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NOTE: All questions are compulsory.


Answer the following questions in 1000 words each.

Q1. Discuss the meaning and aspects of creativity. Explain the Investment and Confluence theory of creativity.

The most advanced thought process, creativity, involves production of uncommon and novel ideas that are highly relevant to the situation. Creativity is defined as something different from intelligence and as a parallel construct to intelligence, but it differs from intelligence in that it is not restricted to cognitive or intellectual functioning or behaviour. Instead, it is concerned with a complex mix of motivational conditions, personality factors, environmental conditions, chance factors, and even products (Michalko, 1998).

Creativity is a goal directed thinking which is unusual, novel and useful. Many of such creative thinking become so important that they influence the whole human civilisation and are called as historical creativity. The Mona Lisa, the laws of thermodynamics, the laws of motion, the theory of relativity are some of the ideas that were never thought before and changed the human civilisation altogether in a great way in their respective spheres of life. Although we can accept its existence and importance, it has been a highly difficult task for the researchers to define creativity. Newell, Shaw and Simon (1963) have explained the nature of creativity on the basis of following four criteria: a) Novelty and usefulness b) Rejects previously accepted ideas c) Requires intense motivation and persistence d) Results from organising the unclear situation in a coherent, clear and new way.

Sternberg (2006) reports five commonalities in the research of creativity. These are:

1) Creativity involves thinking that aims at producing ideas or products that are relatively novel and that are, in some respect, compelling.

2) Creativity has some domain-specific and domain-general elements in the sense that it needs some specific knowledge, but there are certain elements of creativity that cut across different domains.

3) Creativity is measureable, at least to some extent.

4) Creativity can be developed and promoted.

 5) Creativity is not highly rewarded in practice, as it is supposed to be in theory.

Sternberg and Lubart (1999) define creativity as the ability to produce work that is both novel (i.e. original, unexpected) and appropriate (i.e. useful concerning tasks constrains). Runco (2007) categorised these definitions of creativity as involving the creation of something new and useful and calls them as “products definitions” of creativity. However, he thought that creative thinking did not essentially require tangible creative products; rather the process should be more focused in defining creativity.

 Creativity and Problem Solving Studies in cognitive psychology have tried to understand the process of creative thinking. These researches assumed that creativity is just extraordinary results of ordinary processes (Smith, Ward & Finke 1995).

The process of creativity is thought to have following four characteristics:

1) It is imaginative involving imagination, since it is the process of generating something original. 2) It is purposeful, that is, creativity is imagination put into action towards an end.

 3) It produces something original in relation to one’s own previous work, to their peer group or to anyone’s previous output in a particular field.

4) It has value in respect to the objective it was applied for.

Creativity involves not only the generation of ideas, but also evaluation of them, and deciding which one is the most adequate one. Beghetto and Kaufman (2007) conceptualised creativity in three different ways. They defined creativity as novel and personally meaningful interpretation of experiences, actions, and events. However, the novelty and meaningfulness of these interpretations need not require to be original or (even meaningful) to others. Indeed, the judgment of novelty and meaningfulness that constitutes creativity is an intrapersonal judgment. This intrapersonal judgment is what distinguishes creativity from other forms of creative expressions. There are two types of creativeity (i) little-c (or everyday) creativity and (ii) BigC (or eminent) creativity. The latter two forms of creativity rely on interpersonal and historical judgments of novelty, appropriateness, and lasting impact.

 Investment and Confluence Theory of Creativity

Sternberg (2006) has proposed investment and confluence theory to understand creativity. According to the investment theory, creativity requires a confluence of six distinct but interrelated resources: intellectual abilities, knowledge, styles of thinking, personality, motivation, and environment. Although levels of these resources are sources of individual differences, often the decision to use a resource is a more important source of individual differences.

 Intellectual skills: Three intellectual skills are particularly important: (a) the synthetic skill to see problems in new ways and to escape the bounds of conventional thinking, (b) the analytic skill to recognise which of one’s ideas are worth pursuing and which are not, and (c) the practical–contextual skill to know how to persuade others of—to sell other people on—the value of one’s ideas. The confluence of these three skills is also important. Analytic skills used in the absence of the other two skills results in powerful critical, but not creative, thinking. Synthetic skill used in the absence of the other two skills results in new ideas that are not subjected to the scrutiny required to improve them and make them work. Practical–contextual skill in the absence of the other two skills may result in societal acceptance of ideas not because the ideas are good, but rather, because the ideas have been well and powerfully presented.

