The Sermon at Benares Chapter Summary for class 10th

The Sermon at Benares  Chapter Summary for class 10th

The Sermon at Benares, or the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, serves as a turning point in the history of Buddhism, symbolizing the first teachings of the person known as the Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama. This speech, which the Buddha gave in the calm settings of Benares' Deer Park, inaugurated his public ministry and established the foundation for the deep conceptual framework that would eventually become the core of Buddhism. Five ascetics who had previously deserted Siddhartha after he abandoned severe ascetic practices in favor of the Middle Way are the recipients of the sermon.

The Sermon at Benares  Chapter Summary

The Sermon at Benares  Chapter Summary-The Buddha provides a thorough framework for comprehending the causes of human suffering and the way to enlightenment as he explains the Eightfold Path and the Four Noble Truths throughout his talk. This preface lays the groundwork for an examination of the primary lessons contained in the Sermon at Benares, shedding light on the fundamental ideas that have endured across the ages and shaped the development of Buddhist philosophy and practice.

The Sermon at Benares  Summary

The Sermon at Benares, also known as the First Sermon or Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, is a pivotal discourse delivered by Siddhartha Gautama, later known as Buddha, in the Deer Park at Benares. Buddha's teaching career began with this sermon, which also lays out the core ideas of his philosophy and initiates the wheel of Dharma. The five ascetics who had previously accompanied Siddhartha on his spiritual journey but had deserted him when he decided to take the middle road are the target audience for the discourse. The Buddha defines the Middle Way at the outset of his teaching, stressing the need to stay away from extremes in order to achieve spiritual enlightenment.

The Buddha elucidates the Four Noble Truths, the foundational doctrine of Buddhism, providing a comprehensive framework for understanding the nature of human existence and the path to liberation. The First Noble Truth acknowledges the reality of suffering (dukkha), not merely as physical pain but as the inherent dissatisfaction and unsatisfactoriness woven into the fabric of life. The Second Noble Truth delves into the causes of suffering, identifying craving and attachment as the roots of human misery. By understanding the origin of suffering, individuals gain insight into the possibility of its cessation.

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The Sermon at Benares  Chapter Summary-The Third Noble Truth introduces the concept of Nirvana, the ultimate goal of Buddhism, which represents the cessation of suffering and the liberation from the cycle of birth, death, and rebirth (samsara). Nirvana is described as a state of profound peace, wisdom, and liberation from the shackles of desire. The Fourth Noble Truth outlines the Eightfold Path, a practical guide to ethical and mental development that leads to the attainment of Nirvana. The Eightfold Path encompasses Right View, Right Intention, Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, and Right Concentration.

Buddha expounds on each aspect of the Eightfold Path, elucidating the significance of cultivating wholesome qualities and abandoning unwholesome tendencies. Right View involves understanding the Four Noble Truths and the law of karma, which underlines the connection between actions and their consequences. Right Intention emphasizes the cultivation of a compassionate and benevolent mindset. Right Speech emphasizes truthful, kind, and beneficial communication, while Right Action encourages ethical conduct in one's actions.

The Sermon at Benares  Chapter Summary-A right livelihood is choosing a career path that is consistent with moral values and staying away from harmful professions. The emphasis of Right Effort is on the conscientious development of virtues and the elimination of vices. In order to foster a profound awareness of the present moment, right mindfulness promotes ongoing awareness of one's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. In order to reach higher states of consciousness, right concentration entails the formation of focused and concentrated mental states.

The Sermon at Benares  Chapter Summary

As Buddha expounds the Eightfold Path, he emphasizes the interconnectedness of its components, highlighting that they are not isolated practices but mutually reinforcing aspects of a comprehensive spiritual discipline. The Buddha's teachings are not a mere prescription for ascetic withdrawal from the world but a practical guide for living a balanced and mindful life in the midst of everyday challenges.

The Sermon at Benares  Chapter Summary-The Sermon at Benares also addresses the notion of the Middle Way, emphasizing the avoidance of extreme ascetic practices and sensual indulgence. Buddha recounts his own experiences of severe austerity and self-mortification during his quest for enlightenment, illustrating the futility of such extremes in the pursuit of liberation. Instead, he advocates for a balanced and moderate approach that transcends both the renunciation of worldly pleasures and the indulgence in sensual desires.

The discourse concludes with the Buddha's declaration that through the understanding and practice of the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path, he has attained enlightenment. The impact of the Sermon at Benares is profound, as it lays the foundation for the Buddhist teachings that would later spread throughout Asia and beyond. The Deer Park at Benares becomes a significant site in the Buddhist tradition, marking the beginning of the Buddha's mission to share the path to liberation with all beings.

Characters In The Sermon at Benares

1.Buddha:  Gautama Buddha is the founder of the religion Buddhism. He was a spiritual teacher who had gained enlightenment of seeing the world’s pains and greed. Buddha preached that human life is very short and it is full of sorrows and pains. He cleared that our brief life is full of troubles and pains. Everyone on this earth has to one day meet with death.

2. Kiss Gotami: She was a young mother whose only son had died. She was a loving and caring mother, but at the same time, she became selfish and wanted to get her son back after death.


Who was Gautam Buddha ? When and where was he born ?

Gautam Buddha was a Prince who was named Siddhartha Gautam by his parents. He was born in 563 B.C. in North India. He had been shielded from the sufferings of the world. He attained enlightenment under a Peepal tree and named the tree as ‘Tree of Wisdom’.

Why was Kisa Gotami sad ? What did she do in her hour of grief ?

Kisa Gotami was sad because her only son had died. In her hour of grief, she went from house to house in search of a medicine to cure him. She had become selfish in wanting her son back.

What did Kisa Gotami learn in the end ?

In the end, Kisa Gotami realised and learnt that death is common to all and that no one could avoid dying. People weep over their dead ones but it is only the wise who do not grieve as they have accepted the truth. A person should only try to seek inner peace.


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