IGNOU MEG 08 New Literatures in English Solved Assignment 2023-2024

 IGNOU MEG 08 New Literatures in English Solved Assignment 2023-24 | MA ENGLISH Assignment

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Attempt all the ten questions and answer each question in approximately 500 words.

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Full Solved MEG 08 Assignment 2023-24

Q1. Discuss the relationship between literature and social commitment with reference to the texts in your course.

Literature has been used in various communities to address different issues that impact how people live. Moreover, aspects such as the setting, themes, and the moral lesson of a story are involved in literary texts. Individuals have also argued that literature can shape society by educating the public on how to live ethically. Writers are also influenced by the occurrences in the community when writing their stories. Thus, various aspects can be analyzed using different texts to show that literature is an essential aspect that impacts the behaviors of individuals in a society.

The Relationship Between Literature and Place

In literature, the setting is one of the components of literary texts. The setting addresses the time and place in a text, whereby time determines where the events in literal texts are exercised. In the short story “Araby” by James Joyce, social and cultural aspects signify the site where the event exists in the text. For instance, the narrator uses his homestead to show his compound’s surroundings and identify where the priest was buried. He also uses the school to emphasize how he lost concentration after Mangan’s sister asked him about going to the bazaar, but he declined. In the text by Nicky Hornby on “I’m Like a Bird,” the author uses the hospital to show where he met the Caribbean girls who played and danced the song, and Hornby felt that she was in the same world with them.

Literature is the mirror of society; it has triggered the development of the community. For instance, it is involved in shaping civilizations, changing political systems, and exposing injustice. Reflection of society through literature has explained the importance of literature. Literature has helped the community members to have a deeper understanding of issues and situations such as the meaning of human conflict. For instance, in the poem “Infant Sorrow” by William Blake. Blake uses the poem to portray human conflict, the infant cried aloud and was uneasy in his father’s hands, but he thought the best solution was to suckle the mother’s breast. He thought and realized he was harming himself.

In society, literature helps people understand issues and solutions to their problems. Hornby’s text helps in changing the mindset of people on how they perceive pop music. She encourages society to appreciate and support one another. This helps in promoting unity and peace among the members of society. Literature helps in inspiring the community to uphold and respect their values, for instance, by supporting their religious values. In “Araby,” the writer uses the Dublin society to emphasize how they upheld their religious values. Religion values are shown when the narrator’s aunt said that she hoped the narrator was not engaging in freemasons since their religion forbade it. It is, thus, significant to say that literature reflects society.

The Relationship of the Writer to Tradition

Tradition is a catalyst that has resulted in the inspiration of writers. Moreover, literal texts are either modern or traditional based on their content. Writers use tradition to show the events that took place a long time ago and how they affected society. Various texts such as “Araby” are based on the traditional context. For instance, the use of the Roman Catholic Church in the text. Joyce used religion to portray the faith practiced by the Irish and how they had limited freedom to engage in other devotions since Catholicism dominated Ireland. The Dubliners were catholic believers, and the priests mingled with their congregation freely. In countries such as the United States, there are different religions, and believers worship freely. Hornby’s reading portrays the types of music that people paid attention to and listened to. However, due to the transition to the modern era, people had stopped listening despite the message delivered. Therefore, it is essential to focus on the message being conveyed from the traditional view rather than ignoring lessons derived from past events.

Literature texts are written at different times based on what has motivated the writer. The setting of a literal text can show when and where the text was written. The poem “Infant sorrow” by William Blake reveals how difficult life is after birth compared to when a child is still in the mother’s womb. “I’m Like a Bird” was written in the 21st century, a season when the music industry was transforming from traditional to modern. Hornby emphasizes that people should recognize pop music since they deliver essential information. The reading “I’m Like a Bird” emphasizes that everything has an end, whether bad or good. This was meant to encourage people in the modern era to continue trying and support the singers by refraining from stereotyping. Lastly, in “Araby,” the short story was written to show the impact of post-colonialism. The narrative shows some of the traces of colonization in society. For instance, religious colonization, the priest who was buried beside the narrator’s house signifies that the region was allured to Christianity by the colonizers.


In conclusion, literal texts are written in different time frames to address the current situation. Therefore, it is vital to note the events taking place when the literary text was written. Literary texts have also been used to address various issues experienced in the community. For instance, writers have used stories to educate people about the dangers of conflicts experienced in many societies. Literature texts are also written at different times based on the events that happen during that period. Thus, various aspects of literature have revealed that it is an essential aspect that affects the elements of society.

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Q2. A Grain of Wheat is a novel about Kenya’s struggle for freedom. Discuss.

A Grain of Wheat is a historical novel written by Kenyan novelist Ngũgĩ wa Thiong'o, first published as part of the influential Heinemann African Writers Series. It was written while he was studying at Leeds University and first published in 1967 by Heinemann.

The novel weaves together several stories set during the state of emergency in Kenya's struggle for independence (1952–59), focusing on the quiet Mugo, whose life is ruled by a dark secret. The plot revolves around his home village's preparations for Kenya's independence day celebration, Uhuru day. On that day, former resistance fighters General R and Koinandu plan on publicly executing the traitor who betrayed Kihika (a heroic resistance fighter hailing from the village).