Knowledge: On the one hand, one needs to know enough about a field to move it forward. One cannot move beyond where a field is if one does not know where it is. On the other hand, knowledge about a field can result in a closed and entrenched perspective, resulting in a person’s not moving beyond the way in which he or she has seen problems in the past. Knowledge thus can help, or it can hinder creativity.

Thinking styles: Thinking styles are preferred ways of using one’s skills. In essence, they are decisions about how to deploy the skills available to a person. With regard to thinking styles, a legislative style is particularly important for creativity, that is, a preference for thinking and a decision to think in new ways. This preference needs to be distinguished from the ability to think

Creatively: Someone may like to think along new lines, but not think well, or vice versa. It also helps to become a major creative thinker, if one is able to think globally as well as locally, distinguishing the forest from the trees and thereby recognising which questions are important and which ones are not.

Personality: Numerous research investigations have supported the importance of certain personality attributes for creative functioning. These attributes include, but are not limited to, willingness to overcome obstacles, willingness to take sensible risks, willingness to tolerate ambiguity, and self-efficacy. In particular, buying low and selling high typically means defying the crowd, so that one has to be willing to stand up to conventions if one wants to think and act in creative ways. Often creative people seek opposition; that is, they decide to think in ways that countervail how others think. Note that none of the attributes of creative thinking is fixed. One can decide to overcome obstacles, take sensible risks, and so forth.

 Motivation: Intrinsic, task-focused motivation is also essential to creativity. The research of Amabile (1983) and others has shown the importance of such motivation for creative work and has suggested that people rarely do truly creative work in an area unless they really love what they are doing and focus on the work rather than the potential rewards. Motivation is not something inherent in a person: One decides to be motivated by one thing or another. Often, people who need to work in a certain area that does not particularly interest them will decide that, given the need to work in that area, they had better find a way to make it interest them. They will then look for some angle on the work they need to do that makes this work appeal to rather than bore them.

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Q2. Explain Sternberg’s Triarchic theory of intelligence.

The Triarchic Theory of Intelligence or Three Forms of Intelligence,formulated by psychologist Robert Sternberg, aims to go against the psychometric approach to intelligence and take a more cognitive approach, which leaves it to the category of the cognitive-contextual theories The three meta components are also called triarchic components.

Sternberg's definition of human intelligence is "(a) mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world environments relevant to one's life"Thus, Sternberg viewed intelligence as how well an individual deals with environmental changes throughout their lifespan. Sternberg's theory comprises three parts: componential, experiential and practical.


Sternberg associated the workings of the mind with a series of components. These components he labeled the metacomponents, performance components, and knowledge-acquisition components.

The metacomponents are executive processes used in problem solving and decision making that involve the majority of managing our mind. They tell the mind how to act. Metacomponents are also sometimes referred to as a homunculus. A homunculus is a fictitious or metaphorical "person" inside our head that controls our actions, and which is often seen to invite an infinite regress of homunculi controlling each other.

Sternberg's next set of components, performance components, are the processes that actually carry out the actions the metacomponents dictate. These are the basic processes that allow us to do tasks, such as perceiving problems in our long-term memory, perceiving relations between objects, and applying relations to another set of terms.

The last set of components, knowledge-acquisition components, are used in obtaining new information. These components complete tasks that involve selectively choosing relevant information from a mix of information, some of it relevant and some of it irrelevant. These components can also be used to selectively combine the various pieces of information they have gathered. Gifted individuals are proficient in using these components because they are able to learn new information at a greater rate.

Whereas Sternberg explains that the basic information processing components underlying the three parts of his triarchic theory are the same, different contexts and different tasks require different kinds of intelligence.

Componential – analytical subtheory

This form of intelligence focuses on academic proficiency

Sternberg associated the componential subtheory with analytical giftedness. This is one of three types of giftedness that Sternberg recognizes. Analytical giftedness is influential in being able to take apart problems and being able to see solutions not often seen. Unfortunately, individuals with only this type are not as adept at creating unique ideas of their own. This form of giftedness is the type that is tested most often.

Experiential – creative subtheory

This form of intelligence focuses on "capacity to be intellectually flexible and innovative.

The experiential subtheory is the second stage of the triarchic theory. This stage deals mainly with how well a task is performed with regard to how familiar it is. Sternberg splits the role of experience into two parts: novelty and automation.

A novel situation is one that has not been experienced before. People that are adept at managing a novel situation can take the task and find new ways of solving it that the majority of people would not notice.

A process that has been automated has been performed multiple times and can now be done with little or no extra thought. Once a process is automatized, it can be run in parallel with the same or other processes. The problem with novelty and automation is that being skilled in one component does not ensure that you are skilled in the other.

