IGNOU FREE MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23

 IGNOU FREE MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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NOTE: All questions are compulsory


Answer the following questions in 1000 words each.

Q.1. Discuss the structure and functions of language.

Philosophers of language have tended to assume that the mapping ofsome  linguistic  phenomenon  onto  a  formal  system  will  give  a  solution  toa philosophical problem and give us great insight of the operation of lan-guage.  Russell’s  Theory  of  Descriptions  is  one  of  the  most  famous  casesof  this,  but  there  are  numerous  contemporary  examples  as  well.  Possibleworlds semantics seems to be a classic case: one domain that seems puzzlingis mapped onto another domain, and if some type of formal equivalence isachieved,  i.e.,  the  truth  conditions  are  the  same,  then  thisis  assumed  toprovide an explanation. In my opinion this is incorrect. An adequate philo-sophical  insight  cannot  be  obtained  merely  by  means  of  a  mapping  thatprovides an equivalence. This would be akin to suggesting that in order toproperly understand the  sentence,  ‘all  ravens  are black’,  one must realizethat what it really  says is, ‘all non-black  things are non-ravens.’ 

The twosentences are logically equivalent in that they are true or false in exactly thesame set of circumstances, but the second does not give you ananalysis ofthe psychological reality of saying ‘all ravens are black.’Much contemporaryPhilosophy of Language seems to operate in this manner. For example, let us consider Russell’s famous Theory of Descriptions. How doesRussell achieveuniqueness of reference? In Russell’s example, to say that the King of Franceis bald is to say that there is at least one x such that x isaKing of Franceand for each thing y, y is a King of France only if y is identicalwith x. This,however,  is psychologically  unrealistic. Our notion of an object is alreadyone of a unique object. It is not necessary to consider the entire universe,or even the domain under discussion, in order to achieve uniqueness. Theproblem with much of the contemporary Philosophy of Language has beenthe  supposition  that  it  is  sufficient  to  obtain  an  equivalence,  i.e.,  that  ifthe truth conditions on each side of a biconditional are the same, then anadequate explanation has been achieved. In general, however, I do not be-lieve this to be the case; psychological reality ought to play a much greaterrole. Perhaps surprisingly, it seems that Frege, the inventor of contemporarylogic, was more “psychologically real” than his successors, such as Russell,because he attempted to reach an intuitively plausible distinction betweenSinnand Bedeutung.

The Structure and Functions of Language

tions of satisfaction, is still far from sufficient to achievelanguage. There isno inner structure here. There is, however, a distinction between represen-tation and expression, and the key to understanding language in the humansense is not expression but representation. There are expressive speech acts,such  as  “ouch!”  or  “damn!”,  but  the  key  speech  acts  are  the  representa-tional ones, which invariably impose conditions of satisfaction on conditionsof satisfaction.

The next crucial element I will introduce is the notion of a procedure.If animals have a procedure whereby they can represent the same type ofstate of affairs on different occasions, then that procedure can reasonablybe  called  a  convention.  If  animals  have  standard  ways  of  behaving  suchthat  other  animals  can  recognize  those  standard  ways  of  behaving,  thenin a particular situation  a convention  is being invoked,  in order to createnot simply an act of meaning but an act of communication, where what iscommunicated is the meaning. The introduction of conventions is the nextcrucial element of language.When we have basic intentional structures together with an intentionalact, speaker meaning, which is a matter of imposing conditions of satisfac-tion  on  conditions  of  satisfaction,  and  standard  procedures  for  doing  so,which  I  am  calling  conventions,  these  introduce  a  crucial  new  element,namely a speaker’s capacity to lie. In order to be committed to the truth,one must at least potentially be able to lie. Nietzsche said that what is re-markable about human beings is that they can make promises. Iwould addthat it is also remarkable that they can make deliberately false statementsand insincere promises, and that in general they can lie. Animals in generalcannot  lie;  they  can  deceive,  for  example  when a  bird behavesas  thoughit is wounded in order to distract predators from its young, but this is notlying, it is merely deceit. Lying is performing an intentional act which hasthe mind-to-world direction of fit when in fact the speaker believes it to befalse.  Frege  invented  the  assertion  signand  we  can  use  it  to  mark  theassertive illocutionary force. Performing one of these acts which representstates of affairs commits one to truth, but it is possible to becommitted tothe truth of a proposition which in fact one believes to be false. This is whatwe call a lie.

