IGNOU MEG 18 American Poetry Solved Assignment 2023-2024

 IGNOU MEG 18 American Poetry Solved Assignment 2023-24 | MA ENGLISH Assignment

IGNOU MEG 18 American Poetry Solved Assignment 2023-2024, IGNOU MEG 18 Solved Assignment 2023-24 , Free MEG 18 American Poetry Assignment Pdf, How To Get  MEG 18 Solved Assignment For Free, We Are Providing Ignou MEG 18 American Poetry Solved Assignment All Over India.

-- BUY SOLVED PDF & Handwritten --

-- WhatsApp - 8130208920 --

Free MEG 18 Solved Assignment 2023-24 : FREE MEG 18 Solved Assignment 2023-24, students can directly done their assignment by simply take reference through our free IGNOU Service. MEG 18 Free solved assignment available here. PDF IGNOU MEG 18 Solved Assignment 2023-24

IGNOU MEG 18 Solved Assignment 2023-2024 Free PDF

Attempt any five questions.

All questions carry equal marks.

Q1. Enumerate on the Revolutionary War and Treaty of Paris and their impact on American poetry

By 1700, the northern part of America witnessed about 250,000 European and African settlers in 13 English-based colonies. On the eve of the Revolution, in 1775, a number of approximately 2.5 million settlers were surveyed. Although they did not share much in common, given their cultural, linguistic, culinary and social differences, they successfully united themselves as one to fight for their independence. Sparked after American colonists antagonised over issues like taxation without representation, epitomised by laws like The Stamp Act and The Townshend Acts, the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783) was declared. On April 19, 1775, when the “shot heard round the world” was fired during the Battles of Lexington and Concord , there were rising tensions and chaos. It was not without warning; the Boston Massacre on March 5, 1770 and the Boston Tea Party on December 16, 1773 showed the colonists’ increasing dissatisfaction with British rule in the colonies.

Issued on July 4, 1776, the Declaration of Independence listed the various reasons, the Founding Fathers felt obliged to break and depart from the rule of King George III and parliament to start a new nation. In September of that same year, the Continental Congress declared the “United Colonies” of America to be the “United States of America.” In 1778, France allied with the colonists assisting the Continental Army conquered the British at the Battle of Yorktown in 1781. The Treaty of Paris put an end to the American Revolution and granting the 13 original colonies independence was signed on September 3, 1783.

William Carlos Williams stated that “it is very easy to talk about American poetry because there isn’t any such thing” (qtd. in Dolan, 31).

 Habited mostly by European immigrants, the New World saw its poetic emergence. While poetry written and produced by the Native Americans were mostly seen as ‘indigenous’ in nature to the white American settlers and in their constructed mainstream, they believed that the “land of the Native Indians betrays every attribute of the concept of ‘America’”. In reality, the concept and birth of ‘America’ as a new country was founded on the displacement and killing of the indigenous natives - the real Americans. Nevertheless, their oral customs and traditions which include hymns, songs, myths, legends, tales and war chants did not have only much influence but rather integrated the American writings unlike the popular beliefs. Furthermore, their “pantheistic inflections were expressed through haiku-style imagery ona wide-ranging plethora of themes (Early American and Colonial Period)” (Kalra 1).

 In spite of the heavy influence and inclusion of the native poetic lyric on “what is considered to be conventional” (Kalra 1) ‘American’ poetry realm, the native lyric “is placed outside the realm of American poetry” (Kalra 1). The post factum imperial impacts of the British culture and cultural norms offered America the means to define its personalised cultural identity and existence. America redefined and established itself primarily through its politics, literature, music, cuisine and soon, all spawning from, or in opposition to their respective colonial origins. Subsequently, Siddhant Kalra writes, an “‘America’ is the embodiment of this process of mitosis and of the republican values espoused by the founding fathers of the American republic”

William Stanley Merwin rightly stated that: I certainly do not think of the tradition of American poetry as simply a homogenized addition to the English tradition. I feel that we are lucky to inherit it with a particular closeness, but that we also inherit the whole tradition of poetry in the language. I don’t think there is much to be gained by self conscious efforts to write some kind of genuine American poetry. If American poets write poems they will be that” (qtd in Kalra 1)