The experiential subtheory also correlates with another one of Sternberg's proposed types of giftedness. Synthetic giftedness is seen in creativity, intuition, and a study of the arts. People with synthetic giftedness are not often seen with the highest IQs because there are not currently any tests that can sufficiently measure these attributes, but synthetic giftedness is especially useful in creating new ideas to create and solve new problems. Sternberg also associated another one of his students, "Barbara", to the synthetic giftedness. Barbara did not perform as well as Alice on the tests taken to get into school, but was recommended to Yale University based on her exceptional creative and intuitive skills. Barbara was later very valuable in creating new ideas for research.

Practical - contextual subtheory

Sternberg's third subtheory of intelligence, called practical or contextual, "deals with the mental activity involved in attaining fit to context". Through the three processes of adaptation, shaping, and selection, individuals create an ideal fit between themselves and their environment. This type of intelligence is often referred to as "street smarts."

Adaptation occurs when one makes a change within oneself in order to better adjust to one's surroundings.For example, when the weather changes and temperatures drop, people adapt by wearing extra layers of clothing to remain warm.

Shaping occurs when one changes their environment to better suit one's needs.

A teacher may invoke the new rule of raising hands to speak to ensure that the lesson is taught with least possible disruption.

The process of selection is undertaken when a completely new alternate environment is found to replace the previous, unsatisfying environment to meet the individual's goals.

For instance, immigrants leave their lives in their homeland countries where they endure economical and social hardships and go to other countries in search of a better and less strained life.

The effectiveness with which an individual fits to his or her environment and contends with daily situations reflects degree of intelligence. Sternberg's third type of giftedness, called practical giftedness, involves the ability to apply synthetic and analytic skills to everyday situations. Practically gifted people are superb in their ability to succeed in any setting. An example of this type of giftedness is "Celia". Celia did not have outstanding analytical or synthetic abilities, but she "was highly successful in figuring out what she needed to do in order to succeed in an academic environment. She knew what kind of research was valued, how to get articles into journals, how to impress people at job interviews, and the like".Celia's contextual intelligence allowed her to use these skills to her best advantage.

Sternberg also acknowledges that an individual is not restricted to having excellence in only one of these three intelligences. Many people may possess an integration of all three and have high levels of all three intelligences.

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Q3. Discuss critically the Innateness theory of language acquisition.

The debate on whether language acquisition is mainly determined by innate predispositions or environmental factors has been of interest to many researchers for decades now. Various schools of thoughts have emerged over the years in an attempt to explain how human beings acquire their language. In all these, a major concern has been to comprehensively understand how the language abilities are picked up by very young children after only inputting little efforts towards acquiring the language under normal circumstances (Harley, 2004). The capacity to speak and be able to communicate with others has always been carried with a lot of importance especially in the contemporary world, yet controversy continues to persist regarding how this important component of life is acquired. It is, therefore, the purpose of this paper to critically discuss the available evidence supporting innate and learning approaches to language acquisition, and their potential criticisms

Language acquisition can be described as the process by which individuals attain the ability and competence to perceive, generate and employ words to comprehend and communicate (Harley, 2004). This unique ability entails acquiring varied capacities, including a wide-ranging vocabulary, grammar, semantics, and phonetics. The capacity to acquire and use these components in our daily communications is a fundamental feature that differentiates human beings from other closely linked primates and other animals.

According to Guasti (2004), the fact that animals have a wide range of communication channels to use cannot be denied, but this forms cannot be in any way qualify to be called languages since they have an inadequate variety of non-syntactically prearranged vocabulary which lacks in consistence and cross-cultural variation.

This notwithstanding, it still amazes many how humans, especially infants, are able to acquire language faculties with much ease. Behrens (2009) posits that “…there must be a genetic component in this capacity because every … child is able to learn language, and there must be an environmental component because no one is born with a specific language.

Arguments for Innate Acquisition of Language

The approach that language is acquired through innate predispositions is viewed as largely traditional, with many of its proponents arguing that the mechanisms involved in are predetermined by biological and evolutionary endowments rather than environmental predispositions (Guasti, 2004). Plato felt that language acquisition, by any standard, was innate since it is beyond our realms of understanding to structure how an infant as young as one year old is able to comprehend the facets of language.

Other advocates such as the Sanskrit grammarians argued that language was God-given, implying that it is innately acquired (Guasti, 2004). According to Behme & Helene (2008), proponents of innateness “…postulate a species-specific language faculty as a largely genetically determined part of our biological endowment and claims that facts about language acquisition support this view” .