Given  conventional  devices  for  imposing  conditions  of  satisfaction  onsounds, movements,  and  utterances,  what  more  is  needed  to  achieve  lan-guage? As mentioned above, the traditional Aristotelian and Kantian cate-gories are largely instantiated in human and animal consciousness. The an-imal has the ability to break up its experiences into objectsand their prop-erties, including spatial and temporal relations, movement, and causal rela- tions. IGNOU FREE MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23

We know from experience and from animal studies that animalshavethe  capacity  to  discriminate  objects,  to  discriminate  the  same  object  indifferent circumstances, and to discriminate the same object as having oneproperty  at  one  time  and  then  a  different  property  at  another  time.  Forexample,  a  dog  can  see  that  its  owner  was  once  in  one  place,  butnowis  in  another  place.  I  believe  that  the  distinction  between  properties  andobjects, and the fact that objects possess properties, is given by the biologyof animal consciousness. Now let us suppose that the humanoid is capableof  performing  a  speech  act  of  the  form  F(p);  it  can  make  a  distinctionbetween the noun phrase and the verb phrase in the syntax of this particulardevice that expresses the proposition. This is a stunning advance, becausein language, unlike pre-linguistic forms of consciousnessand intentionality,there are not only representations, but representative devices that can bemanipulated. It is the free manipulation of these symbolic devices that giveslanguage its enormous expressive power, because these elements that makeup  the  representation  introduce  something  that  corresponds  to  the  innersyntax of a sentence.

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What is significant about these devices is that they preservetheir iden-tity under permutations and transformations. Words and morphemes corre-sponding to reference and predication preserve their identity under changes.A sentence may have eight or twelve words, but it cannot have nine and onehalf  words,  as  half-words  do  not  exist.  An  early  objection  togenerativegrammars was that generativity was trivial, because, for example, a recipefor baking a cake can be called generative: “add a cup of sugar”, “add a cup of flour.” A recipe, however, lacks the property of discreteness, as the sugar,butter  and  flour  lose  their  identity  when they  are  baked  in  theoven  andare no longer sugar and flour. Words and morphemes, however, remain thesame, despite undergoing various transformations.


The feature  of  compositionality  is  also  crucial  because  it  enables  theanimal to produce and understand sentences solely in terms of understand-ing the  meanings  of  the words or  morphemes and the  way  in  whichtheyare  combined and recombined.  For  instance,  English speakers  understandthe difference between “John loves Mary” and “Mary loves John” becausealthough the words are the same, the sentences are composed differently.


The feature of generativity  is the capacity  to constantly produce newsentences in which rules are applied repeatedly. These rules are known asrecursive rules. Thus we can have not only a relative clause,but a relativeclause  attached  to  a  relative  clause,  and  then  another  relative  clause  at-tached to that relative clause, e.g., “I met a man who knew my mother whenshe lived in Kansas City, where they have a large baseball team...” The num-ber of relative clauses that can be added is indefinite. Owingto these threefeatures, syntax, i.e., the inner syntax of a sentence, is anenormously pow-erful addition which provides an expressive power inconceivable to animalsthat can have only representations. The morphemes preservetheir identityunder transformation, the total unit is compositional, i.e., the meaning ofthe sentence can be computed from knowing the meanings of theparts inthe structure, and normal human language is generative, in the sense thatit has recursive rules that can be applied repeatedly. We do not know how itoccurred that these three crucial elements appeared so thathuman beingsbegan to have language. We do know that the following must have evolved insome order: speaker meaning (which some animals have); speaker meaningin  representations,  not  merely  expression;  conventions;  and  an  inner  syn-tax, i.e., a set of elements which enables us to distinguish between referenceand predication and which has discreteness, compositionality, and for fullydeveloped human languages, generativity.

Q.2. Critically discuss Das, Naglieri and Kirby’s PASS theory.

Q. 3. Explain the barriers to problem solving.


Answer the following questions in 400 words each.

4. Describe the levels of processing model by Craik and Lockhart.

5. Explain the factors affecting problem solving.

6. Discuss Guilford’s model of intelligence.

7. Define creativity. Describe the stages of creativity.

8. Explain the key issues in the study of cognitive psychology.


Answer the following questions in 50 words each.

9. Seven primary factors given by Thurstone

10. Aspects of creativity

11. Heuristics

12. Long term memory

13. Role of hippocampus in memory

14. Four principles of information processing

15. Neuroscience and cognitive psychology

16. Problem space hypothesis

17. Means-ends analysis

18. Types of problems

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Important Note - You may be aware9 that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.

Submission Date :

·        31st March 2023 (if enrolled in the July 2022-23 Session)

·       30th Sept, 2023 (if enrolled in the January 2023 session).

IGNOU Instructions for the MPC 001 Assignments

MPC 001 COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGY, LEARNING AND MEMORY Assignment 2022-23 Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully.

1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.

2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).

3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).

4Use only foolscap size paper for your response and tag all the pages carefully

5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.

6. You should write in your own handwriting.

GUIDELINES FOR IGNOU Assignments 2022-23

MPC 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.

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2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.

3. Presentation: Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize.

IGNOU Assignment Front Page

The top of the first page of your response sheet should look like this: Get IGNOU Assignment Front page through. And Attach on front page of your assignment. Students need to compulsory attach the front page in at the beginning of their handwritten assignment.

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