He effortlessly commented on the non-homogeneity of the American poetryIn New England, however, the intensity of Calvinist piety prompted a number of well-read Puritans to write poetry. Puritan theological ideologies and the restrictive lifestyle were no encouraging force between poetry writing and production. While, the Puritans willingly yielded to the effectiveness and versality of history of the kind Bradford wrote of sermons and rhetorical stratagems of the sort Winthrop favoured, they were often less enthusiastic about poetry. “

Be not so set upon poetry, as to be always poring on the passionate and measure pages,” the New England cleric Cotton Mather warned to “beware of a boundless and sickly appetite for the reading of ... poems ... and let not the Circean cup intoxicate you” (Gray 8). Of the verse that survives from this period, however, most of the finest and most popular among contemporaries inclines to the theological. The most popular is represented by The Day of Doom (1962), a resounding epic about Judgment Day written by Michael Wigglesworth (1631–1705), The Bay Psalm Book (1640), and The New England Primer (1683?). The Bay Psalm Book which is the translated biblical texts into a plain style band was brought out in 1640, was the first book printed in English in the New World. It was the first book of verse printed in the British American colonies; They did not strive for a more poetic translation because “God’s altar needs not our polishings.” The Day of Doom (1962) was the bestseller poem in colonial America.

 In 224 stanzas in ballad meter, Wigglesworth presents the prime Puritan beliefs, mostly through a debate between sinners and Christ. A effortless diction, driving rhythms, and unvarying insignificant references to biblical sources are all part of Wigglesworth’s didactic purpose. This is poetry intended to drive home its message, to convert some and to reinstate the religious fervor of others. Many Puritan readers committed portions of the poem to memory; still more read it aloud to 8 The Colonial and Revolutionary Periods their families.

The absolute simplicity and fervor of its message made it a perfect instrument for communicating and confirming faith. So it is, perhaps, hardly unexpected that Cotton Mather could put aside his distrust of poetry when it came to a work like The Day of Doom (1962). At Wigglesworth’s death, in fact, Mather confessed his high regard for the poet: who, Mather said, had written for “the Edification of such Readers, as are for Truth’s dressed up in Plaine Meeter” (Gray 9). Nevertheless, The Bay Psalm Book (1640) and The New England Primer (1683) gained more popularity than The Day of Doom; after the Bible which was the most widely owned and read book in Colonial America. The Bay Psalm Book was the first project of the Massachusetts Bay Colony provided the psalms of David translated into “idiomatic English” and adapted to the basic “hymn stanza form” of four lines with eight beats in each line and regular rhymes (Gray 9).

Produced by twelve “New England divines”, it was a collaborative compilation. Among the contributors, was John Cotton who concisely explained in the Preface what they really had in mind was. He stated that: “Conscience rather than Elegance, fidelity rather than poetry.” “We have ... done our endeavour to make a plain and familiar translation” (qtd. in Gray 9). Cotton continued, “if therefore the verses are not always so smoothe and elegant as some may desire ..., let them consider that God’s 17 Contextualizing American Poetry: Colonial Period Altar need not our polishings” (qtd. in Gray 9). Cotton insisted that, what was required was, “a plain translation” (Ibid). Intended to be sung in the church and at home, the psalms were dutifully used in both. The Bay Psalm Book was purposefully used to popularize and promote faith which it did. Printed in England and Scotland and the colonies; it underwent through more than 50 editions over the century, post its first appearance. It perfectly illustrated the Puritan belief in an “indelible, divinely ordained connection between the mundane and the miraculous”, the language and habits of everyday and the apprehension of eternity (Ibid). Additionally, it enabled a huge number of people, as Cotton put it, to “sing the Lord’s songs ... in our English tongue” (Ibid).

-- BUY SOLVED PDF & Handwritten --

-- WhatsApp - 8130208920 --


Q2. Write short notes on:

a) American Spirit

The American spirit is a multifaceted concept, a constellation of ideals, values, and experiences that shape the national identity of the United States. It's a flame that has flickered and roared throughout history, fueled by a complex mix of rebellion, resilience, optimism, and the pursuit of a more perfect union. This essay delves into the essence of the American spirit, exploring its historical roots, its evolving expressions, and its enduring significance in the 21st century.

The Birth of a Nation: Seeds of the American Spirit

The American spirit can be traced back to the colonial era, where a spirit of dissent and yearning for self-determination took root. European colonists, yearning for religious freedom and political autonomy from the British crown, embarked on a perilous journey across the Atlantic. This act of defiance laid the groundwork for a nation built on the principles of self-governance and individual liberty. The colonists' struggle for independence, culminating in the American Revolution, served as a crucible that forged a unique national identity. Documents like the Declaration of Independence, penned by Thomas Jefferson, enshrined the ideals of "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" as fundamental rights. This revolutionary zeal, a belief in the power of the people to shape their own destiny, became a cornerstone of the American spirit.