Noam Chomsky, one of the most vocal advocates for innate acquisition of language, argued that many features of the linguistic capacity of a well seasoned speaker cannot be elucidated using a data-driven broad-spectrum learning mechanism.

According to this particular proponent, human beings must be endowed with an innate module for them to actively yield or generate a particular language through direct interaction with a myriad of presented experiences (Behme & Helene, 2008).

The advocate’s argument finds strength in the interpretation of systematic empirical studies, which reveals that not only does language acquisition in infants happens at a faster pace, but also has some well structured distinguishing phases whose order and time-frame seems principally independent from environmental influences.

What’s more, Chomsky argued that all children share the same inner limitations which distinguish intently the grammar they are able to construct. Chomsky concluded that the momentum and accuracy of language acquirement leaves no factual substitute to the conclusion that the young child, one way or another, “has the concepts available before experience with language and is basically learning labels for concepts that are already a part of his or her conceptual apparatus” According to the theory of generative grammar, the syntactic knowledge acquired by children or other language learners is, by any standards, underdetermined by the environmental input. This implies that language is innately acquired. The proponents of this theory argue that neither biological processes nor cognitive orientations of an individual can literally be equated to learning

This theory corresponds with the Nativist Model, which presupposes that language learning or acquisition is not really something that the youngster does; rather, acquisition occurs to the child when he or she is placed in a suitable surroundings, much as the child’s physical body develops and matures in a predetermined manner when proper diet and environmental stimulation are provided (Chomsky, 2000). As such, language can only be acquired innately.

The innate approach, therefore, assumes that language acquisition is rapid and instantaneous, not mentioning the fact that acquisition occurs without direct instruction, and can also occur in spite of inadequate input. Instantaneous acquisition of language, according to the proponents, implies that the process is effortless, error-free, and occurs without the child passing through the various developmental phases .

In arguing that acquisition occurs without direct instruction, the proponents of this school of thought implies that there is no negative evidence involved in acquiring language, a preposition that further reinforces the fact that children do not make errors and therefore do not get negative evidence (Morgan et al, 1995). Ultimately, acquisition becomes innate.


The innate approach to language acquisition, despite receiving support from some of the most refined scholars and philosophers, has a variety of setbacks. First, it is a well known fact that children go through precise developmental phases, and they do make systematic errors as they negotiate these phases (Stemmer, 1987).

Available literature reveals that children undergo various changes before they can begin to drift near to adult-like capacities in comprehending and generating a first language. For instance, Children must first break into the communication stream before even attempting to associate the words with any particular meaning.

Children must then learn to combine the words or phrases in specific ways before engaging in another phase of understanding more intricate syntactic combinations. In all these phases, children make numerous errors before commanding the language (Harley, 2001). For instance, children engage in over-extensions of actual meaning of words, and the word ‘cow’ may be applied to various animals, including the actual cows, zebras, donkeys, horses, among others.

By any standards, the argument that children do not get negative evidence goes against what has been empirically researched. In the course of development, youngsters are known to espouse grammars and other language aspects that appear over-generalized.

As such, “…a logical alternative is that children receive negative evidence: corrective feedback providing information that certain sentences are not acceptable” (Morgan et al, 1995, p. 18). Such an intervention, according to the critics of innateness approach, is fundamentally important as it permits children to recover from the common mistakes of overgeneralizations.

Arguments for Learning Approach

This school of thought is of the opinion that the human cognitive structure is adequate to learn language devoid of postulating extra factors or influences such as an inborn language system (Harley, 2001). Many of the proponents of this school simply argue that language is learned through positive interactions with the environment.

This approach is more flexible to the notion of language acquisition, with some proponents suggesting that the capacity to acquire language or the deep-seated hunger to draw in large amounts of verbiage is inborn and coincides with the child’s developmental phase, but the whole process of acquisition depends upon the immediate environment in which the youngster resides (Harley, 2001). This is a more associative approach as it appears to associate a particular ingredient – the environment – with language learning.


Answer the following questions in 400 words each.


Q4. Describe the various types of intelligence tests.

Types of Intelligence Tests:

1. Individual Tests

These tests are administered to one individual at a time. These cover age group from 2 years to 18 years.

These are:

(a) The Binet- Simon Tests,

(b) Revised Tests by Terman,

 (c) Mental Scholastic Tests of Burt, and

(d) Wechsler Test.

2. Group Tests:

Group tests are administered to a group of people Group tests had their birth in America – when the intelligence of the recruits who joined the army in the First World War was to be calculated.

These are:

(a) The Army Alpha and Beta Test,

(b) Terman’s Group Tests, and

(c) Otis Self- Administrative Tests.

