROLMENT NO: …………………………

NAME: ………………………………………

ADDRESS: …………………………………

COURSE TITLE: …………………………

ASSIGNMENT NO: ………………………

STUDY CENTRE: …………………………

DATE: ………………………………………

MRW 006 Handwritten Assignment 2024-25

MRW 006 Solved Assignment 2024-25: We provide handwritten PDF and Hardcopy to our IGNOU and other university students. There are several types of handwritten assignment we provide all Over India. We are genuinely work in this field for so many time. You can get your assignment done - 8130208920

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