Tuesday, July 13, 2021

IGNOU IBO 02 Solved Assignment 2020-21

IGNOU IBO 02 Solved Assignment 2020-21 , IBO 02 Solved Assignment 2021 , FREE IBO 02 Solved Assignment PDF , How to get IBO 02 Solved Assignment for Free, We are providing IGNOU IBO 02 Solved Assignment all over India , In this website students will get the all solutions related with their IGNOU Assignments , IGNOU Study Material , IGNOU Previous Years Papers and IGNOU Study Notes , IBO 02 Assignment is for those candidate who want to submit their assignments on time.

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IGNOU IBO 02 Solved Assignment 2020-21

Q.1 What is international market segmentation? What are the bases of international market segmentation?

International Market Segmentation - A market segment is a concept which consists of group of customers having similar set of wants. The basic purpose of market segmentation is to satisfy the needs of customers more precisely. It is not to subdivide the market just for the sake of the segmentation. For Understanding International Market Segmentation “Total market strategy” always places the company in a direct competition with strong and local based competitors. The Japanese business firms take their targets very carefully by making continuous attempt to segment the market. While planning to enter the U.S. markets they always avoid direct competition with local U.S. based business firms.

The main purpose behind to take the maximum benefits of market segmentation is market homogeneity. Initially a multinational company may enter just in one or few countries and gradually develop its markets in the abroad. In order to broaden its business scope in the world market, the company must identify different countries as to target its markets.

International Market Segmentation – Characteristics behind Segmenting

Market segmentation can be defined as a technique of dividing different countries into homogeneous groups. The rationale behind the concept of market segmentation is based on the fact that the global market cannot be served on the basis of single set of policies. It is because of difference in cultural, economic, geographical, political & legal and demographical parameters. The company may not be able to do business with all countries and in that case it draw certain those segments where the business potential is comparatively higher.

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Q.2 Discuss the emerging global competitive environment. Examine whether small enterprise have scope in the emerging global business environment.

The global competitive environment requires organizations not only to compete in their ability to enter new markets and achieve economies of scale but also in their ability to effectively administrate knowledge flows in an information-based economy. Additionally, in order to increase competitiveness, challenges are faced in pursuing global efficiency, local responsiveness and at the same time effective knowledge and information transfer between subsidiaries. Different strategies can be employed to achieve competitive advantages, Multinational Enterprises (MNEs) adopting international strategies seek to exploit worldwide innovations, but they lack of flexibility and efficiency preventing them from being locally responsive, such as General Electric. Firms like Philips, approaching a multi-domestic strategy comprise high local responsiveness but experienced difficulties in exploiting knowledge transfer and competencies of all the subsidiaries. Global strategy was adopted by MNEs who followed high centralization and tight control on its activities from Headquarters, which prevented product adaptation to satisfy local needs being the case of Matsushita…….

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Q-3 Distinguish between the following:

(a) International and Multinational marketing.

International and Multinational Marketing is a word that stands for the one which occurs, exists, or carried between different nations is known as international whereas, a word that stands for those which involves different individuals of several nationalities or several countries is known as multinational. SoThe word International is mostly in a general context; on the other hand, the word multinational is used in a business context.An international company never invests outside the home country. Conversely, the multinational company has investments in many countries, but they do not deal with coordinated products in each country.

International is that who is representing his country in a specific sport; on the flip side, multinational is a multinational company.

ForAn example of the correct use of the word “international” is, “Ali is working in a large, international restaurant.” On the other side, an example of correct usage of the word “multinational” is “Ali is the CEO of a multinational corporation.”

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(b) High tech positioning and High touch positioning.

High tech positioning and high touch positioning The high-touch product is those products which are sold in lesser volumes but offer bigger margin on the sale of each unit of the product. Buyers involve a lot of background research and risk associated with high-touch products are high. Here, sales or business development team can actively pursue their prospective clients for the product sale. For example, a car is an example of the high-touch product.Positioning involves influencing perceptions owned by consumers and building it an advantageous position in comparison to another competitors’ product. High-tech product positioning involves the focus on features, specifications and other technical details that can position such products to be a superior one in consumers’ perception. But, in a case of high touchpositioning, the focus is on products that should reflect its growing impact on lifestyle. Here, visualization is important to build a positive perception among the consumers.There are some products such as high-end sports bike that can be promoted through high-tech as well as high-touch positioning strategy. Focus on its speed, strength, and power while reflecting its role in status symbol and luxury can attract both types of consumers.