In 2022, A Grain of Wheat was included on the "Big Jubilee Read" list of 70 books by Commonwealth authors, selected to celebrate the Platinum Jubilee of Elizabeth II

The events of the novel take place in the days of 1963 before and on the day of Uhuru, Kenya’s independence from colonial rule. The novel also features flashbacks of the past of the Kenya Colony including the villagization in the 1950s.

Mugo, an introverted villager of Thabai, does not want to give a speech at Uhuru, even though town elders ask him to. The village thinks him a hero for his stoicism and courage while he was in detention during Kenya’s State of Emergency, but he labors under a secret: he betrayed their beloved Mau Mau fighter, Kihika. He is restless and can achieve no peace in the village. Kihika had joined the Mau Mau as a young man and attained fame for capturing the police garrison at Mahee and killing the cruel District Officer (‘DO’) Robson, but after Mugo betrayed him in secret, he was captured and hanged. Those planning Uhuru want to honor him. Mugo had betrayed Kihika because he was unsettled by the young man’s zeal and because of the reward offered for his head, but as soon as he betrayed him he felt remorse. Most people, including General R. and Koina, two Mau Mau soldiers, believe Karanja was the one who betrayed Kihika. They plan on executing him at Uhuru.

Mugo was not the only man from Thabai who spent time in detention camp. Gikonyo, a well-respected businessman and former carpenter, was also taken to a camp. Before the camp he was very much in love with his beautiful wife Mumbi, the sister of Kihika. He had won her love even though many, including Karanja, a friend of Kihika, sought her love as well. He dreamt of her while he was away, and was horrified to find out that Mumbi had borne a child by Karanja during his imprisonment. He does not believe they can ever repair their relationship, and he throws himself into his work.

Karanja works at Githima, a Forest Research Station founded by the colonial government. He tries to cultivate the approval of the DO, John Thompson, who is stationed there with his wife Margery.

Thompson was once destined for an illustrious career, but it was derailed by a hunger strike and violence at Rira, the camp where Mugo was. Now Thompson is at Githima, but is preparing to leave Kenya forever because he does not want to be around when whites are no longer in charge. Karanja did not join the freedom movement but rather started to work for the whiteman, first joining the Kikuyu Home Guard and then becoming Chief during the Emergency. This incurred a lot of resentment from people; however, Karanja was simply looking out for himself.

Mumbi, distressed that her husband no longer loves her, comes to see Mugo. She confides in him the story of how she and Gikonyo fell in love, and how sad she was when he was away in camp. She only fell for Karanja’s advances when she heard Gikonyo was returning and became deliriously happy. She begs Mugo to come to Uhuru; on a second visit to him, she begs him again. Mugo becomes violent and says he betrayed Kihika. Mumbi is shocked, but she does not want any more blood shed for her brother.

Uhuru arrives, the day first rainy and then sunny. People are joyful and all of them want to see Mugo, even though he has said he is not coming. There are games and speeches. There is also a spontaneous running race, and Gikonyo and Karanja find themselves competing with each other (much as they competed in a race for Mumbi’s attention long ago). They stumble, though, and Gikonyo breaks his arm and has to go to the hospital.

General R. gives a speech instead of Mugo and calls for the traitor to step forward, assuming it will be Karanja. Mugo comes out of the crowd and says it is he who did it; he feels a sense of freedom at first, quickly followed by terror. No one accosts him, and the confused crowd parts and lets him go.

Later, General R. and Koina come to arrest him and tell him he will have a private trial. Mugo makes peace with this, deciding he will accept his punishment.

Some of the village elders feel that Uhuru did not go well, and that there is something wrong.

Karanja heads back to Githima. He is unhappy and considers killing himself in front of a train. Ultimately, he decides against this.

Gikonyo wakes in the hospital and finds himself ready to make amends with Mumbi. When she visits him, he tells her he is ready to speak of the child he has assiduously ignored since he came back. She tells him it must wait until they can have a serious and heartfelt discussion of their wants and needs. He is happy, and plans to carve a stool featuring an image of a pregnant Mumbi.

Mugo, a loner who became a hero after leading a hunger strike in a detention camp for Mau Mau rebels and trying to stop a village guard from beating a pregnant woman to death. Although he is thought to be a hero throughout the whole book, he is the traitor who betrayed Kihika to the colonial government in the hope of collecting a reward.

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Gikonyo, an ambitious carpenter and business man married to Mumbi. He confessed to taking the oath of the resistance while in a concentration camp, securing an early release only to find that his wife had borne a child with his hated rival Karanja while he was away.

Mumbi, the wife of Gikonyo and sister of Kihika. While Gikonyo was imprisoned she slept with Karanja, who had been appointed village chief by the colonial power.

Karanja, a Kenyan collaborator and widely suspected by the others to be the traitor. Kihika, a resistance fighter who conquered a police station and killed the hated District Officer Robson. He was caught and hanged after being betrayed by Mugo. John Thompson, a white settler and administrator of Thabai, who believes in the ideals of the colonial "civilising mission" and despises Africans.


Q3. What political statement does Soyinka make in his play A Dance of the Forests?

