What are the major threats which China perceives from India? Explain.

 Q. What are the major threats which China perceives from India? Explain.

What are the major threats which China perceives from India? Explain.  China is a socialist one-party state governed by the Communist Party of China. The president of China is the head of state, while the premier is the head of government. China has one of the world's largest economies, often classified as a mixed socialist market economy. It is a global hub for manufacturing, being the largest manufacturing economy in the world and the largest exporter of goods. The country is also known for its significant cultural contributions, including Confucianism and Taoism, as well as inventions such as papermaking, the compass, gunpowder, and printing.  The major threats which China perceives from India? Explain

    China has diverse landscapes, with the terrain varying from desert regions such as the Gobi Desert and the Taklamakan Desert, to the Himalayan Mountain Range in the southwest. It is also home to several important rivers such as the Yangtze, Yellow, and Pearl rivers.

    China's relationship with the world is complex and multifaceted. On one hand, it is a major player in global trade and politics and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. On the other hand, it has been the subject of controversy over issues such as human rights, economic policies, and territorial disputes.

    The increasing dynamism in global geopolitics, especially in the Asia-Pacific region, has led to a multipolar world where various nations are emerging as influential players. Within this landscape, India and China, two of the largest and fastest-growing economies, are exerting a significant impact. Despite a long history of civilization-level interactions, India and China's relationship has been fraught with challenges, leading to an atmosphere of mutual suspicion and strategic rivalry. This essay will explore the major threats which China perceives from India, using multiple examples to illustrate these perceived threats. The major threats which China perceives from India? Explain

Indian Influence

One of the foremost threats perceived by China from India is the latter's expanding influence on the global stage. India, being the largest democracy and one of the fastest-growing economies, has been attracting attention and building strategic partnerships with nations across the globe. This expansion can potentially weaken China's dominant position in the region and global forums.

The Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (Quad) involving the United States, India, Japan, and Australia has been reinvigorated in recent years. The Quad seeks to uphold a rules-based international order in the Indo-Pacific, an implicit counter to China's aggressive maritime policies. China sees this as a containment strategy and perceives a threat to its geopolitical goals. The roots of the Quad can be traced back to 2004 when these four nations came together for relief efforts following the devastating Indian Ocean Tsunami. The collaboration inspired Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe to propose a "Security Diamond" in 2007 to safeguard the maritime commons extending from the Indian Ocean region to the western Pacific. The major threats which China perceives from India? Explain

However, the Quad initiative was short-lived initially, as Australia pulled out in 2008, purportedly to avoid antagonizing China. The dialogue was revived in 2017 on the sidelines of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and East Asia summits, with a renewed focus on regional security and resilience.

While the Quad does not have a formal charter or a permanent secretariat, the initiative primarily aims to uphold the rules-based international order and ensure freedom of navigation and overflight in the Indo-Pacific region. Its objectives also extend to non-military areas such as cyber and counter-terrorism, humanitarian aid and disaster relief, maritime security, connectivity and infrastructure development, and climate change.

The Quad nations have also emphasized the importance of ASEAN centrality and the need to work with other partners to achieve common goals, thus positioning the Quad as an inclusive, not exclusive, initiative.

What are the major threats which China perceives from India? Explain.

India's Increasing Military Capabilities

India's growing military capabilities, in particular its naval prowess, is another area of concern for China.  Over the past few decades, India has significantly ramped up its defense expenditure, with a major focus on strengthening its naval capabilities to safeguard its vast maritime boundaries and secure its interests in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR).

    The Chinese government sees India's naval expansion, such as the acquisition of new warships, submarines, and aircraft carriers like INS Vikrant, as a threat to its ambitions in the IOR. The India-US 'Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement' (LEMOA), which allows the militaries of both countries to use each other's bases for repair and replenishment, has further added to China's concerns. The major threats which China perceives from India? Explain

India has been cultivating strategic partnerships that contribute to its military capabilities. Its relationship with the United States is noteworthy, with both nations signing foundational agreements such as Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA), Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement (COMCASA), and Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement (BECA). These agreements allow India access to advanced American defence technology, enhance interoperability, and facilitate mutual logistical support.

    India's defence relations with Russia continue to be strong, with the latter being a significant supplier of military hardware, including the S-400 missile defence system.

India's quest for increasing military capabilities is also tied to its goal of self-reliance in defence production. The government's 'Make in India' initiative has a special focus on the defence sector, aiming to reduce dependence on imports and build a robust domestic defence industry. The Defence Acquisition Procedure 2020 also aims to encourage indigenous manufacturing.

    The development of the Light Combat Aircraft Tejas, the Advanced Towed Artillery Gun System (ATAGS), and the nuclear ballistic missile submarine INS Arihant are noteworthy achievements in India's self-reliant defence journey.

India's Stand on the Tibetan and Taiwan Issues

China is also wary of India's stand on the Tibet and Taiwan issues. Despite India's official stance of recognizing Tibet as a part of China, it provides asylum to the Dalai Lama and the Tibetan government-in-exile. This situation is seen as a potential threat by Beijing, as it could reignite separatist sentiments in Tibet.

India's recent overtures towards Taiwan have also raised eyebrows in Beijing. Although India adheres to the "One China" policy, it has been engaging with Taiwan on the economic and cultural fronts. An example is the recent surge in bilateral trade, which crossed the $7 billion mark in 2020. Such actions by India hint at a potential diplomatic shift which China perceives as a risk to its territorial integrity.