(c) Direct and Indirect exporting.

Direct exporting refers to the sale within the foreign market by the manufacturer himself. A manufacturer doesn't use any middlemen within the channel between the house country and overseas market. Following figure shows direct exporting channels.

Indirect exporting refers to the transfer of the selling responsibility to other organization by the manufacturer. In indirect exporting, the manufacturer utilizes the services of varied sorts of independent marketing middlemen. Thus, a manufacturer isn't required to figure very hard and foreign sales are handled within the same way because the domestic sales.

The difference between direct and indirect exporting is that within the direct exporting the manufacturer performs the export task instead of delegating it to others. The tasks of market contact, marketing research , physical distribution, expert documentation, pricing, etc. fall on the manufacturer. Direct exporting usually leads to more sales than indirect exporting.

The choice between indirect-exporting and direct exporting is a similar to the selection between selling through a manufacturer’s representative or through the firm’s own sales department in domestic marketing. A firm may export on to large markets but export indirectly to small markets.

(d) Trade selling and Missionary selling.

The Trade Selling and Missionary Selling both differentiation given following :

Trade Selling - Sales professionals working for consumer products companies normally do not sell to the final user (i.e., consumer). Instead their role is focused on first getting distributors, such wholesalers and retailers, to handle their products and once this is accomplished, helping distributors sell their product by offering ideas for product advertising, instore display and sales promotions.

Missionary Selling - These salespeople are used in industries where customers make purchases based on the advice or requirements of others. Two industries in which missionary selling is commonly found are pharmaceuticals, where salespeople, known as product detailers, discuss products with doctors (influencers) who then write prescriptions for their patients (final customer) and Architect who specifies to the Builder the materials to be used and quantity to be used and Brands to be used.


Q.4 Write short notes on the following:

(a) EPRG Orientation

EPRG stand for Ethnocentric, Polycentric, Regiocentric, and Geocentric. It is a framework created by Howard V Perlmuter and Wind and Douglas in 1969.

It is designed to be used in an internationalization process of businesses and mainly addresses how companies view international management orientations. According to the EPRG Framework (or the EPRG Model), there are four management approaches that an organization can take to get more involved in international business substantially.

The EPRG Framework suggests that companies must decide which approach is most suitable for achieving successful results in countries abroad. For this reason, the EPRG Framework can be a useful tool to utilize if a company does not know yet how to manage business activities between companies in the local country and a host country. The EPRG Framework is additionally useful for making strategic decisions.

(b) Franchising

Franchising may be a sort of marketing and distribution during which the owner of a business system (the franchisor) grants to a private or group of people (the franchisee) the proper to run a business selling a product or providing a service using the franchisor's business system.

 

Franchisees also are given permission to use the franchisor's branding, trademarks, and identifying marks under specified guidelines. it's important for anyone deciding to start out a business by becoming a franchisee to recollect that in franchising the franchisee is sure to a partnership agreement with the franchisor for an outlined period of your time (some exceptions do exist).

Franchising as we all know it today is widely believed to possess originated with Isaac Singer within the 1850s. After Singer invented his home appliance he encountered two main problems when introducing it to the marketplace. the primary was that customers needed to be taught the way to use the new invention before they might pip out . The second was that Singer didn't have enough capital to manufacture his machine in large numbers.

In response, Singer, along side business partners, came up with the thought of selling the rights to sell the stitching machines also as train those that bought one to local business people across the country (and eventually internationally).

Once he employed this technique , Singer’s enterprise expanded rapidly. The royalties earned from the license rights helped offset manufacturing costs and, because each franchise was self-financed, Singer Manufacturing Company was ready to tap into the entrepreneurial attributes and native market knowledge of the franchisees to assist Singer become more successful than he could have by himself.

(c) Test Marketing

The market test is generally carried out to ascertain the probable market success in terms of new product’s performance, the level of acceptance of the product, customer satisfaction, and the efficiency of the marketing campaign.