The spirit of exploration and the vastness of the American frontier further fueled a pioneering spirit. The westward expansion of the 19th century saw a wave of settlers push across the continent, driven by a belief in Manifest Destiny, the idea that the United States was destined to spread its ideals and reach from coast to coast. This period witnessed incredible feats of resilience and ingenuity as pioneers braved harsh landscapes and built new communities. The spirit of the cowboy, self-reliant and fiercely independent, became an enduring symbol of this era.

However, westward expansion came at a heavy cost. The displacement and decimation of Native American populations casts a dark shadow on this period. Recognizing these injustices and confronting the complexities of American history is crucial to understanding the evolution of the American spirit.

The United States has always been a nation of immigrants, a place where people from all corners of the globe have sought a better life. Immigration waves throughout history have brought new cultural influences, enriching the American tapestry but also sparking tensions. The ideal of the "melting pot," where diverse backgrounds blend into a unified American identity, has been central to the national narrative.

However, the reality of assimilation has been more nuanced. Many immigrant groups have maintained their cultural traditions while also embracing aspects of American life. The American Dream, the idea that with hard work and determination anyone can achieve success, has served as a powerful magnet, drawing immigrants and instilling a spirit of optimism and upward mobility.

The 20th Century: Challenges and Resilience

The 20th century saw the American spirit tested by world wars, economic depression, and social unrest. The nation emerged victorious from both World Wars, projecting itself as a global leader and champion of democracy. However, these conflicts also exposed the dangers of isolationism and the need for international cooperation. The Great Depression of the 1930s brought unprecedented economic hardship, but also ignited a spirit of resilience and the rise of social safety nets. The Civil Rights movement, a long struggle for racial equality, challenged deeply entrenched injustices and exemplified the pursuit of a more perfect union.

The 21st century presents new challenges and opportunities for the American spirit. Globalization, technological advancements, and rising economic inequality raise questions about the meaning of opportunity and the future of the American Dream. Issues like climate change and political polarization demand a spirit of compromise and collective responsibility.

However, the core principles of the American spirit - liberty, democracy, and the pursuit of a better life - remain relevant. The ongoing fight for social justice, the entrepreneurial spirit of startups, and the dedication to scientific progress all demonstrate a continued commitment to those ideals.

The American spirit is not a static concept. It's a dynamic narrative constantly being redefined through ongoing social movements and evolving social values. Recognizing the complexities of American history, including the legacies of slavery and oppression, is crucial for forging a more inclusive and equitable future. A new generation is redefining the American spirit by emphasizing inclusivity, environmental consciousness, and social justice.


b) Puritan Spirit

The Puritan spirit, a distinct thread woven into the fabric of American identity, stands as a testament to a deeply held commitment to religious faith, moral rectitude, and social order. Rising in 16th-century England, Puritanism sought to "purify" the Church of England, stripping away practices deemed too Catholic.

Seeds of Dissent

The roots of the Puritan spirit lie in the Protestant Reformation that swept across Europe in the 16th century. Puritans, dissatisfied with what they saw as the Church of England's incomplete break from Catholicism, advocated for a simpler, more austere form of worship. They believed in predestination, the idea that God had predetermined who would be saved, and emphasized personal piety and a strict moral code. This focus on individual accountability and a direct relationship with God became a hallmark of the Puritan spirit.

Facing Persecution

Facing persecution for their beliefs under Queen Elizabeth I, many Puritans fled England seeking religious freedom. This act of defiance, a core element of the American spirit as a whole, was particularly pronounced for the Puritans. In 1620, a group now known as the Pilgrims set sail for the New World aboard the Mayflower, establishing the Plymouth Colony in present-day Massachusetts. This act of seeking refuge and forging a new society based on their beliefs solidified the connection between the Puritan spirit and the American identity.

Building a City Upon a Hill

The Puritans envisioned their settlements as "a city upon a hill," a shining example of a godly society for the world to follow. They established strict moral codes, enforced church attendance, and limited leisure activities. Their emphasis on literacy led to the founding of schools and a high level of education for the time. This dedication to education and order became a lasting contribution of the Puritan spirit.