Among the group tests there are two types:

(i) Verbal, and

(ii) Non-Verbal.

Verbal tests are those which require the use of language to answer the test items.

3. Performance:

These tests are administered to the illiterate persons. These tests generally involve the construction of certain patterns or solving problems in terms of concrete material.

Some of the famous tests are:

(a) Koh’s Block Design Test,

(b) The Cube Construction Tests, and

(c) The Pass along Tests.

1. Individual Tests:

The first tests that were prepared were individual. The ideal of preparing group test was motivated by economy and mass-scale testing work. Binet’s test was individual, and so was Terman-Merril Stanford Revision. Individual tests are most reliable but these consume more time and energy. These are, however, useful in making case-studies or individual studies of behaviour problems or backwardness.

The tests prepared in the beginning were individual verbal i.e., where some sort of language (the mother-tongue of the child) was used. Each question in Simon-Binet or Stanford Revision test is in verbal form. The child has to read the question or listen to the question and answer in language.

But suppose the child is not fully conversant with the language of the examiner, or he is illiterate. In that case verbal tests do not serve the purpose. Hence non-verbal or performance tests have been prepared. Here the tasks set up require the child to do ‘something’ rather than reply a question.

The child may, for instance, fit in a wooden board with depressions in some geometrical forms, some wooden shapes like triangles or rectangles or circles. He may put some cubes in descending or ascending order of size. He may assemble certain disintegrated parts to form full designs or pictures. No language is used here. Instructions also can be had through demonstration or action.

A number of performance tests have been prepared. The most important are:

1. Alexander’s Pass-a-long test.

2. Koh’s Block Design test.

3. Collin and Drever’s Performance Tests.

4. Weschlers Performance Test.

5. Terman and Merill’s Performance Test.

6. Kent’s Performance Test.

Kent’s test is used for clinical purposes. It consists of five oral tests and seven written tests, each requiring one minute.

Individual performance tests have the disadvantage that these take a lot of time. Their reliability is also questioned on the ground that temporary response sets or work habits may play a major role in determining score. The habits rewarded in one test may lead to a low score or more scores on another.

Again, the intelligence measured by performance tests is not quite the same as tested by Binet and others. Some psychologists have even questioned whether performance test batteries measure general intelligence at all. Further details about performance tests are given below elsewhere.

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2. Group Tests:

These are more helpful as these deal with large masses of subjects such as in schools, industry, army and public. Under favourable administering conditions these are reliable and have high predictive validity, and can be compared favourably with individual tests.

The Army Alpha and Beta were the most prominent tests in the beginning, Spearman constructed group tests in which questions were read out to the candidates. Cyril, Burt prepared group test comprising of large number of sections each section being a large number of problems of one particular kind.

His group-test no. 23 comprises 50 same-opposite problems, 30 sentence completion problems, 30 mixed sentences, 25 analogies and 18 reasoning problems.

A specimen of Burt’s graded reasoning test is given in Appendix VII.

In the ‘Omnibus’ test or ‘Richardson’s ‘Simplex Text’, the different sections are not timed separately, but there is a time limit for the whole test.

Army Beta test is the most widely known group performance test.

In general, group tests have the following characteristics:

(i) Most of the group-tests have been standardised, and these are commonly used in educational institutions in the western countries. The directions and manuals for examiners have been worked out, so that even a lay­man can administer these.

(ii) Most of the test items in group verbal tests are linguistic in character. Some of the test items include problems requiring reasoning about numbers, or geometrical forms.

(iii) Some group verbal tests have been used in measuring scholastic aptitude also.

(iv) These are convenient in administration and scoring.


Q 5. Explain algorithms and heuristics as strategies of problem solving.

A heuristic is a principle with broad application, essentially an educated guess about something. We use heuristics all the time, for example, when deciding what groceries to buy from the supermarket, when looking for a library book, when choosing the best route to drive through town to avoid traffic congestion, and so on. Heuristics can be thought of as aids to decision making; they allow us to reach a solution without a lot of cognitive effort or time.


Most people think that list B is more likely, probably because list B looks more random, and matches — or is “representative of” — our ideas about randomness, but statisticians know that any pattern of four girls and four boys is mathematically equally likely. Whether a boy or girl is born first has no bearing on what sex will be born second; these are independent events, each with a 50:50 chance of being a boy or a girl. The problem is that we have a schema of what randomness should be like, which does not always match what is mathematically the case. Similarly, people who see a flipped coin come up “heads” five times in a row will frequently predict, and perhaps even wager money, that “tails” will be next. This behaviour is known as the gambler’s fallacy. Mathematically, the gambler’s fallacy is an error: the likelihood of any single coin flip being “tails” is always 50%, regardless of how many times it has come up “heads” in the past.