Akinwande Oluwole Babatunde Soyinka , known as Wole Soyinka is a Nigerian playwright, novelist, poet, and essayist in the English language. Soyinka was born into a Yoruba family in Abeokuta.In 1954, he attended Government College in Ibadan, and subsequently University College Ibadan and the University of Leeds in England. After studying in Nigeria and the UK, he worked with the Royal Court Theatre in London. He went on to write plays that were produced in both countries, in theatres and on radio. He took an active role in Nigeria's political history and its campaign for independence from British colonial rule. In 1965, he seized the Western Nigeria Broadcasting Service studio and broadcast a demand for the cancellation of the Western Nigeria Regional Elections.

In 1967, during the Nigerian Civil War, he was arrested by the federal government of General Yakubu Gowon and put in solitary confinement for two years, for volunteering to be a non-government mediating actor. Soyinka has been a strong critic of successive Nigerian (and African at large) governments, especially the country's many military dictators, as well as other political tyrannies, including the Mugabe regime in Zimbabwe. Much of his writing has been concerned with "the oppressive boot and the irrelevance of the colour of the foot that wears it".

 In Nigeria, Soyinka was a Professor of Comparative literature (1975 to 1999) at the Obafemi Awolowo University, then called the University of life.With civilian rule restored to Nigeria in 1999, he was made professor emeritus.[While in the United States, he first taught at Cornell University as Goldwin Smith professor for African Studies and Theatre Arts from 1988 to 1991 and then at Emory University, where in 1996 he was appointed Robert W. Woodruff Professor of the Arts. Soyinka has been a Professor of Creative Writing at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, and has served as scholar-in-residence at New York University's Institute of African American Affairs and at Loyola Marymount University in Los Angeles, California. In December 2017, Soyinka was awarded the Europe Theatre Prize in the "Special Prize" category, awarded to someone who has "contributed to the realization of cultural events that promote understanding and the exchange of knowledge between peoples".

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 Dance of the Forest" is a play written by Nigerian playwright Wole Soyinka. Analyzing the title, it carries significant thematic and symbolic weight within the context of the play. The title "Dance of the Forest" suggests a central motif of dance and the natural world.

·Dance often represents a form of expression, communication, and ritual. In many African cultures, dance is a means of conveying stories, emotions, and cultural traditions. The title hints at the importance of dance as a vehicle for conveying deeper themes within the play

·The forest can be seen as a symbol of the natural world, filled with mystery and untamed forces. In African literature, forests often hold a symbolic significance, representing the unknown, the supernatural, and the ancestral realm. The forest in this context may represent the complexities of African traditions, histories, and belief systems.

·The combination of "dance" and "forest" in the title suggests an interplay between culture and nature, as well as the interaction between traditional and modern values. The characters in the play may find themselves caught between the traditional and the changing world, where dance serves as a link between these contrasting realms.

·The title also implies a harmony or conflict between human culture (dance) and the natural environment (forest). This tension can be explored in the play, reflecting the broader African experience of reconciling tradition with modernity. In summary, the title "Dance of the Forest" by Wole Soyinka hints at the rich and complex interplay of culture and nature, tradition and change, and the profound symbolism that dance holds within the context of the play. Analyzing the title sets the stage for a deeper exploration of these themes within the text The relevance of "Dance of the Forest" lies in its ability to offer insights into complex social, political, and cultural issues. It serves as a mirror to the struggles and aspirations of African nations during a critical period of transition and continues to be a valuable work for the study of African literature, post colonialism, and the human experience.


1)Demoke/Court Poet Demoke is a carver who was once a poet in a past life. While carving an araba tree he pushed his apprentice, Oremole, from the tree to his death. The Forest Head wants him to see the sin he has committed and atone for his sin. Demoke is the village carver, as well as the Court Poet in the Court of Mata Kharibu. Some scholars consider Demoke to be the true protagonist of A Dance of the Forests, as carving is an essential and sacred act in the Yoruba tradition, aligning Demoke with Nigerian culture. Demoke also sets off one of the driving conflicts in the play when he unwisely chooses to carve the village idol out of the deity Oro's sacred tree, araba. Demoke kills Oremole, a devotee of Eshuoro, out of jealousy, and sets off a feud between Eshuoro and Ogun, Demoke's patron god. During the Dance of the Dead, Demoke saves the Half-Child from Eshuoro. Demoke is then chased up the flaming idol tree by Eshuoro, but is rescued by Ogun when he falls. Despite all he has witnessed, Demoke is unable to explain the significance and has likely learned nothing that will help the future.. In a flashback scene, it is revealed that Demoke was formerly a poet in the court of Mata Kharibu at the same time that the dead man and woman experienced their greatest suffering. In Demoke, Soyinka explores the inability of humans to learn from their mistakes or experiences, and portrays Demoke as primarily motivated by his fear and ego. However, Soyinka also allows Demoke to have moral character, as he seeks to end the suffering of the Dead Woman and return the Half-Child to her.