Work Ethic and the Virtues of Thrift

The Puritan work ethic, a cornerstone of American economic life, finds its roots in their beliefs. Hard work was seen not only as a path to prosperity but also as a sign of God's favor. Frugality and the avoidance of idleness were central tenets. This emphasis on hard work and self-reliance continues to shape American values today.

The Duality of the Puritan Spirit: Order and Repression

While the Puritan spirit fostered a sense of community and social order, it also carried a darker side. Their strict moral codes and intolerance for dissent led to the suppression of alternative viewpoints and the persecution of those deemed outside the norm. The Salem witch trials, a horrific episode in American history, stand as a stark reminder of the dangers of unchecked religious fervor.

The influence of the Puritan spirit extended beyond the confines of their settlements. Their emphasis on education and literacy laid the groundwork for a well-educated citizenry. Their commitment to self-government and participation in civic life contributed to the development of American democracy. However, their social rigidity and intolerance also cast a long shadow, contributing to a strain of moral conservatism in American life.

The Enduring Puritan Legacy

The Puritan spirit's legacy is complex and multifaceted. It instilled a sense of duty, hard work, and moral responsibility that has shaped American society. Their commitment to education and self-government continues to be valued. However, their intolerance and repression serve as a cautionary tale. A nuanced understanding of the Puritan spirit is necessary to appreciate its contributions and recognize its limitations. The American spirit has evolved far beyond the narrow confines of Puritanism. Subsequent waves of immigration, religious pluralism, and social movements have broadened the national identity. Yet, the core values of hard work, self-reliance, and the pursuit of a better life still resonate with the Puritan spirit.


The American spirit is a rich tapestry woven from diverse threads. The Puritan spirit, with its emphasis on order, morality, and education, remains a significant strand. Recognizing its contributions and shortcomings allows us to create a more inclusive and just future, one that builds upon the best of American traditions while confronting the shadows of the past.

-- BUY SOLVED PDF & Handwritten --

-- WhatsApp - 8130208920 --



Q3. Philip Freneau’s poem, “The Wild Honey Suckle” is a political document engaging American national landscape – discuss.

American poetry is likely a sort of art or craft, which is an act of selfexpression. There is often something deeply personal connected to weaving words, metaphors, rhyming patterns and imagery to the sense as it fills us with emotions and feelings. Every poem is replete with its own emotions. The poetry of Philip Freneau makes the readers enter in the world of love, freedom, democracy and nationhood. It gives pleasure to our senses because it has the power to evoke emotions and feelings if it is read out loud. These emotions and feelings help establish a certain atmosphere or mood. The writer of the poem creates the mood using many elements such as setting, tone and theme.

Freneau was born on 2 January 1752 in New York City, the oldest of the five children of Huguenot wine merchant Pierre Freneau and his Scottish wife. Philip was raised in Matawan, New Jersey. He attended the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University), where he studied under William Tennent, Jr.Freneau’s close friend at Princeton was James Madison, a relationship that would later contribute to his establishment as the editor of the National Gazette.

Freneau family tradition suggests that Madison became acquainted with and fell in love with the poet’s sister, Mary, during visits to their home while he was studying at Princeton. While tradition has it that Mary rejected Madison’s repeated marriage proposals, this anecdote is undocumented and unsupported by other evidence. Freneau graduated from Princeton in 1771, having already written the poetical History of the Prophet Jonah, and, with Hugh Henry Brackenridge, the prose satire Father Bombo’s Pilgrimage to Mecca. After his graduation, he began teaching, but suddenly gave it up. He also pursued a further study of theology, but gave this up as well after about two years. As the Revolutionary War approached in 1775, Freneau wrote many anti-British pieces.

However, by 1776, Freneau left America for the West Indies, where he would spend time writing about the beauty of nature. In 1778, Freneau returned to America, and rejoined the patriotic cause. Freneau eventually became a crew member on a revolutionary privateer, and was captured in this capacity. He was held on a British prison ship for about six weeks. This unpleasant experience (in which he almost died), detailed in his work The British Prison Ship, would precipitate many more patriotic and anti-British writings throughout the revolution and after. For this, he was named “The Poet of the American Revolution”.

In 1790 Freneau married Eleanor Forman, and became an assistant editor of the New York Daily Advertiser. Soon after, Madison and Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson worked to get Freneau to move to Philadelphia in order to edit a partisan newspaper that would counter the Federalist newspaper The Gazette of the United States. Jefferson was criticized for hiring Freneau as a translator in the State Department, even though he spoke no foreign languages except French, in which Jefferson was already fluent.