The representativeness heuristic may explain why we judge people on the basis of appearance. Suppose you meet your new next-door neighbour, who drives a loud motorcycle, has many tattoos, wears leather, and has long hair. Later, you try to guess their occupation. What comes to mind most readily? Are they a teacher? Insurance salesman? IT specialist? Librarian? Drug dealer? The representativeness heuristic will lead you to compare your neighbour to the prototypes you have for these occupations and choose the one that they seem to represent the best. Thus, your judgment is affected by how much your neibour seems to resemble each of these groups. Sometimes these judgments are accurate, but they often fail because they do not account for base rates, which is the actual frequency with which these groups exist. In this case, the group with the lowest base rate is probably drug dealer.

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Q6. Describe the goals and research methods in cognitive psychology.

This consists of the various research methods that we use in cognitive psychology. Every research has a goal, and it is achieved through the appropriate methodology. Let us see what the goals of the research are.

1-Goals of Research-To better understand the specific methods used by cognitive psychologists, one must grasp the goals of research in cognitive psychology. Briefly, those goals include data gathering, data analysis, theory development, hypothesis formulation, hypothesis testing, and perhaps even application to settings outside the research environment. However, most cognitive psychologists want to understand more than cognition. They also seek to understand the how and the way of thinking. That is, researchers seek ways to explain cognition as well as describe it. To move beyond descriptions, cognitive psychologists must leap from what is observed directly to what can be inferred regarding observations.

2-Distinctive Research Methods: Cognitive psychologists use various methods to explore how humans think. These methods include 


1.    laboratory or other controlled experiments, 

2.    Psychobiological research, 

3.    Self-reports, case studies, naturalistic observation, and 

Computer simulations and artificial intelligence. Each method offers distinct advantages and disadvantages.

3-Experiments on Human Behavior: In controlled experimental designs, an experimenter conducts research, typically in a laboratory setting. The experimenter controls as many aspects of the experimental situation as possible. There are basically two kinds of variables in any given experiment – independent variables and dependent variables. The irrelevant variables are held constant and are called control variables.

4-Psychobiological Research: Through psychobiological research, investigators study the relationship between cognitive performance and cerebral events and situations. The various specific techniques used in psychobiological research generally fall into three categories. The first category is that of techniques for studying an individual’s brain post-mortem, relating the individual’s cognitive function prior to death to observable features of the brain. The second category is techniques for studying images showing structures of or activities in the brain of an individual who is known to have a particular cognitive deficit.

5-Self-Reports, Case Studies, and Naturalistic Observation: -Individual experiments and psychobiological studies often focus on the precise specification of discrete aspects of cognition across individuals. To obtain richly textured information about how particular individuals think in a broad range of contexts, researchers may use self-reports (an individual’s own account of cognitive processes), case studies (in-depth studies of individuals), and naturalistic observation (detailed studies of cognitive performance in everyday situations and no laboratory contexts). On the one hand, experimental research is most useful for testing hypotheses. On the other hand, research based on qualitative methods is often particularly useful for the formulation of hypotheses. These methods are also useful to generate descriptions of rare events or processes that we have no other way to measure.

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Q7. Describe the functions of language.

1. Expressive and Communicative Functions:

The most basic function of language as we can guess, is that of the expressive function, an attempt to express a sudden change of state, fear, delight, pain or confusion. Whatever it is, such an expression is not a deliberate, conscious expression, but a spontaneous, immediate response not directed towards any other object.

Incidentally, in many cases this also serves as a communication to other members of the group or species, particularly in situations of danger. Most probably, these functions are automatic instinctual functions, and found in lower organisms also. However, at the human level, the communicative role assumes more crucial importance

2. Interpretative Functions:

It may be seen that when a particular occurrence or expression serves as a stimulus to others it also serves a function of becoming aware of interpreting a particular situation. Thus, the cry of one animal in the face of danger is interpreted by other members of the species. The interpretative function is very obvious at the human level.

The interpretative function serves to restore a state of cognitive equilibrium. While the stimulus itself creates a condition of uncertainty or novelty, the interpretation serves to clarify the situation and restore the equilibrium. Such an interpretation helps to place the information in an appropriate position or slot in one’s cognitive world.

Thus, when an offspring gets separated from the mother and suddenly finds her again the sound that may be made is different from the one that would have been made if a strange animal is seen. The sounds on the two occasions, may be phonetically similar, but there is a difference in the meanings of the two sounds meaning in a very elementary sense.