India's deepening strategic partnership with the United States, perceived by China as its primary global competitor, is another significant threat. The U.S. and India have been steadily enhancing their defense and strategic ties over the last decade, which include the signing of multiple agreements like the Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement (COMCASA), Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement (BECA), etc. These agreements aim at expanding military-to-military cooperation, sharing geospatial information, and enhancing interoperability. The major threats which China perceives from India? Explain

The India-U.S. strategic partnership traces its roots to the end of the Cold War, but it truly gained momentum in the 21st century. A significant turning point was the signing of the U.S.-India Civil Nuclear Agreement in 2008. This deal not only ended India's nuclear isolation but also marked a dramatic shift in U.S. policy towards India, recognizing it as a responsible nuclear power and a potential strategic ally.    

    The partnership has broadened to encompass areas such as defense and security, trade and investment, energy, science and technology, and global challenges like climate change, terrorism, and public health crises.

    Defense and security cooperation form a cornerstone of the India-U.S. strategic partnership. The two nations have been engaging in regular military exercises, defense dialogues, and strategic consultations. Key agreements like the Logistics Exchange Memorandum of Agreement (LEMOA), Communications Compatibility and Security Agreement (COMCASA), and the Basic Exchange and Cooperation Agreement (BECA) have deepened defense ties, enhancing interoperability and enabling the sharing of advanced military technology and geospatial intelligence.

Trade and economic relations form another crucial pillar of the India-U.S. partnership. The U.S. is India's second-largest trading partner, while India is the U.S.'s ninth-largest trading partner, with the total bilateral trade reaching nearly $150 billion in 2019.

The two countries have set a goal to increase their bilateral trade to $500 billion. Sectors like information technology, pharmaceuticals, healthcare, and energy have witnessed robust cooperation, with potential for growth in areas like digital economy and sustainable development.


Border Disputes and Nationalism

Another significant threat that China perceives from India is the longstanding border disputes between the two countries, primarily in Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh. These disputed territories have been the cause of numerous skirmishes, with the 1962 Sino-Indian war and the 2020 Galwan Valley clash being the most prominent. The major threats which China perceives from India? Explain

India's steadfast refusal to concede to China's territorial claims, coupled with increased border infrastructure development and military fortification, is viewed as a threat by Beijing. For instance, India's construction of the DS-DBO road in Ladakh, which provides strategic advantage to the Indian military, has been a point of contention for China.

The influence of nationalism on both sides further complicates the issue. China's efforts to assert sovereignty over disputed areas stem partly from its desire to maintain internal cohesion. A strong stance against any perceived territorial encroachment is deemed necessary to bolster the Chinese Communist Party's image domestically. Similarly, rising nationalism in India has resulted in firm resistance against China's territorial claims.

India’s Emergence as a Technological Powerhouse

With India fast emerging as a global technology hub, China perceives another potential threat. India's burgeoning tech sector, comprising an increasing number of start-ups and tech giants, is attracting significant global investment. Its digital prowess is being recognized worldwide, with a growing reputation for innovation in areas like software development, information technology, and recently, space technology. The major threats which China perceives from India? Explain

This rapid technological advancement, exemplified by successful missions like the Mars Orbiter Mission (Mangalyaan) and the planned Gaganyaan manned space mission, signals India's potential to be a formidable competitor in the technology race. Moreover, the growing presence of Indian professionals in global tech companies and international research institutions adds to China's perception of India as a technological rival.

Cybersecurity Threats

China has increasingly shown concern about potential cybersecurity threats from India. Following the Galwan Valley incident in 2020, India banned numerous Chinese apps citing national security reasons. This move not only hit Chinese companies financially but also opened up the possibility of retaliatory cybersecurity threats.

India enhancing its own cybersecurity infrastructure and capabilities, there's growing apprehension in China about potential cyber espionage activities. While concrete examples of such threats from the Indian side may be limited, the burgeoning cyberspace has undoubtedly emerged as a new frontier of strategic competition between the two countries.

India’s Growing Diplomatic Reach

Another area where China perceives a threat from India is the latter’s expanding diplomatic reach. Over the years, India has been able to successfully project itself as a responsible global player, embracing multilateralism and championing issues like climate change, terrorism, and sustainable development. This proactive diplomacy is helping India garner support and build strong relationships with countries across the globe.

An example of this can be seen in India's Non-Permanent Membership in the United Nations Security Council for the term 2021-2022. India has been leveraging this platform to voice its concerns, promote its interests, and foster multilateral cooperation on global issues. China, used to its dominant position in global forums, perceives this growing influence as a challenge. The major threats which China perceives from India? Explain

Further, India’s active role in regional organizations like SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) and BIMSTEC (Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation), and its outreach to Africa and West Asia, are seen by China as strategic moves to counter its Belt and Road Initiative (BRI).

India's Nuclear Capabilities

India's nuclear capabilities also constitute a potential threat in the eyes of China. Though India maintains a "No First Use" policy, the growing sophistication of its nuclear arsenal, including the successful test of the Agni-V intercontinental ballistic missile, capable of reaching major Chinese cities, is a cause of concern for China.

India's entry into the Missile Technology Control Regulate (MTCR) and the initiation of negotiations for its membership in the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) also add to China's anxiety. These developments could potentially enhance India's access to advanced missile and nuclear technology, which China perceives as an amplification of the existing military threat.


In conclusion, China perceives multiple threats from India, emanating from an expanding Indian influence, increasing military capabilities, India's stand on the Tibet and Taiwan issues, and its deepening strategic partnership with the United States. These perceptions are shaped by a myriad of complex geopolitical factors and historical context. While these perceived threats might provoke strategic responses, it's important for both nations to engage in constructive dialogue to ensure regional stability and mutual growth. It's not a zero-sum game, and a harmonious Sino-Indian relationship could be a key determinant of the Asian Century's geopolitical trajectory. The major threats which China perceives from India? Explain



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