MSO 002 Research Methodologies and Methods Solved Assignment 2022-23

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FREE IGNOU MSO 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23

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Answer any five questions selecting at least two from each of the sections.

 Your answers should be in about 500 words each.


Answer any two of the following questions

Q.1. What is phenomenology? Explain with reference to the contribution of Martin Heidegger.

Phenomenology is the study of structures of consciousness as experienced from the firstperson point of view. The central structure of an experience is its intentionality, its being directed toward something, as it is an experience of or about some object. An experience is directed toward an object by virtue of its content or meaning (which represents the object) together with appropriate enabling conditions. Phenomenology as a discipline is distinct from but related to other key disciplines in philosophy, such as ontology, epistemology, logic, and ethics. 

Phenomenology has been practiced in various guises for centuries, but it came into its own in the early 20th century in the works of Husserl, Heidegger, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty and others. Phenomenological issues of intentionality, consciousness, qualia, and first-person perspective have been prominent in recent philosophy of mind.

The historical movement of phenomenology is the philosophical tradition launched in the first half of the 20th century by Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, Jean-Paul Sartre, et al. In that movement, the discipline of phenomenology was prized as the proper foundation of all philosophy—as opposed, say, to ethics or metaphysics or epistemology.

The methods and characterization of the discipline were widely debated by Husserl and his successors, and these debates continue to the present day. (The definition of phenomenology offered above will thus be debatable, for example, by Heideggerians, but it remains the starting point in characterizing the discipline.)

Martin Heidegger was born in Messkirch, Germany, on September 26, 1889. Messkirch was then a quiet, conservative, religious rural town, and as such was a formative influence on Heidegger and his philosophical thought. In 1909 he spent two weeks in the Jesuit order before leaving (probably on health grounds) to study theology at the University of Freiburg. In 1911 he switched subjects, to philosophy. He began teaching at Freiburg in 1915. In 1917 he married Elfride Petri, with whom he had two sons (Jörg and Hermann) and from whom he never parted (although his affair with the philosopher Hannah Arendt, his student at Marburg in the 1920s, is well-known). Heidegger's philosophical development began when he read Brentano and Aristotle, plus the latter's medieval scholastic interpreters.

Indeed, Aristotle's demand in the Metaphysics to know what it is that unites all possible modes of Being (or ‘is-ness’) is, in many ways, the question that ignites and drives Heidegger's philosophy. From this platform he proceeded to engage deeply with Kant, Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, and, perhaps most importantly of all for his subsequent thinking in the 1920s, two further figures: Dilthey (whose stress on the role of interpretation and history in the study of human activity profoundly influenced Heidegger) and Husserl (whose understanding of phenomenology as a science of essences he was destined to reject). 

In 1915 Husserl took up a post at Freiburg and in 1919 Heidegger became his assistant. Heidegger spent a period (of reputedly brilliant) teaching at the University of Marburg (1923–1928), but then returned to Freiburg to take up the chair vacated by Husserl on his retirement. Out of such influences, explorations, and critical engagements, Heidegger's magnum opus, Being and Time (Sein und Zeit) was born. Although Heidegger's academic and intellectual relationship with his Freiburg predecessor was complicated and occasionally strained (see Crowell 2005), Being and Time was dedicated to Husserl, “in friendship and admiration”.


Q2. What is positivism? Discuss Giddens’s critique of positivism.

Positivism is a philosophy that emphasizes the use of scientific methods, particularly the scientific method, to study and understand social phenomena. It is based on the belief that knowledge of the natural world can be obtained through observation and experimentation, and that this knowledge can be applied to the social world. Positivists argue that social phenomena can be studied in the same way as natural phenomena, and that social laws can be discovered through the collection and analysis of empirical data.

Giddens’s critique of positivism is that it is reductionist and fails to take into account the complexity and subjectivity of social phenomena. Giddens argues that positivism reduces social phenomena to observable facts and ignores the subjective experiences and meanings that individuals attach to those facts. He also points out that positivism is based on a separation of fact and value, and it does not take into account the value-laden nature of social science research. Giddens claims that positivism is not able to fully understand the social world and that it is necessary to take into account the perspectives of the individuals involved in the social phenomenon under study.

In addition, Giddens argues that positivism is unable to account for the structural features of social action and that it is unable to account for the active role of individuals in shaping their own lives and social structures. He claims that Positivism's "image of society" is mechanical, and it is unable to account for the agency of human beings and how they act and interact in social structures. He maintains that social structures are created and maintained by human actions, and they are not fixed or predetermined.

In summary, Giddens's critique of positivism is that it is too narrow and reductionist, and it is unable to account for the complexity, subjectivity, and agency of social phenomena.

Q3. Explain the comparative method. Discuss its scope in social science research.

The comparative method is a research approach used in the social sciences to compare and contrast different cases in order to identify patterns, similarities, and differences. The comparative method can be used to study different countries, regions, cultures, or historical periods. The goal of the comparative method is to identify general patterns or principles that are applicable across different cases, rather than making generalizations based on a single case.

The comparative method is used in a variety of social science disciplines, including sociology, political science, anthropology, and history. It can be used to study a wide range of social phenomena, including political systems, economic systems, social movements, cultural practices, and historical events.

The comparative method has several advantages in social science research. It allows researchers to identify patterns and generalizations that would not be apparent from a single case study. It also allows researchers to test hypotheses about the causes of social phenomena by comparing different cases. Additionally, the comparative method can be used to identify the unique features of a particular case and to understand how different cases differ from one another.