2).Dead Man The Dead Man was a soldier in a former life who was castrated for his unwillingness to go to war against a neighboring tribe. He took issue with the motives for going to war and so refused to participate. He was sold to a slave-dealer and eventually killed. During the time of the play, he has been brought back to life by Aroni to settle the unfinished business of his ill-fated death. 3)Dead Woman The Dead Woman was pregnant with the Dead Man's child when she attempted to plead for her husband's life in the court of Mata Kharibu. Her plea was rejected and she and her husband were killed. 4)Forest Head Forest Head is a god who attempts to have the four characters who tortured the Dead Man and Dead Woman in a past life remember their sins and atone for them. He is also the father of Eshuoro the great tree that Demoke vandalized. 5)Rola Rola is a prostitute, who was once Madame Tortoise in a past life, and queen to Mata Kharibu. She was known for driving men to madness and is the reason the Dead Man/Soldier was castrated and his wife killed. Rola at first says she has fled the village to escape the annoying children and extended family whocame to town for the gathering. Later, Demoke outs her as a local prostitute named Madame Tortoise. Upon this discovery, Adenebi reveals that one of Rola's patrons murdered another patron and then killed himself as a result of her machinations. Her lack of remorse over such events is what links her to the past Madame Tortoise, the evil wife of Mata Kharibu, who ordered the dead woman to be killed in front of the dead man after he rejected her sexual advances. This Madame Tortoise is also responsible for the novice—the form of Oremole—breaking his arm while trying to retrieve her canary.


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Q4. Discuss the manner in which Bapsi Sidhwa presents the partition in Ice-Candy Man.

The political partition of India caused one of the great human convulsion of history…twelve million people moved between the new, truncated India and the two wings, east and west, of the newly created Pakistan…estimates of dead vary from 200,000 to two million but that somewhere around a million people died is now widely accepted…75,000 women are thought to have been abducted and raped by men of different religions and even by the men from their own religion (and indeed sometimes by men of their own religion.)” (Butalia) The Partition Literature:

The tragedy of the partition encounter has given rise to fictional explorations with an attempt to define the inner turmoil and social complexes that plagued the subcontinent. The vast volume of partition fiction in English, Urdu, Hindi, Punjabi, Bengali and many other languages of the subcontinent faithfully records the disaster in wake of partition. Few of the best known writers and their works are mentioned here which also deals with the theme of partition, Khushwant Singh’s Train To Pakistan (1956), Rahi Masoom Raza’s Adha Gaon (1966), Amitav Goshs Shadow Lines (1988), Manohar Malgaonkar’s A Bend In The Ganges (1964), Attia Hussain’s Sunlight On A Broken Column (1961), Rajan’s The Dark Dancer, Bapsi Sidhwa’s Ice

Bapsi Sidhwa and Her Works: Bapsi Sidhwa is a prolific and an eminent Pakistani diasporic writer. Her works include Their Language of Love (2013), Jungle Wala Sahib (Translation from Urdu in 2012) City of Sin and Splendour : Writings on Lahore (2006, US), Water: A Novel (2006, US and Canada), Bapsi Sidhwa Omnibus (2001, Pakistan), An American Brat (1993, U.S.; 1995, India), Cracking India (1991, U.S.; 1992, India; originally published as Ice Candy Man, 1988, England), The Bride (1982, England; 1983;1984, India; published as The Pakistani Bride, 1990 US and 2008 US), The Crow Eaters (1978, Pakistan; 1979 &1981, India; 1980, England; 1982, US). Her novels in English reflect her personal experience of the Partition of Indian subcontinent, abuse against women, immigration to the US, and membership in the Parsi or Zoroastrian community. Bapsi Sidhwa‘s most famous novel is Ice Candy Man (Cracking India). The novel is set in pre-Partition India in Lahore. It examines the inexorable logic of Partition as an offshoot of fundamentalism sparked by communal hatred. It looks at Partition as a means Postcolonial perspectives on partition:

A study of Bapsi Sidhwa‘s Ice Candy Man (cracking India) Sidhwa is an important signature in the literary world of Pakistan. Being a parsi, sidhwa through her novels focuses attention on rapidly changing scenario in her parsi polity and culture. Ice Candy- Man is sidhwa’s important novel which is based on partition of india. In this novel, she deals with the partition crisis, the parsi milieu the problems of Asian women and theme of marriage. Sidhwa remains a potent voice among the modern feminist writers. She is the only parsi woman writer to write on the theme of partition. Through the child narrator lenny, Bapsi sidhwa brings out her fictionalized autobiography.

Sidhwa’s work has received worldwide acclaim and she has been honored with several international awards including Bunting fellow-ship at Radcliff/ Harvard, visiting scholar at the Rockefeller Foundation centre, Bellagio, Italy, Pakistan’s highest award for arts, Sitara-i-Imtiaz (1991), Lila Wallace- Reader’s digest writer’s Award (1994) and Premio Mondello for Foreign Author for Water in 2007. The review in the observer in 1980 observed on her novel The Crow- Eaters as: “Bapsi sidhwa’s novel belongs to that rapidly expanding literary by- product of the Empire: English language fiction by third world writer’s about their societies during the colonial rule.” The Urdu poet from Pakistan Faiz Ahmed Faiz praises Bapsi sidhwa for her wit, racy style and shrewd observations of human behavior. He even compared her to V.S Naipaul and R.K Narayan.

