IGNOU MSOE 003 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

IGNOU MSOE 003 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

IGNOU MSOE 003 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-MSOE 003 Sociology of Religion this course delves into the fascinating interplay between religion and society, exploring the social factors that shape religious beliefs, practices, and institutions.

IGNOU MSOE 003 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

Course Structure:

  • Module 1: Introduction to the Sociology of Religion
  • Module 2: Theories of Religion and Society
  • Module 3: Religious Organizations and Institutions
  • Module 4: Religion and Social Change
  • Module 5: Religion and Individual Lives
  • Module 6: Contemporary Issues in the Sociology of Religion

Q.1 Discuss Freud's approach to the study of religion.

Sigmund Freud, the eminent figure in psychoanalysis, extended his influential theories to investigate various aspects of human experience, including religion. Freud's exploration of religion, predominantly found in his later works like "The Future of an Illusion" (1927) and "Moses and Monotheism" (1939), is grounded in a psychoanalytic framework. This approach underscores the role of the unconscious mind, psychological mechanisms, and the intricacies of the human psyche.

IGNOU MSOE 003 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-Freud initiated his examination of religion by considering its origins, positing that religion traces its roots to primitive human societies and the psychological dynamics within families. In "Totem and Taboo" (1913), he introduced the Oedipus complex, suggesting that early human groups revered a primal father figure, analogous to the patriarchal authority within families. This primal father, represented by the totem, became an object of veneration, laying the groundwork for religious rituals and symbolism.

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According to Freud, religion addresses fundamental human concerns such as the fear of death, the unknown, and unpredictable natural forces. It functions as a psychological mechanism providing a comforting narrative that explains life's uncertainties, offering solace and meaning in the face of existential anxieties. In "The Future of an Illusion," Freud argues that religious beliefs emerge from humanity's innate desires for security and protection, projecting a powerful father figure onto the divine.

Moving beyond individual psychological origins, Freud's perspective on religion extends to its societal functions. He characterizes religion as a collective neurosis, similar to individual neuroses but on a larger scale. In "Totem and Taboo," Freud suggests that societal institutions, including religion, act as mechanisms for managing collective anxieties and conflicts. Religion, in this view, functions as a societal defense mechanism, regulating interpersonal relationships and providing a shared set of beliefs and rituals to unify communities.

IGNOU MSOE 003 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-However, Freud acknowledges that this collective neurosis comes at a cost. While religion may offer psychological comfort, it also imposes constraints on individual freedom and intellectual inquiry. Freud criticizes religious doctrines for inhibiting critical thinking and fostering unquestioning obedience to authority. His portrayal of religion as a collective neurosis underscores his ambivalence toward its societal role, acknowledging its psychological functions while highlighting potential drawbacks.

In "The Future of an Illusion," Freud delves deeper into the nature of religious beliefs, referring to them as illusions. He argues that religious concepts of God and an afterlife are wish-fulfillments rooted in humanity's desires for protection and permanence. God, as an omnipotent and benevolent father figure, fulfills the wish for a protective force in the face of life's uncertainties. The idea of an afterlife, according to Freud, addresses the fear of death, providing the comforting illusion of eternal existence.

Freud contends that religious beliefs, while psychologically understandable, are ultimately illusions arising from unconscious desires and fantasies. He compares religion to a child's relationship with its parents, where the child constructs an idealized image of the parent to cope with anxieties and uncertainties. Similarly, religious beliefs involve a projection of human wishes onto a divine entity, creating an illusionary source of comfort and guidance.

IGNOU MSOE 003 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-Freud's critique of religion extends beyond its individual and societal functions to its impact on civilization. In "Civilization and Its Discontents" (1930), he explores the tensions between individual desires and societal constraints, suggesting that religion plays a role in the suppression of instinctual drives. Religious and moral codes, rooted in societal norms, restrict individual freedoms and contribute to a discontent inherent in civilized societies.

Religious prohibitions, according to Freud, curb instinctual impulses and desires, leading to a sense of guilt and repression. He argues that the conflict between individual desires and societal constraints, epitomized by religious morality, generates psychological tension. While recognizing the societal benefits of such restrictions in maintaining order, Freud underscores the psychological toll they impose on individuals, contributing to the perennial discontent he associates with civilization.

In his later work "Moses and Monotheism," Freud offers a psychoanalytic exploration of the origins of Judaism and monotheistic religion. He proposes a controversial theory suggesting that Moses, traditionally regarded as the leader of the Israelites, was not of Hebrew origin but an Egyptian. Freud theorizes that Moses, influenced by Egyptian religious and cultural elements, introduced monotheism to the Israelites, reshaping their beliefs and contributing to the development of Judeo-Christian traditions.

Freud's psychoanalytic examination of Moses and monotheism involves intricate explorations of unconscious processes and historical speculation. He suggests that Moses, originally an Egyptian figure, was later rejected and deified by the Israelites. The influence of Egyptian religious concepts, particularly the worship of the sun god Aten, is theorized to have contributed to the development of monotheistic ideas within the Israelite community.

While Freud's approach to the study of religion has significantly impacted psychology and religious studies, it is not without criticisms. His reductionist perspective, interpreting religious beliefs solely as psychological phenomena, has been challenged for neglecting cultural, historical, and social dimensions. Critics argue that his emphasis on unconscious desires oversimplifies the rich and multifaceted nature of religious experience.

Moreover, Freud's theories have been accused of Eurocentrism, as they draw primarily from Western, particularly Judeo-Christian, religious traditions. The applicability of Freudian concepts to diverse cultural and religious contexts is a subject of ongoing debate. Additionally, the speculative nature of Freud's later works, such as "Moses and Monotheism," has been met with skepticism within academic circles.

Q.2 Explain the relationship between protestant ethic and the rise of capitalism.

Q.3 Critically examine Marxian theory of religion.

Q.4 What is 'non-renunciation' ? Discuss with reference to auspiciousness and purity.

Q.5 Discuss the features of the 'Okka' in Coorg settlements.

Q.6 What is religious pluralism ? How is it significant in the Indian context ?

Q.7 How does Levi - Strauss explain totemism ?

Q.8 How does Levi - Strauss explain totemism ?

Q.9 What is religious revivalism ? Explain its significance in society.

Q.10 'Religion is a system of symbols.' Discuss.    

Q.11 Discuss the Marxian approach to the understanding of religion.

Q.12 Explain Freudian approach to the understanding of religion.

Q.13 Describe T. N. Madan’s view on non- renunciation with reference to the Kashmiri Pandits.

Q.14 Discuss the mystical traditions of the Lamas of Mcleodganj.

Q.15 Explain the concepts of auspiciousness and purity with their significance to the study of religion.


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