The comparative method also has its limitations. One limitation is that it can be difficult to find cases that are truly comparable. Another limitation is that comparative research can be time-consuming and resource-intensive. Additionally, it can be difficult to control for all the relevant factors that might affect the outcomes being studied.

In summary, the comparative method is a widely used research approach in the social sciences. It allows researchers to identify patterns and generalizations across different cases and to test hypotheses about social phenomena. It is useful for understanding the unique features of a particular case and how it differs from other cases. However, it also has limitations, including the difficulty of finding truly comparable cases and controlling for all relevant factors.

Q4. Discuss the participatory approach to social research. Compare and contrast it with conventional research methodology.

Q5. Critically examine the nature and scope of feminist method in social science research.


Write a research report on any one of the following topics in about 3000 words.

Q1. Change in family structure and familial relations in India.

The traditional Indian family Any generalizations about the Indian family suffer from oversimplification, given the pluralistic nature of the Indian culture. However, in most sociological studies, Asian and Indian families are considered classically as large, patriarchal, collectivistic, joint families, harboring three or more generations vertically and kith and kin horizontally. Such traditional families form the oldest social institution that has survived through ages and functions as a dominant influence in the life of its individual members. Indian joint families are considered to be strong, stable, close, resilient and enduring with focus on family integrity, family loyalty, and family unity at expense of individuality, freedom of choice, privacy and personal space. MSO 002 Research Methodologies and Methods Solved Assignment 2022-23 , MSO 002  Solved Assignment 2022-23 , 

Structurally, the Indian joint family includes three to four living generations, including grandparents, parents, uncles, aunts, nieces and nephews, all living together in the same household, utilizing a common kitchen and often spending from a common purse, contributed by all. Change in such family structure is slow, and loss of family units after the demise of elderly parents is counterbalanced by new members entering the family as children, and new members (wives) entering by matrimonial alliances, and their offsprings. The daughters of the family would leave following marriage.

Functionally, majority of joint families adhere to a patriarchal ideology, follow the patrilineal rule of descent, and are patrilocal; although matrilocal and matriarchal families are quite prevalent in some southern parts of the country. The lines of hierarchy and authority are clearly drawn, with each hierarchical strata functioning within the principal of “collective responsibility”. Rules of conduct are aimed at creating and maintaining family harmony and for greater readiness to cooperate with family members on decisions affecting almost all aspects of life, including career choice, mate selection, and marriage. While women are expected to accept a position subservient to males, and to subordinate their personal preferences to the needs of other, males are expected to accept responsibility for meeting the needs of others.

MSO 002 Research Methodologies and Methods Solved Assignment 2022-23 , MSO 002  Solved Assignment 2022-23 , 

The earning males are expected to support the old; take care of widows, never-married adults and the disabled; assist members during periods of unemployment and illness; and provide security to women and children. Psychologically, family members feel an intense emotional interdependence, empathy, closeness, and loyalty to each other.

The changing Indian family The socio-cultural milieu of India is undergoing change at a tremendous pace, leaving fundamental alterations in family structure in its wake. The last decade has not only witnessed rapid and chaotic changes in social, economic, political, religious and occupational spheres; but also saw familial changes in power distribution, marital norms and role of women. A review of the national census data and the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) data suggests that, gradually, nuclear families are becoming the predominant form of Indian family institution, at least in urban areas.

Q2. Significance of open and distance learning in democratization of education.

Q3. Relevance of quantitative method of analysis in sociological research


IGNOU MSO 002 Solved Assignment,

MSO 002 Handwritten Assignment 2022-23

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Important Note - You may be aware that you need to submit your assignments before you can appear for the Term End Exams. Please remember to keep a copy of your completed assignment, just in case the one you submitted is lost in transit.

Submission Date :

·        31st March 2023 (if enrolled in the July 2022 Session)

·       30th Sept, 2023 (if enrolled in the January 2023 session).

IGNOU Instructions for the MSO 002 Assignments

MSO 002 RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES AND METHODS Assignment 2022-23 Before attempting the assignment, please read the following instructions carefully. MSO 002 Research Methodologies and Methods Solved Assignment 2022-23 , MSO 002  Solved Assignment 2022-23 , 

1. Read the detailed instructions about the assignment given in the Handbook and Programme Guide.

2. Write your enrolment number, name, full address and date on the top right corner of the first page of your response sheet(s).

3. Write the course title, assignment number and the name of the study centre you are attached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).

4Use only foolscap size paper for your response and tag all the pages carefully

5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.

6. You should write in your own handwriting.

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MSO 002 Solved Assignment 2022-23 You will find it useful to keep the following points in mind:

1. Planning: Read the questions carefully. Go through the units on which they are based. Make some points regarding each question and then rearrange these in a logical order. And please write the answers in your own words. Do not reproduce passages from the units.

2. Organisation: Be a little more selective and analytic before drawing up a rough outline of your answer. In an essay-type question, give adequate attention to your introduction and conclusion. The introduction must offer your brief interpretation of the question and how you propose to develop it. The conclusion must summarise your response to the question. In the course of your answer, you may like to make references to other texts or critics as this will add some depth to your analysis.

3. Presentation: Once you are satisfied with your answers, you can write down the final version for submission, writing each answer neatly and underlining the points you wish to emphasize. MSO 002 Research Methodologies and Methods Solved Assignment 2022-23 , MSO 002  Solved Assignment 2022-23 , 

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