Bapsi sidhwa’s novels are narratives of political and moral upheavals resulting in a mass trauma which continued to haunt the minds of generations. Generally, in the novels of sidhwa, there are people from all walks of life and from all communities. They are Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Sikhs and parsis. The event of partition has been depicted through the painful experience of these ethnic groups. The Central Consciousness of the Fictional world: The central consciousness of the fictional world of Ice Candy-Man is a young parsi girl Lenny, who is lame. The lameness of the narrator- protagonist is suggestive of handicap, a woman creative writer faces, but when she decides to wield the pen because writing is an intellectual exercise , is considered a male bastion,, outside the routine of women; submissive domesticity. Her recuperation symbolizes the over-coming of the constraint on the intellectual activity of writing by Bapsi sidhwa, by making Lennythe narrator of the novel. The novelist lends weight and validity to the feminine perspective on the nature of surrounding reality. The child- narrator Lenny is also affected by the violence at Lahore. The rampaging Muslim mobs gives Lenny as many nightmares as when she recollects the roaring of the lions in the zoo. Thus we see that scenes of violence and arson have a frightening impact on the young parsi girl Lenny. With some ironic exposures, Bapsi sidhwa shows the brutalization which communal frenzy causes. Once communal and obscurant passions are aroused, the social fabric is torn asunder, leading to wanton and reckless destruction. Sidhwa also criticizes the British design, commenting that obtaining their objective to divide India, they favored Hindus over Muslims. The impact of partition is narrated through the feelings of a child. Regarding this change, Lenny remarks: “That’s when I realize what has changed. The Sikhs, only their rowdy little boys running about hair piled in topknots, are keeping mostly to themselves.” Autobiographical Elements in Ice Candy- Man: Bapsi sidhwa’s experience of the partition has found expression in the novel Ice Candy- Man wherein the novelist narrates the Fictionalized real story of partition in an interview with Mayank Austen Soofi, Bapsi sidhwa said the following about Fictionalization, “Even I often don’t know where fact ends and fiction begins…Because of childhood polio the doctor suggested I should not be burdened with school, I had light tuition thankfully no math’s…I’ve fictionalized biographical elements in the earlier part of Cracking India- Lenny is not me- Perhaps my alter ego.”

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Q5. Examine A House for Mr. Biswas as a diasporic novel.

1. Sense of Displacement and Rootlessness:

The novel follows Mohun Biswas, an Indo-Trinidadian protagonist of East Indian descent, navigating life in Trinidad, a Caribbean island shaped by colonial history. Mr. Biswas experiences a profound sense of displacement, torn between his Indian heritage and the Caribbean environment, neither fully belonging to either.

2. Quest for Identity and Belonging:

Mr. Biswas seeks autonomy and agency in a society where his destiny seems predetermined by family and societal expectations. The titular quest for a house symbolizes Mr. Biswas' longing for stability, security, and a place to call his own amidst his nomadic existence.

3. Cultural Hybridity and Adaptation:

The novel portrays the intersection of Indian, British, and Caribbean cultures, reflecting the complexities of diasporic identities. Characters like Mr. Biswas and his family negotiate their identities through language, religion, and customs, adapting to a hybrid cultural milieu.

4. Colonial Legacy and Postcolonial Realities:

The narrative examines how British colonialism shaped Trinidadian society and impacted the lives of its inhabitants, including descendants of Indian indentured laborers. Mr. Biswas' experiences reflect broader postcolonial themes of marginalization, economic exploitation, and the legacy of colonial hierarchy.


5. Family and Community Dynamics:

Mr. Biswas' interactions with his extended family and the local community highlight the solidarity and tensions within diasporic communities. The novel explores the evolving identities and aspirations of successive generations, grappling with cultural heritage and societal change.

6. Narrative Structure and Symbolism:

The novel’s episodic structure mirrors Mr. Biswas' fragmented journey through life, echoing the disjointed experiences of diasporic individuals. Symbolic settings, such as the Tulsi family’s home and Mr. Biswas' various residences, represent stages of his quest for identity and belonging.


"A House for Mr. Biswas" exemplifies the diasporic novel through its portrayal of displacement, cultural hybridity, and the quest for identity amidst colonial and postcolonial realities. V.S. Naipaul’s narrative not only chronicles Mr. Biswas' personal struggles but also illuminates broader themes of diaspora, illustrating how individuals negotiate their identities and aspirations in a complex and interconnected world. By exploring these diasporic elements, the novel enriches our understanding of the diasporic experience and its significance in shaping cultural narratives and literary discourse.


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Q6. Write a critical account of the relationship between history and language in Derek Walcott’s poetry.

Derek Walcott's poetry intricately weaves together themes of history and language, reflecting his Caribbean heritage and grappling with the complexities of colonialism, identity, and cultural memory.

Historical Context and Cultural Identity:

1. Colonial Legacy and Cultural Hybridity:

Walcott’s poetry often explores the legacy of colonialism in the Caribbean, addressing themes of displacement, cultural fragmentation, and the search for identity.

He navigates the complexities of cultural hybridity, blending English literary traditions with Afro-Caribbean cultural motifs and oral traditions.

2. Cultural Memory and Mythology:

Walcott’s poetry serves as a means to reclaim and reinterpret Caribbean history from a postcolonial perspective, challenging Eurocentric narratives. He employs mythological motifs and Caribbean symbolism to evoke a sense of cultural continuity and resilience in the face of historical traumas.

Language as a Vehicle of Expression:

1. Linguistic Diversity and Creole Aesthetics:

Creole Vernacular: Walcott incorporates Caribbean English Creole into his poetry, celebrating its rhythmic cadences and expressive potential.

Intertextuality: He draws on a rich tapestry of linguistic influences—from Shakespearean English to Caribbean vernacular—to create a hybrid poetic language reflective of Caribbean diversity.