Freneau accepted this undemanding position, which left free time to head the Democratic-Republican newspaper Jefferson and Madison envisioned. This partisan newspaper, The National Gazette, provided a vehicle for Jefferson, Madison, and others to promote criticism of the rival Federalists The Gazette took particular aim at the policies promoted by Alexander Hamilton, and like other papers of the day, would not hesitate to shade into personal attacks, including President George Washington during his second term. Owing to The Gazette’s frequent attacks on his administration and himself, Washington took a dislike to Freneau. Retiring to a more rural life and Freneau later wrote a mix of political and nature works. He died at 80 years of age, frozen to death on 18 December 1832 while returning to his home, and was buried in what became the Philip Morin Freneau Cemetery on Poet’s Drive in Matawan, New Jersey where is wife and mother were also buried

The non-political works of Freneau combined neoclassicism and romanticism. Although he is not as generally well known as Ralph Waldo Emerson or James Fenimore Cooper, Freneau introduced many themes and images for which later authors became famous.

For example, Freneau’s poem “The House of Night”, one of the first romantic poems written and published in America, included the Gothic elements and dark imagery that were later seen in the poetry by Edgar Allan Poe. Freneau’s nature poem, “The Wild Honey Suckle” (1786), was considered an early seed to the later Transcendentalist movement taken up by William Cullen Bryant, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Henry David Thoreau. Romantic primitivism was also anticipated by Freneau’s poems “The Indian Burying Ground” and “Noble Savage.”

“The Wild Honey Suckle” was first published in 1786, it refers to an American native shrub. This is a metaphorical poem that environs America, which is 85 Philip Freneau’s “The Wild Honey Suckle” budding to flower. Here, life is projected as a ‘fair flower’.

The American landscape is taken for discussion. The virginity of America is smelt but ‘untouched thy honied blossoms blow’. America, like a wild honeysuckle is growing her little branches. The poet greets the growth of the nation and tries to fill nationality among the country people by encouraging them all with ‘roving foot’, the mass progress and development. This poem is also a reaction to neoclassicism and an entry into romanticism much before it comes into being in 1820. The poem consists of four six-line stanzas rhyming ababcc. In the second stanza of the poem, America is posited as a woman as well as ‘Nature’ is capitalized and shown as a native shrub, which is clear from the title. Life by that time is depicted as ‘dull retreat’, ‘bloom to doom’,‘blossom to crush’, ‘vulgar eye’- all the phrases of negativism however leave a kind of wildness that need to be rectified. The poetic vision and insight is more positive and inspirational. Nature/ natural ecology is ever roved in this poem as poem is a journey. The poet’s feeling of ‘soft waters murmuring’ is a quiet experience of American flow that provides a new feeling for each one to achieve something new.‘

Thy days declining to repose’, sanctions a new hope and aspiration in the mind of the people that the American Revolution had yielded. In the third stanza, the poet very often sees the fall in the prosperity of America. There is a possibility of losing charm in the likeness of the Americans. Yet the poet tries to fill vacuity of the American mind with positive attitudes. In his farsightedness, whether it is the present or future, as the poet sees the decay, the poet’s tone seems more grievous: ‘I grieve to see your future doom’. The message the poet wants to leave is to grow with the growth of the nation and to grow like the flowers ‘in Eden bloom’ which is the biblical reference in Christian faith.

Freneau further tries to cover a year through different season in this stanza. Decorating human philosophy ‘From morning suns and evening dews/ At first thy little being came;’ what the poet intends to say is about temporariness of human existence. Man is nothing, but only the witness of the changing time. He has nothing to gain or lose in due course of life. There is a timespace continuity in the last stanza. Yet America is budding to flower. Hard days are going away with the achievements for the Americans. For the poet, the present time seems to be more significant to make America prosperous and the American progress is shining slowly as an independent country.

-- BUY SOLVED PDF & Handwritten --

-- WhatsApp - 8130208920 --

 IGNOU MEG 18 American Poetry Solved Assignment 2023-2024, IGNOU MEG 18 Solved Assignment 2023-24 , Free MEG 18 American Poetry Assignment Pdf, How To Get  MEG 18 Solved Assignment For Free, We Are Providing Ignou MEG 18 American Poetry Solved Assignment All Over India.

Q4. How does the choice of words in the poem “I Taste a Liquor Never Brewed” help to illustrate the idea of drunkenness?