One may question whether one can attribute qualities like meaning, cognition, etc. to animals. But one may also ask why not? Human bigotry particularly, that of the social scientists has prevented them from being objective and honest. Thus, the second major function of the language is to help the organism to interpret and organise cognitive experiences and position them in one’s cognitive world.

3. Control Function:

When one talks of the function of control, there emerges a social dimension apart from the individual dimension. Gradually, as associations get established between certain states of existence and a stimulus on the one hand and certain sounds, there results a reproducibility of a reaction. Thus, the child cries when he is hungry or suffering from pain. This cry in turn makes the mother, or even the animal mother to rush and help. Here is the beginning of control.

The cry brings the mother’s attention and hope, and in later years the attention of those who are dear and close and those who are in a position to support. This is the first experience of mastering the environment and ability to control. Here it may be seen that at simple levels, this control function may not be deliberate and conscious, but as one grows and the environment becomes more organised, the control function of language becomes more and more central.

All of us feel comfortable to talk to a person if we know his name. Whenever we meet a familiar face, we feel comfortable if we can remember his name. The importance of words, slogans, and ‘clarion calls’ in controlling the people and mob is too well-known to need any extensive discussion.

4. The Functions of Remembering and Thinking:

Imagine our being able to think and remember without the use of words. It is almost impossible to recall or remember or think without the use of words and therefore, language. It is language, which helps us to encode experiences, store them and retrieve and decode. It is language, which helps us to translate experiences into thought and engage in processes of different types.


Q8. Explain the various speech disorders.

Speech disorders or speech impairments are a type of communication disorder in which normal speech is disrupted.This can mean fluency disorders like stuttering, cluttering or lisps. Someone who is unable to speak due to a speech disorder is considered mute.Speech skills are vital to social relationships and learning, and delays or disorders that relate to developing these skills can impact individuals function. For many children and adolescents, this can present as issues with academics.Speech disorders affect roughly 11.5% of the US population, and 5% of the primary school population.Speech is a complex process that requires precise timing, nerve and muscle control, and as a result is susceptible to impairments. A person who has a stroke, an accident or birth defect may have speech and language problems.


Classifying speech into normal and disordered is more problematic than it first seems. By strict classification, only 5% to 10% of the population has a completely normal manner of speaking (with respect to all parameters) and healthy voice; all others have one disorder or another.

There are three different levels of classification when determining the magnitude and type of a speech disorder and the proper treatment or therapy:

·       Sounds the patient can produce

·       Phonemic – can be produced easily; used meaningfully and constructively

·       Phonetic – produced only upon request; not used consistently, meaningfully, or constructively; not used in connected speech

·       Stimulate sounds

·       Easily stimulated

·       Stimulate after demonstration and probing (i.e. with a tongue depressor)

·       Cannot produce the sound

·       Cannot be produced voluntarily

·       No production ever observed

Types of disorder

Apraxia of speech may result from stroke or progressive illness, and involves inconsistent production of speech sounds and rearranging of sounds in a word ("potato" may become "topato" and next "totapo"). Production of words becomes more difficult with effort, but common phrases may sometimes be spoken spontaneously without effort.

Cluttering, a speech and fluency disorder characterized primarily by a rapid rate of speech, which makes speech difficult to understand.

Developmental verbal dyspraxia also known as childhood apraxia of speech.

Dysarthria is a weakness or paralysis of speech muscles caused by damage to the nerves or brain. Dysarthria is often caused by strokes, Parkinson's disease,ALS, head or neck injuries, surgical accident, or cerebral palsy.


Dysprosody is an extremely rare neurological speech disorder. It is characterized by alterations in intensity, in the timing of utterance segments, and in rhythm, cadence, and intonation of words. The changes to the duration, the fundamental frequency, and the intensity of tonic and atonic syllables of the sentences spoken, deprive an individual's particular speech of its characteristics. The cause of dysprosody is usually associated with neurological pathologies such as brain vascular accidents, cranioencephalic traumatisms, and brain tumors.



Answer the following questions in 50 words each.


Q9. Simultaneous and Successive processing

Simultaneous and successive processing are cognitive strategies that describe how individuals perceive and organize information. Simultaneous processing involves analyzing multiple elements simultaneously, emphasizing holistic perception. It enables quick comprehension of complex patterns and is crucial in tasks like visualizing relationships. Successive processing, on the other hand, involves sequential analysis of information, focusing on one element at a time. It is effective in tasks requiring step-by-step processing, like reading and problem-solving. Both processing styles play essential roles in cognitive functioning, influencing learning and problem-solving strategies. Understanding an individual's preference for simultaneous or successive processing can aid educators and psychologists in tailoring instructional methods for optimal cognitive development.