2. Poetic Form and Narrative Technique:

Epic Scope: Walcott’s long poems, such as "Omeros" and "The Odyssey: A Stage Version," blend historical narrative with personal and mythical elements, exploring themes of journey and identity.

Visual Imagery: His vivid descriptions of Caribbean landscapes and seascapes evoke a sense of place and historical depth, grounding his poetry in the physical and cultural landscapes of the Caribbean.

Themes of Identity and Belonging:

1. Postcolonial Consciousness:

Walcott’s poetry reflects a postcolonial consciousness, interrogating notions of identity, belonging, and cultural inheritance in a Caribbean context. He explores the diasporic experience of displacement and cultural negotiation, examining how history shapes individual and collective identities.

2. Political and Social Commentary:

Walcott critiques power dynamics and socio-political inequalities rooted in colonial history, advocating for social justice and cultural autonomy. His poetry engages with historical traumas, such as slavery and colonial oppression, exploring their enduring impact on Caribbean societies and cultures.


Derek Walcott’s poetry stands as a testament to the intricate relationship between history and language in the Caribbean context. Through his exploration of colonial legacies, cultural identity, and linguistic diversity, Walcott redefines Caribbean literature, offering a nuanced portrayal of Caribbean history and cultural memory. His poetic language, blending English literary traditions with Caribbean vernacular and mythological symbolism, serves as a powerful vehicle for expressing the complexities of Caribbean experience and reclaiming marginalized histories. By critically engaging with history and language, Walcott’s poetry not only enriches our understanding of Caribbean identity but also challenges us to reconsider the broader implications of colonialism and cultural resilience in a globalized world.


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 IGNOU MEG 08 New Literatures in English Solved Assignment 2023-2024, IGNOU MEG 08 Solved Assignment 2023-24 , Free MEG 08 New Literatures in English Assignment Pdf, How To Get  MEG 08 Solved Assignment For Free, We Are Providing IGNOU MEG 08 New Literatures in English Solved Assignment All Over India.

Q7. Analyse the evolution of a distinct ‘video style’ in Braithwaite’s poems.

Kamau Brathwaite, a pioneering Caribbean poet, didn't just write poems on paper. He pushed the boundaries of the genre, experimenting with multimedia to create a distinct "video style" in his later works.

Early Works and the Influence of Orality:

Brathwaite's early poems were deeply rooted in the Caribbean oral tradition. Works like "Rights of Passage" and "Sun Poem" incorporated rhythms and cadences of Caribbean speech, reflecting the importance of storytelling and performance in his cultural heritage. This focus on the aural experience foreshadowed his later move towards multimedia, where sound would play a crucial role.

The Shift Towards Multimedia: Sensory Synthesis (1985)

A pivotal moment came with "Sensory Synthesis" (1985). This collection marked Braithwaite's foray into multimedia poetry. It incorporated elements like:

Audio recordings: These recordings captured the poet's voice reading his poems, bringing an aural dimension to the written text. The rhythm and intonation inherent in Braithwaite's delivery added a layer of meaning and emotional impact.

Visuals: Photographs and illustrations accompanied the poems, creating a more visually stimulating experience. These visuals might have depicted scenes or symbols relevant to the poem's themes, enriching the reader's understanding.

Beyond the Book: Interactive and Immersive Experiences

"Sensory Synthesis" was just the beginning. Braithwaite continued to explore the possibilities of multimedia:

Virtual Reality (VR): He envisioned VR as a way to create truly immersive poetic experiences. Imagine "walking through" a poem, surrounded by sights and sounds that complement the text. While he may not have directly created VR experiences himself, his vision anticipated this technology's potential for poetry.

Augmented Reality (AR): AR could overlay digital elements onto the physical world, potentially adding another layer of meaning to his poems when viewed through an AR app.

Thematic Alignment with Video Style

His poems often explored themes of identity, history, and cultural resistance. Multimedia elements like music and visuals could vividly showcase the richness and dynamism of Caribbean culture. Braithwaite challenged traditional notions of what poetry could be. His video style mirrored this desire to push boundaries and experiment with new forms of expression.

Impact and Legacy

He inspired a generation of poets to explore the possibilities of multimedia. His work challenged the idea of poetry as solely a written art form, paving the way for a more multi-sensory and interactive experience.

Limitations and Considerations

Not everyone may have access to the technology required to experience Braithwaite's video poems fully. This raises questions about accessibility and the potential for a digital divide in poetry consumption. Technological advancements can render older multimedia formats obsolete. Preserving these works for future generations might require ongoing efforts to adapt them to evolving technologies.


Kamau Brathwaite's video style wasn't merely an aesthetic choice. It was an extension of his vision for poetry as a dynamic and ever-evolving art form. By incorporating sound, visuals, and potentially even interactive elements, he aimed to create a more immersive and impactful experience for his audience. While challenges of accessibility and preservation exist, Braithwaite's legacy lies in pioneering a new way to engage with poetry, blurring the lines between the written word and the multimedia landscape.

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Q8. The characters in The Solid Mandala are a reflection of the themes of the novel. Discuss.

"The Solid Mandala" by Patrick White is a novel that intricately weaves its characters with the overarching themes of duality, identity, and human connection. Through the lives of the twin brothers, Arthur and Waldo Brown, White explores profound existential and philosophical questions.

