Friday, October 2, 2020

Universal definition of childhood is not possible

 Universal definition of childhood is not possible

DEFINING CHILDREN BY AGE

Universal definition of childhood is not possible, The Convention on the Rights of the Child (Article 1) states that “a child means every human being below the age of 18 years unless, under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier” (this appears as Overhead 1.2). While this definition provides a point of common reference for international organisations, NGOs and governments, operational definitions in the field may differ. 

For example, the International Committee of the Red Cross defines an unaccompanied minor as “below 15 years of age and not being accompanied by an adult”. Universal definition of childhood is not possible, In contrast, the UNHCR definition is consistent with the CRC and sets “under 18” as the age for inclusion in family tracing services. During the return of African National Congress members to South Africa, the term “youth” was widely applied to single young men, frequently up to the age of thirty-five. In other countries, the threshold for youth may be at a much younger chronological age. Universal definition of childhood is not possible, In many situations of conflict and displacement, the accuracy of children’s ages may be in question. Lack of official birth records can combine with the fact that, in many societies, exact dates of birth are of little importance. 

universal definition of childhood is not possible; ignou bes solved assingment; childhood and growing up


Universal definition of childhood is not possible, Universal definition of childhood is not possible, In others, children are considered to be aged one at birth. Universal definition of childhood is not possible, Universal definition of childhood is not possible, In the context of very high infant mortality, new-borns may not be formally named or even recognised until they have passed a full year, when it becomes more certain that they will survive. Universal definition of childhood is not possible, Universal definition of childhood is not possible, In many cultures there is a distinction between different stages of childhood - especially between stages of the “innocence” or “ignorance” of childhood and a later stage of “reason” and “responsibility”. Universal definition of childhood is not possible, Many legal codes define the age at which children are legally deemed to be responsible for their actions.  


CULTURAL FACTORS

Universal definition of childhood is not possible, In different cultural contexts, factors other than age may be important in determining who is a child or an adolescent: factors such as social roles, gender, marital status and the capacity to contribute economically may be more important than chronological age in shaping expectations of children. 

Universal definition of childhood is not possible, Rituals of religion or custom may also confer social status, clearly marking points of transition in rights and obligations in the eyes of the wider community. These may be indirectly linked to age, notably the onset of puberty. Universal definition of childhood is not possible, In many cultures, adolescents, both boys and girls, go through rites of passage which, once successfully completed, confer adult rights and responsibilities. Universal definition of childhood is not possible, The ability to maintain such customs is often difficult in the context of displacement, where lack of income and access to important resources may delay or dilute these practices. Universal definition of childhood is not possible, An assessment of the way universal principles, national laws, local regulations and customs shape expectations of children at various ages should be the starting point for intervention.

CHILDHOOD AS A SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CONCEPT

Universal definition of childhood is not possible, Childhood is neither timeless nor universal: it is not determined only by age, or by biological and psychological factors. Rather childhood is understood by reference to particular cultural and social contexts and to particular periods in history. Universal definition of childhood is not possible, Childhood in Mexico is not the same as childhood in Madras or Madrid: childhood at the beginning of the third Millennium in London is not the same as it was two hundred years ago. 

Universal definition of childhood is not possible, In the more developed countries of the north, for example, childhood is now seen as an extended period of economic dependency and protected innocence during which play and schooling are seen as central components: but this is far removed from childhood in many other cultures, where work (whether paid, or work within the household) must take precedence over both schooling and play. 

Universal definition of childhood is not possible, In many countries of the south, the child-rearing environment is characterised by large families and high infant mortality: a heavy emphasis on parents’ efforts to ensure the physical survival of their children means that parents must devote much of their time to economic and domestic activity, with many “parenting” tasks delegated to other people, often older children. Universal definition of childhood is not possible, Western notions of childhood often place an emphasis on children’s vulnerability and innocence, but again in other contexts this may be much less appropriate.

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