Through test marketing, a marketer may ascertain the success ratio of the new product and the marketing campaign and can design the marketing mix ( viz. Product, price, place, promotion) very well before its launch.

The test marketing of the consumer goods and the industrial goods vary, let’s discuss it one by one.

IBO 02 Solved Assignment 2020-21


(d) Transfer Pricing

Transfer pricing can be defined as the value which is attached to the goods or services transferred between related parties. In other words, transfer pricing is the price that is paid for goods or services transferred from one unit of an organization to its other units situated in different countries (with exceptions).

The following are some of the typical international transactions which are governed by the transfer pricing rules:

àSale of finished goods

àPurchase of raw material

àPurchase of fixed assets

àSale or purchase of machinery etc.

àSale or purchase of intangibles

àReimbursement of expenses paid/received

àIT enabled services

àSupport services

àSoftware development services

àTechnical Service fees

àManagement fees

àRoyalty fees

àCorporate Guarantee fees

à Loan received or paid

Q.5 Comment on the following:

(a) There are several reasons for a business firm to go international.

Technology: The technological advances have increased the dimensions of the optimum scale of operation substantially in many industries making it necessary to possess global market in order that economies of scale could also be availed.

Growth in International Markets: Many Indian companies entered the international markets in response to growth in international markets. the big growth potential of the many foreign markets has been a really strong attraction for Indian software companies to travel international. Similarly, an Indian drug company CIPLA entered Africa with its HIV treatment drugs as there exists a huge market.

Competition: Competition may become a drive behind international marketing. Competitors are a crucial factor which stimulates international marketing. Tata Motors became international in response to other automobile companies becoming international. Many companies also take an offensive international competitive strategy by way of counter competition.

Growth of Overseas Markets: The enormous growth potential of the many overseas markets drive many companies to expand the market globally. economic process of the many developing countries has created market opportunities that provide a serious incentive for companies to expand globally. during a number of developing countries, both the population and income are growing fast.

Growth rate of India has been good and economic reforms have accelerated the expansion . Further, economic process has reduced resistance which may otherwise have developed in response to the entry of foreign firms into domestic economies. it's convenient for a far off company to enter a domestic economy without taking business faraway from local firms.

(b) Even after entering the markets a company must answer questions like, should it build, divest or abandon the market it has entered; how many such market it should hold and so on.

(c) GATS Eliminates various legal barriers to international marketing in services.

(d) International marketing research is full of complexities.

 

IBO 02 Solved Assignment 2020-21  , IBO 02 Solved Assignment - As explained in the Programme Guide, you have to do one Tutor Marked Assignment for each course. We are sending the assignments of all the six courses together in this booklet. Assignment is given 30% weightage in the final assessment. To be eligible to appear in the Term-End Examination, it is compulsory for you to submit the assignments as per the schedule. Before attempting the assignments, you should carefully read the instructions given in the Programme Guide. These assignments are valid for two admission cycles (January 2020 and July 2020). The validity is given below:

1. Those who are enrolled in January 2020, it is valid upto December 2020.

2. Those who are enrolled in July 2020, it is valid upto June 2021. In case you are planning to appear in June Term-End Examination, you must submit the assignments to the Coordinator of your Study Centre latest by 15th March and if you are planning to appear in December Term-End Examination, you must submit them latest by 15th September.

IBO 02 is IGNOU subject code for MCOM first year Course. All students appearing for the first-year need to submit  IBO 02 assignments.

Let’s see all these six subjects-

 

IBO 01 Solved Assignment 2021

IBO 03 India’s Foreign Trade Solved Assignment 2021

IBO 04 Export-Import Procedure & Documentation Solved Assignment 2021

IBO 05 International Marketing Logistics Solved Assignment 2021

IBO 06 International Business Finance Solved Assignment 2021

IBO 02 Solved Assignment 2020-21 You can Get All students of university who needs to submit assignments should download old assignments of the respective course of 2021 available above and submit at the concerned study center. The last dates will be 30th April and 30th October of every year until their registration is valid. New assignments will not be available any more for students as course was revised.

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