I Taste A Liquor Never Brewed Poem summary line by line-What is the metaphor in I taste a liquor never brewed?,Where is the poem I taste a liquor never brewed set?,What is the key quote of I taste a liquor never brewed?,I Taste a Liquor Never Brewed by Emily Dickinson is still a compelling investigation into the transforming potential of nature and the ultimate happiness that comes from a close relationship with the natural world. The poem, which is written in Dickinson’s distinctive style, combines figurative language, rich imagery, and a celebration of the extraordinary found in the everyday.

Dickinson asks readers to embark on a voyage of spiritual and sensory intoxication with her in this poem. The imagined beverage turns into a symbol for the unmatched concoction made from materials found in nature, which surpasses the bounds of traditional pleasures. The speaker embraces an infinite communion with air, dew, and unending summer days as they reject the ordinary.I Taste A Liquor Never Brewed Poem summary line by line

I Taste A Liquor Never Brewed Summary 

“I taste a liquor never brewed” – The poem opens with the speaker expressing the sensation of consuming a unique beverage that has never been concocted.

“From Tankards scooped in Pearl” – The imaginary drink is metaphorically drawn from tankards, or large drinking vessels, scooped from pearls, evoking a sense of rarity and preciousness.

“Not all the vats upon the Rhine” – The speaker asserts that even the numerous wine-producing vats along the Rhine River, known for its vineyards, cannot rival the quality of this exceptional drink.

“Yield such an Alcohol!” – The emotional intoxication experienced by the speaker surpasses the alcoholic content of any conventional beverage, emphasizing the extraordinary nature of this feeling.

“Inebriate of air—am I—” – The source of the speaker’s intoxication is described as the very air, suggesting a spiritual or transcendent connection with nature.

“And Debauchee of Dew—” – The speaker characterizes themselves as one who indulges in the dew, possibly referring to the purity and freshness of nature’s elements.

“Reeling—thro’ endless summer days—” – The speaker experiences a sense of intoxication and euphoria that lasts throughout boundless summer days.

“From inns of molten Blue—” – The summer days are depicted as being housed in inns made of molten or melted blue, creating an image of a celestial and serene atmosphere.

“When “Landlords” turn the drunken Bee Out of the Foxglove’s door—” – Nature is personified as a landlord turning away a drunken bee from the door of a foxglove, possibly symbolizing the exclusion of excess or intrusion into the sanctity of nature.

“When Butterflies—renounce their “drams”—” – Butterflies are portrayed as giving up their small doses or drams, emphasizing the idea of renouncing conventional, limited pleasures.

“I shall but drink the more!” – The speaker expresses a determination to drink even more from this unconventional source, suggesting a limitless and insatiable appetite for the beauty and inspiration found in nature.

“Till Seraphs swing their snowy Hats—” – The poem concludes with an image of celestial beings, seraphs, tipping their hats in acknowledgment or approval, symbolizing the speaker’s communion with the divine through their profound connection with nature.

I Taste A Liquor Never Brewed Poem

I taste a liquor never brewed – 
From Tankards scooped in Pearl – 
Not all the Frankfort Berries
Yield such an Alcohol!

Inebriate of air – am I – 
And Debauchee of Dew – 
Reeling – thro’ endless summer days – 
From inns of molten Blue – 

When “Landlords” turn the drunken Bee
Out of the Foxglove’s door – 
When Butterflies – renounce their “drams” – 
I shall but drink the more!

Till Seraphs swing their snowy Hats – 
And Saints – to windows run – 
To see the little Tippler
Leaning against the – Sun!



I Taste a Liquor Never Brewed by Emily Dickinson encapsulates the speaker’s enraptured connection with nature, portraying a unique and transcendent experience. Through vivid imagery and metaphorical language, Dickinson crafts a poetic celebration of the profound joy and spiritual intoxication derived from a communion with the natural world.

The poem invites readers to explore the extraordinary through the ordinary, as the speaker finds a sublime elixir in the elements of air, dew, and endless summer days. The rejection of conventional pleasures and the embrace of a boundless connection with nature underscore the speaker’s insatiable appetite for the beauty inherent in the world around them.

