IGNOU MPA 012 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

IGNOU MPA 012 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

IGNOU MPA 012 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-MPA 012, titled "Administrative Theory," is another core course within the Indira Gandhi National Open University's (IGNOU) Master of Arts (MA) in Public Administration (MPA) program.

IGNOU MPA 012 Important Questions With Answers English Medium

Course Structure:

  • Unit 1: Introduction to Administrative Theory
  • Unit 2: Classical Theories of Administration (Scientific Management, Administrative Management, Weberian Bureaucracy)
  • Unit 3: Behavioral Theories of Administration (Human Relations, Behavioralism, Decision-Making Theories)
  • Unit 4: Structural Theories of Administration (Systems Theory, Contingency Theory, Institutionalism)
  • Unit 5: New Public Management (NPM) and Public Choice Theory
  • Unit 6: Critical Theories of Administration (Feminist Theory, Postmodernism, Critical Theory)
  • Unit 7: Contemporary Issues in Administrative Theory (Globalization, Technology, Governance)
  • Unit 8: Case Studies in Administrative Theory Application

Q.1 “The role of public administration has changed under liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation.” Discuss.

The evolution of public administration's role has been profoundly impacted by the trio of liberalization, privatization, and globalization (LPG). These transformative policy shifts, instituted in various nations during the latter part of the 20th century, have led to a reconfiguration of the traditional functions and responsibilities of public administration. This transformation has far-reaching implications for governance structures, service delivery mechanisms, and the overall dynamic between the state and the market

Liberalization: Liberalization, characterized by the opening up of economies to free-market forces, reducing government intervention and promoting competition, has prompted a departure from the command and control approach within public administration. The emphasis now lies on facilitating economic activities, fostering entrepreneurship, and ensuring a competitive landscape for businesses.

IGNOU MPA 012 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-A crucial facet of the evolving role of public administration under liberalization is the promotion of economic freedom and the dismantling of barriers to trade and investment. Governments are compelled to streamline bureaucratic processes, minimize red tape, and cultivate business-friendly environments to attract both domestic and foreign investments. Public administration, in this context, assumes a vital role in formulating and executing policies that enhance the ease of doing business, foster competition, and stimulate economic growth.

Additionally, liberalization has brought about a redefinition of the state's involvement in economic activities. While the state retains its role in providing a regulatory framework, public administration increasingly focuses on creating an enabling environment for private enterprise rather than directly participating in commercial activities. The privatization of state-owned enterprises and the encouragement of private sector involvement in formerly monopolized sectors exemplify this paradigm shift.

Privatization: Privatization involves the transfer of state-owned assets and enterprises to private ownership and management. This policy shift, often grounded in the belief that the private sector is more efficient and responsive to market demands, necessitates a strategic role for public administration. In a privatized context, public administration is tasked with regulation, oversight, and ensuring that privatized entities operate in the public interest.

IGNOU MPA 012 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-The planning and execution of privatization initiatives are critical tasks for public administration. This involves designing transparent and competitive processes for asset sales, addressing regulatory concerns, and safeguarding public interests. As private entities assume roles previously managed by the public sector, public administration is responsible for monitoring and regulating these entities to prevent abuse and ensure efficient and equitable service delivery.

However, the privatization of essential services, such as healthcare, education, and utilities, introduces questions about social equity and access. Achieving a balance between promoting private sector efficiency and safeguarding public welfare is a challenging task for public administration. It requires robust regulatory frameworks, effective monitoring mechanisms, and the ability to intervene when private entities fail to meet public service obligations.

IGNOU MPA 012 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-In the context of privatization, public administration faces challenges related to accountability and transparency. As private companies take on responsibilities previously held by the government, ensuring transparency in decision-making processes and holding private entities accountable for their actions becomes paramount. Public administration must evolve to meet these challenges, adopting new tools and strategies to oversee and regulate privatized entities effectively.