"The Solid Mandala" centers around the lives of Arthur and Waldo Brown, two brothers living in the suburbs of Sydney, Australia. The novel delves into their complex relationship, their individual quests for identity, and their interactions with those around them. Patrick White uses the characters to explore themes of duality, loneliness, and the search for meaning in life.

Themes Reflected Through Characters

1. Duality and Complementarity

Arthur and Waldo: The twin brothers embody the theme of duality. Arthur, often perceived as intellectually disabled, represents intuition, emotional depth, and a childlike faith in life. Waldo, on the other hand, is rational, intellectual, and skeptical. This dichotomy highlights the dual nature of human existence—emotion versus reason, faith versus skepticism, and innocence versus experience.

Symbol of the Mandala: The mandala, a symbol of wholeness and unity, represents the twins’ complementary natures. Together, they form a complete entity, with Arthur’s compassion and Waldo’s intellect balancing each other. The mandala symbolizes their intertwined fates and the idea that completeness is achieved through the union of opposites.

2. Search for Identity and Self-Understanding

Waldo’s Intellectual Pursuit: Waldo’s character reflects the intellectual struggle for identity. He is constantly seeking validation and meaning through knowledge and societal approval. His inability to connect emotionally with others underscores his internal conflict and existential angst.

Arthur’s Spiritual Journey: Arthur’s journey is more spiritual and introspective. Despite being seen as simple-minded, he possesses a profound understanding of life and human nature. His character challenges conventional notions of intelligence and wisdom, suggesting that true insight often lies beyond rational thought.


3. Loneliness and Isolation

Waldo’s Alienation: Waldo’s intellectual arrogance and emotional detachment lead to his isolation. He struggles with feelings of inadequacy and a sense of not belonging, both within his family and in the broader society. His loneliness is a poignant commentary on the isolating effects of intellectual pride and the failure to connect on a human level.

Arthur’s Connection with Others: In contrast, Arthur, despite his perceived limitations, forms genuine connections with those around him. His interactions with Mrs. Poulter and his compassion for others illustrate the importance of empathy and human connection. Arthur’s ability to find meaning in simple acts of kindness highlights the theme of communal bonds versus individual isolation.

4. Interpersonal Relationships and Human Connection

Brotherly Relationship: The relationship between Arthur and Waldo is central to the novel’s exploration of human connection. Despite their differences and frequent conflicts, there is an underlying bond that ties them together. Their interdependence underscores the idea that human beings, with all their flaws and differences, are fundamentally connected.

Supporting Characters: The characters surrounding Arthur and Waldo, such as Mrs. Poulter and Dulcie Feinstein, further reflect the novel’s themes. Their interactions with the twins reveal different facets of the brothers’ personalities and contribute to the exploration of human relationships. These characters serve as mirrors, reflecting the brothers’ internal struggles and growth.

5. The Quest for Meaning and Transcendence

Arthur’s Mandala: Arthur’s fascination with the mandala symbolizes his quest for transcendence and understanding of life’s deeper meaning. His creation of mandalas reflects a desire to impose order and find harmony amidst the chaos of existence. Arthur’s spiritual journey is a quest for enlightenment, suggesting that true meaning lies beyond the material world.

Waldo’s Intellectual Quest: Waldo’s pursuit of knowledge and order is a parallel quest for meaning. However, his reliance on intellect alone leads to a fragmented and incomplete understanding of life. His inability to transcend his rational mind contrasts with Arthur’s intuitive grasp of life’s mysteries, emphasizing the limitations of intellectualism.


In "The Solid Mandala," Patrick White masterfully uses the characters of Arthur and Waldo Brown to reflect the novel’s central themes. Through their contrasting personalities and intertwined lives, White explores the dualities of human existence, the quest for identity, the nature of loneliness, and the search for meaning. The characters serve as embodiments of these themes, offering a profound commentary on the human condition and the complexities of interpersonal relationships. The novel suggests that wholeness and understanding are achieved through the integration of opposites and the embrace of human connection.

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Q9. What are the various functions that the stone angel serves in the novel The Stone Angel?

1. A Reminder of Mortality: The stone angel, erected on Hagar Shipley's mother's grave, is a constant physical reminder of death. It stands tall and imposing in the cemetery, a stark contrast to the fleeting nature of human life. This constant reminder of mortality shapes Hagar's perspective and contributes to her obsession with clinging to independence and control even in her old age.

2. Reflection of Hagar's Stubbornness and Pride: The stone angel, being cold, rigid, and unyielding, mirrors Hagar's own personality. Her pride and stubbornness prevent her from expressing vulnerability or showing affection throughout her life. This parallel highlights the negative consequences of her rigid attitude.

3. Representation of Hagar's Relationship with her Father: The stone angel was a costly purchase made by Hagar's father, Jason Currie. It was more about "proclaiming his dynasty" than honoring his deceased wife. This act embodies Hagar's complicated relationship with her father. It reflects his emotional distance and his desire for control, traits that Hagar might have subconsciously internalized.

4. Foreshadowing of Hagar's Fate: The stone angel's confinement in the cemetery foreshadows Hagar's eventual fate. Just like the statue remains trapped and unmoving, Hagar's fear of vulnerability and her refusal to accept help lead to her isolation and confinement in a nursing home, a place she views as a symbol of death.

