Friday, September 11, 2020

The meaning, nature and evolution of democracy in the 20th century.

The meaning, nature and evolution of democracy in the 20th century.

Evolution of democracy, Failures of nondemocratic systems a big a part of the reason is that each one the most alternatives to democracy—whether of ancient or of recent origins—suffered political, economic, diplomatic, and military failures that greatly lessened their appeal. With the victory of the Allies in war I, the traditional systems of monarchy, aristocracy, and oligarchy ceased to be legitimate. Following the military defeat of Italy and Germany in war II, the newer alternative of fascism was likewise discredited, as was Soviet-style communism after the economic and political collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990–91. Similar failures contributed to the gradual disappearance of military dictatorships in Latin America within the 1980s and ’90s.

Accompanying these ideological and institutional changes were changes in economic institutions. Highly centralized economies under state control had enabled political leaders to use their ready access to economic resources to reward their allies and punish their critics. Evolution of democracy, As these systems were displaced by more decentralized market economies, the facility and influence of top officialdom declined. additionally , a number of the conditions that were essential to the successful functioning of market economies also contributed to the event of democracy: ready access to reliable information, relatively high levels of education, simple personal movement, and therefore the rule of law. As market economies expanded and as middle classes grew larger and more influential, popular support for such conditions increased, often amid demands for further democratization. the event of market economies contributed to the spread of democracy in other ways also . because the economic well-being of huge segments of the world’s population gradually improved, so too did the likelihood that newly established democratic institutions would survive and flourish. Evolution of democracy, generally , citizens in democratic countries with persistent poverty are more vulnerable to the appeals of antidemocratic demagogues who promise simple and immediate solutions to their country’s economic problems. Accordingly, widespread economic prosperity during a country greatly increases the probabilities that democratic government will succeed, whereas widespread poverty greatly increases the probabilities that it'll fail.

Political culture During the 20th century, democracy continued to exist in some countries despite periods of acute diplomatic, military, economic, or political crisis, like occurred during the first years of the good Depression. Evolution of democracy, The survival of democratic institutions in these countries is attributable partially to the existence in their societies of a culture of widely shared democratic beliefs and values. Such attitudes are acquired early in life from older generations, thus becoming embedded in people’s views of themselves, their country, and therefore the world. Evolution of democracy, In countries where democratic culture is weak or absent, as was the case within the Weimar Republic of Germany within the years following war I, democracy is far more vulnerable, and periods of crisis are more likely to steer to a reversion to a nondemocratic regime.