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Q10. Concept of IQ

The concept of Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is a measure designed to assess cognitive abilities and intellectual potential. Developed by Alfred Binet in the early 20th century, IQ is calculated through standardized tests that evaluate problem-solving, memory, and logical reasoning skills. A typical IQ score has a mean of 100, with a standard deviation of 15 points. The score indicates an individual's performance relative to their age group, with higher scores suggesting above-average intellectual abilities. While IQ tests are widely used in educational and clinical settings, they have faced criticism for potential cultural bias and limitations in capturing the full spectrum of human intelligence and creativity.


Q11. Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence

Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, a component of Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences theory, refers to a person's ability to control and manipulate their body movements with precision and coordination. Individuals high in bodily-kinesthetic intelligence often excel in activities requiring physical skill, such as sports, dance, or manual labor. This intelligence involves a keen awareness of one's body and its capabilities, allowing individuals to express themselves through movement. Athletes, dancers, and artisans frequently exhibit strong bodily-kinesthetic intelligence. Educational approaches that acknowledge and nurture this intelligence involve hands-on learning experiences, physical activities, and interactive projects to cater to the unique strengths and talents of those with a pronounced bodily-kinesthetic intelligence.


Q12. Single-system and dual-system hypotheses in multilingualism

In multilingualism, the single-system hypothesis posits that all languages a person speaks are stored and processed within a unified cognitive system, sharing resources without significant interference. In contrast, the dual-system hypothesis suggests that each language is represented and processed independently, minimizing interference. Research on these hypotheses examines how multilingual individuals manage and access linguistic information, exploring factors like language proficiency, context, and cognitive demands. The debate remains dynamic, with evidence supporting both perspectives. Understanding these hypotheses aids in comprehending the intricate nature of multilingual cognition, influencing language acquisition theories, educational practices, and bilingualism's cognitive implications.


Q13. Aphasia

Aphasia is a language disorder resulting from brain damage, often due to stroke or head injury. It impairs a person's ability to understand, produce, or use language. The severity and specific language deficits vary, affecting speech, writing, and comprehension. Aphasia doesn't impact intelligence but hinders effective communication. Speech therapy and rehabilitation aim to improve language skills and help individuals adapt to their linguistic challenges.

Q14. Functional fixedness

Functional fixedness is a cognitive bias where individuals struggle to see unconventional uses for familiar objects. This mindset limits problem-solving creativity as people tend to fixate on standard functions. Overcoming functional fixedness involves thinking outside conventional roles, fostering innovative problem-solving. It's a key concept in understanding cognitive flexibility and the challenges individuals may face when approaching problems with preconceived notions about the use of objects or ideas.


Q15. Cultural blocks to problem solving

Cultural blocks to problem-solving refer to obstacles rooted in cultural perspectives that hinder individuals' ability to find solutions. These may include ingrained beliefs, societal norms, or communication styles that limit creativity or acceptance of diverse ideas. Recognizing and overcoming cultural blocks is essential for fostering inclusive problem-solving environments, allowing diverse perspectives to contribute to innovative and effective solutions.


Q16. Problem space hypothesis

The problem space hypothesis, proposed in cognitive psychology, suggests that problem-solving involves mentally representing a problem as a "problem space" with various states and operators. States represent different possible conditions, and operators are the actions to transition between states. Effective problem-solving requires navigating this space, exploring possibilities, and finding a path to the solution. This hypothesis provides a conceptual framework for understanding the cognitive processes involved in tackling complex problems.


Q17. Characteristics of difficult problems

Difficult problems often exhibit characteristics that challenge conventional problem-solving approaches. They may involve high complexity, ambiguous information, and multiple variables. Additionally, difficult problems may lack clear solution paths, require creative thinking, and demand insights from various domains. Tackling such problems typically demands perseverance, flexibility, and the ability to embrace uncertainty. Overcoming difficulty often involves breaking down the problem, considering diverse perspectives, and employing innovative strategies to navigate the complexities inherent in these challenging scenarios.


Q18. Luchin’s water jar problem

Luchin's water jar problem is a classic cognitive psychology experiment where participants solve a series of water jar puzzles. The challenge involves transferring a specific amount of water using a set of jars with different capacities. Luchin's experiment explores how individuals approach problem-solving, revealing insights into mental set and fixedness in tackling similar problemsTop of Form.

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