5. A Catalyst for Self-Reflection: Despite the negative connotations, the stone angel also serves as a catalyst for Hagar's self-reflection. As the story progresses and Hagar grapples with her past decisions, the angel becomes a point of reference for her to confront her regrets and missed opportunities.

6. A Symbol of Female Strength and Resilience: While the stone angel appears fragile and cold, it has endured the elements for years. This can be seen as a symbol of female strength and resilience, mirroring Hagar's own ability to withstand hardship throughout her life.

The stone angel is more than just a physical object in the novel. It is a multifaceted symbol that continuously evolves in meaning as the story unfolds. It represents mortality, pride, control, isolation, and ultimately, a catalyst for self-discovery. Through this symbol, Laurence compels the reader to contemplate the complexities of human relationships, the passage of time, and the importance of letting go of pride in the face of mortality.

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Q10. Migrant intellectuals have played a significant role in institutionalizing postcolonial theory. Discuss.

Migrant intellectuals have been pivotal in the development and institutionalization of postcolonial theory, bringing unique perspectives shaped by their experiences of displacement, cultural negotiation, and identity formation.


Postcolonial theory examines the cultural, political, and social legacies of colonialism and imperialism. It focuses on the ways in which the world has been shaped by the historical processes of colonization and decolonization. Migrant intellectuals, who often straddle multiple cultural contexts and experiences, have played a crucial role in formulating and advancing postcolonial theory, both in academic and public spheres.


Contributions of Migrant Intellectuals to Postcolonial Theory

1. Theoretical Foundations and Key Concepts

·       Edward Said: One of the most influential migrant intellectuals, Said's seminal work "Orientalism" (1978) laid the groundwork for postcolonial studies by critiquing Western representations of the East. His own experience as a Palestinian American informed his critique of cultural hegemony and imperialist discourse.

·       Homi K. Bhabha: Bhabha, an Indian-born scholar living in the West, introduced key concepts such as hybridity, mimicry, and the third space, which explore the complexities of cultural interactions and identity formation in postcolonial contexts. His works emphasize the ambivalence and fluidity inherent in postcolonial identities.

·       Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak: An Indian scholar based in the United States, Spivak's work on subaltern studies and her essay "Can the Subaltern Speak?" (1988) have been critical in highlighting the voices of marginalized groups within postcolonial discourse. Her perspectives on representation and the politics of knowledge production are informed by her own migratory experience.

2. Institutional and Academic Contributions

·       Establishing Academic Disciplines: Migrant intellectuals have been instrumental in establishing postcolonial studies as a distinct academic discipline. They have founded and contributed to academic journals, conferences, and research centers dedicated to postcolonial theory.

·       Interdisciplinary Approaches: The diverse backgrounds of migrant intellectuals have encouraged interdisciplinary approaches, integrating insights from literature, cultural studies, history, sociology, and political science. This has enriched postcolonial theory and expanded its applicability.

·       Curriculum Development: Migrant intellectuals have played key roles in developing curricula that reflect postcolonial perspectives. They have influenced the inclusion of postcolonial texts and theories in university programs, ensuring that future scholars are exposed to these critical perspectives.

3. Personal Narratives and Lived Experiences

·       Autobiographical Elements: The personal narratives and lived experiences of migrant intellectuals often permeate their theoretical work. Their writings frequently reflect their own struggles with identity, displacement, and belonging, providing authentic and nuanced insights into postcolonial conditions.

·       Literary Contributions: Many migrant intellectuals, such as Salman Rushdie and V.S. Naipaul, have used literature as a medium to explore postcolonial themes. Their works often depict the complexities of migratory experiences and the ongoing impact of colonial histories.

4. Political and Social Advocacy

·       Engagement in Public Discourse: Migrant intellectuals have actively engaged in public discourse, using their platforms to advocate for social justice, decolonization, and the rights of marginalized communities. Their contributions extend beyond academia, influencing public policy and societal attitudes.

·       Transnational Networks: By fostering transnational networks and collaborations, migrant intellectuals have facilitated global dialogues on postcolonial issues. These networks help to disseminate postcolonial theories and practices across different cultural and geographical contexts.

Challenges and Criticisms

·       Despite their significant contributions, migrant intellectuals have also faced challenges and criticisms:

·       Accessibility and Representation: Some critics argue that the academic language and frameworks used by migrant intellectuals can be inaccessible to those outside of academic circles, including the communities they seek to represent.

·       Internal Tensions: There are internal tensions within postcolonial studies regarding the representation of diverse postcolonial experiences. Some argue that the perspectives of certain regions or groups may be overrepresented or underrepresented within the field.

·       Navigating Dual Identities: Migrant intellectuals often navigate complex dual identities, balancing their roles as scholars in Western institutions with their commitments to postcolonial advocacy. This duality can sometimes lead to tensions or conflicts in their work.


Migrant intellectuals have been crucial in institutionalizing postcolonial theory, bringing invaluable perspectives shaped by their experiences of migration, displacement, and cultural negotiation. Their contributions have enriched academic discourse, influenced public policy, and fostered a deeper understanding of the ongoing impact of colonial histories. While challenges and criticisms persist, the work of migrant intellectuals continues to shape and expand the field of postcolonial studies, highlighting the importance of diverse voices and experiences in understanding our complex global landscape.

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