Globalization: Globalization refers to the increasing interconnectedness of economies, cultures, and societies on a global scale. In a globalized world, the role of public administration is marked by the need to navigate complex international relationships, address transnational challenges, and adapt to the rapid flow of information, capital, and technology across borders.

Public administration, in the era of globalization, is tasked with crafting policies that align with international standards and agreements. This involves participating in global forums, negotiating trade agreements, and ensuring that national policies are compatible with global norms. The complexity of these tasks requires public administrators to possess a deep understanding of international relations, trade dynamics, and global governance structures.

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Globalization has also heightened the need for effective regulatory frameworks to manage cross-border issues. Public administration plays a critical role in developing and enforcing regulations that address transnational challenges such as environmental degradation, cybercrime, and the movement of people across borders. Cooperation with international organizations and other nations becomes essential to tackle issues that transcend national boundaries.

Moreover, the increased mobility of capital and talent necessitates a proactive and agile public administration. The state must be responsive to global economic trends, technological advancements, and shifts in consumer behavior. Public administrators are required to anticipate and adapt to these changes, fostering an environment conducive to innovation, entrepreneurship, and global competitiveness.

However, globalization also presents challenges related to sovereignty and the potential erosion of state control. As global economic forces exert influence on national policies, public administration must strike a delicate balance between embracing global opportunities and safeguarding domestic interests. This requires a nuanced approach to policy-making and a keen awareness of the potential social and economic impacts of global trends.

Challenges and Opportunities:The evolving role of public administration under liberalization, privatization, and globalization has given rise to both challenges and opportunities. One of the primary challenges is the potential for increased inequality. While these policies aim to spur economic growth, the benefits are not always distributed equitably. Public administration must grapple with the social implications of market-oriented reforms and work towards inclusive development.

IGNOU MPA 012 Important Questions With Answers English Medium-Additionally, the risk of regulatory capture and the undue influence of private interests pose significant challenges. As the state relinquishes certain functions to the private sector, ensuring that regulatory bodies remain independent and act in the public interest becomes paramount. Public administration must develop mechanisms to prevent conflicts of interest and maintain the integrity of regulatory frameworks.

The erosion of the welfare state is another challenge associated with these policy shifts. As the state withdraws from direct service provision, there is a risk that essential services may become commodified, leading to unequal access based on socio-economic factors. Public administration must actively address this challenge by devising policies that prioritize social welfare, even in a privatized and liberalized environment.

Despite these challenges, there are also opportunities for public administration to play a more strategic and transformative role. The emphasis on efficiency and innovation in the private sector can influence the public sector positively. Public administration can leverage private sector practices to enhance service delivery, adopt technological advancements, and improve overall governance.

Moreover, the integration of economies through globalization offers opportunities for collaboration and knowledge exchange. Public administration can benefit from international best practices, adopt innovative solutions from other countries, and engage in partnerships to address global challenges collaboratively. This requires a proactive and open approach to learning from global experiences.

Q.2 Define organisation and discuss its typologies.

Q.3 Critically examine the principles of scientific management.

Q.4 Discuss Simon’s theory of decision-making with special reference to his concept of founded rationality.

Q.5 Discuss Douglas McGregor’s theory ‘X’ and theory ‘Y’.

Q.6 Discuss systems approach with special reference to the views of David Easton.

Q.7 Discuss the emergence and growth of New Public Administration.

Q.8 “Critical theory is of great relevance to public administration.” Comment.

Q.9 Discuss the state of administrative theory in the changing environment.

Q.10 Define Public Administration and highlight its importance.

Q.11 Describe the general principles of Administrative Management approach.

Q.12 Explain the emergence and principles of Human Relations approach.

Q.13 Discuss Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs theory.

Q.14 Define Public Administration and bring out its nature and scope.

Q.15 Explain the major features of the experiments conducted by Elton Mayo at Howthorne plant of Western Electric Company.


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