As the poem concludes with an image of celestial seraphs acknowledging this communion, it leaves a lingering sense of awe and wonder. “I Taste a Liquor Never Brewed” stands as a testament to Emily Dickinson’s ability to capture the essence of the sublime in the simplicity of nature.What is the metaphor in I taste a liquor never brewed?,Where is the poem I taste a liquor never brewed set?,What is the key quote of I taste a liquor never brewed?,

-- BUY SOLVED PDF & Handwritten --

-- WhatsApp - 8130208920 --


Q5. Critically appreciate Robert Lowell’s poem, “For the Union Dead”

On March 1, 1917, Robert Lowell was born into one of Boston’s oldest and most prominent families. He attended Harvard College for two years. After that he studied at Kenyon College, where he studied poetry under John Crowe Ransom and received an undergraduate degree in 1940. He took graduate courses at Louisiana State University where he studied with Robert Penn Warren and Cleanth Brooks. His books like, Land of Unlikeness (Harcourt, Brace and Company), was published in1944. His second book Lord Weary’s Castle (Harcourt, Brace Company, 1946),won a Pulitzer Prize in 1947.

Both his books were influenced by his conversion from Episcopalianism to Catholicism and reconnoitred the dark side of America’s Puritan legacy. Under the influence of Allen Tate and the New Critics, he wrote austerely formal poetry that sketched praise for its remarkably commanding handling 277 Robert Lowell’s “For The Union Dead” of meter and rhyme. Lowell was politically involved—he became a diligent protester during the Second World War and was imprisoned as a result, and actively protested against the war in Vietnam. On the other hand his personal life was full of marital and psychological turmoil.

He suffered from severe episodes of manic depression, for which he was repeatedly hospitalized. He suffered from frequent psychological bouts. This had a deepening influence in his poetic career and in the mid-1950 under the influence of younger poets as W. D. Snodgrass and Allen Ginsberg, Lowell began to write more directly from personal experience, and loosened his observance to traditional meter and form. The result was a watershed collection, Life Studies (Faber and Faber, 1959), which incessantly altered the landscape of modern poetry, like Eliot’s The Waste Land. Many critics consider Lowell to be the most important poet in English of the second half of the twentieth century. He continued to develop his work with sometimes uneven results, until his sudden death on September 12, 1977. Robert Lowell served as a Chancellor of the Academy of American Poets from 1962 until his death.

 Summary of For The Union Death

The dramatic opening begins as a private meditation on his childhood memory of the Boston Aquarium. ‘For the Union Dead’ commemorates the sacrifice of Colonel Robert Shaw, a Union officer killed while leading a regiment of black troops during the Civil War. The poet shifts between the historic past and present, and deeply laments the erosion of heroic idealism in contemporary America with the technological intrusion. The poem envisages the legacy of the Civil War, embodied in a memorial to Colonel Robert Shaw, a white soldier who died while commanding an allblack regiment. Colonel Shaw was a twenty-one year old son of a well-todo white man, but had entirely sacrificed himself for the unity of the nation. He symbolized union idealism.

One hundred years after his death, Lowell contrasts Shaw’s heroism with contemporary forms of self-interest and greed in this poem. The title suggests that the Union army, now symbolizing national unity/patriotism, has been dead for the people of America of 1963. The poem is a critique of modern culture in general. The epigraph (letters carved under the statue, written in Latin) of the poem is the inscription on the memorial to Colonel Shaw and the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Regiment that he commanded. Lowell revised the inscription for the poem in English it means,

“He leaves everything else to serve the republic”. The original inscription is: “Relinquunt Omnia ServareRem Publicam” (or “They relinquish/ sacrifice everything to serve the Republic”). Lowell thus introduces the theme of noble self sacrifice in the poem The poet begins by graphing the Boston memorial from a distance; as he looks at the surrounding, he feels that the place looks like a “Sahara of snow now” - symbolically a place bereft of feelings.

The South Boston Aquarium (a big aquarium was also placed before the statue for decorating it) has been so unkempt that it has wrecked and there are no more fish in it. The weathercock upon the building has lost its scales so that it no longer shows any direction. This is a scathing criticism of the symbolic of the lack of direction in the “progress” of the material American civilization.

In the second stanza, the poet recalls his visit of the aquarium. As he was a child, he rubbed his nose on the glass wall of the aquarium and wished that he could break the bubbles that rose from the mouth of the fishes. The bubbles, symbolize many things including the American dream, values that modern people regard too unreal to be pursued, the heroism of the past. This image of rising bubbles presents the fish as entombed and subservient.

The kingdom of fish is literally heading “dark downwards” as they swim down and away from the aquarium light. To put it differently, this image suggests a sense that the modern American kingdom is getting worse, murkier, and less moral. “For the Union Dead” addresses the manner of American society as it degenerates from the idealism of the nineteenth century to the desperate loss of it in the mid twentieth century. The very image of the decrepit landscape and the fragmented language underlines this sense of collapse of values. Everything is derelict, broken and bare, both literally and symbolically.

EPIGRAPH RelinquuntOmniaServare Rem Publicam.”

● Translation from Latin: “They gave up all to serve the republic.”

● This is an epigraph. It is a short quotation at the beginning of the poem intended to introduce the poem.

● Here, Lowell very ingeniously takes the Latin phrase that is engraved in the actual Civil War memorial to introduce a poem on the very subject, a dedication for the Union soldiers that died in the Civil War.

● Briefly, the Union soldiers were from the north, and wanted, among other things, for all of the states (northern and southern) to remain part of the Republic. The Confederates, the opposition from the south, wanted to break away from the Republic.

● The Union supported President Lincoln’s decision to abolish slavery, the Confederates did not.

The historical context of this poem rests on Colonel Robert Shaw, who was recruited in 1863 by Governor John Andrew to lead one of the first troops of all–African American men in the Civil War. This group became the 54thMassachusetts Infantry. Shaw grew passionate about the equality of his soldiers, and he even led a boycott against unequal pay when he learned that his African American soldiers were paid less than their white counterparts. The 54th infantry paraded through Boston before going to South Carolina, where Shaw was killed near Charleston. In the first stanza, the reader is surprised.

Expecting to read about the “Union Dead,” it is a perplexing to read initially about the South Boston Aquarium instead. Lowell prepares his readers. The contrast between the ideals Shaw fought for and the world Lowell sees is totally opposite. Lowell uses alliteration twice in the second line (“Sahara . . . snow” and “broken . . . boarded”) to further accentuate the unforgiving and cold environment of this modern Boston. He ends that stanza with fish tanks that have dried up. 279 Robert Lowell’s “For The Union Dead” Just as the tanks have lost the purpose for which they were created, Boston may have lost its way in the calling issued by Colonel Shaw to create a more united world.

 In the second stanza, Lowell reflects on memories from his childhood, when he watched fish and reptiles in the aquarium, and he connects this through enjambment to the next stanza, in which construction is encroaching the Boston sky. The narrator begins at the ruins of the South Boston Aquarium, evoking past memories, then shifts to near-present, a day ‘last March.’ Lowell draws attention of his readers to a fenced excavation for an underground parking garage within paved parking areas in central Boston. The construction supports the frame the ‘tingling’ Statehouse in steel girders, while tremor from the work badly shakes the Shaw Memorial, reinforced only by a wooden ‘plank.’ In a way this is a critique of the modern technology.

The narrator reflects on the Memorial, which commemorates Colonel Robert Gould Shaw and the Union’s first black regiment, the Massachusetts 54th. The figures in the sculpture seem to ‘breathe’ life, issuing a vivid, personal, and disturbing reminder of death and sacrifice. Lowell reminds us that over half the regiment was killed in the first two months of battle. The Memorial hits home in a primeval way that contrasts sharply with its counterparts in ‘small-town . . . greens’ throughout New England, that seem ‘sparse’ and sleepy by comparison. The poem reminds and informs the reader that Colonel Shaw, the white commander, was buried in a mass grave, ‘a ditch,’ along with his black soldiers.

 This was all that Shaw’s father wanted. There are no more recent war memorials in Boston Common. One notices that the closest thing being a photograph celebrating an American-made safe that ‘survived’ Hiroshima intact. There are no statues to commemorate the Hiroshima attack. The poem concludes in a unique way, the content opens up in ways that challenge the reader and complicate interpretation.

The drained faces of ‘Negro school children’, reconnects with Colonel Shaw through images of balloons and bubbles, anticipating an impending rupture. In the final stanza, the poem refers to the closed aquarium once more, implying that the fish that once fascinated the narrator have now been replaced by the ‘giant finned cars’ that appear ‘everywhere’, leaving the reader to consider the various implications.

IGNOU MEG 18 American Poetry Solved Assignment 2023-2024, IGNOU MEG 18 Solved Assignment 2023-24 , Free MEG 18 American Poetry Assignment Pdf, How To Get  MEG 18 Solved Assignment For Free, We Are Providing Ignou MEG 18 American Poetry Solved Assignment All Over India.


Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.