Write notes on risk management and risk communication.

Write notes on risk management and risk communication.

Define risk management:- The concept of risk can be characterised as the possibility that events, whether anticipated or unanticipated, may negatively affect a bank's earnings, capital, or both. The definition includes both risks with high likelihood but low impact as well as dangers with low probability but large impact. The discussion would benefit from using this working definition. Remember that risk and expected return are strongly correlated at this point; the higher the risk, the higher the expected return, and vice versa. Any organization's risk management department is responsible for ensuring that systems and procedures are established in accordance with the institution's risk management policy.

They are devided into some parts:-

1. Credit Risk: The oldest risk in the financial system is credit risk, which is notably prevalent in banks and other financial institutions because of the intermediation process. The heart of these institutions' expertise is credit risk management. Although the risk is widely understood, the way credit risk is assessed and managed in the current context has altered as a result of market expansion, disintermediation, and the introduction of a number of novel goods and activities. According to studies on bank failures in the US, credit risk alone was responsible for 71% of major bank failures between 1980 and 2004.Credit risk is described as "the risk to a bank's earnings or capital base stemming from a borrower's inability to comply with the terms of any contractual or other agreement it has with the bank" by B. Simon Hills of the British Bankers Association. Every activity that depends on counterparty, issuer, or borrower performance entails some degree of credit risk.

Interest Rate Risk: establishes and rate-paying obligations of a bank. The measurement, control, and management of IRR in the banking book are included in the scope of IRR management. Interest rate volatility has significantly increased since interest rates were deregulated. As a result, the banking industry in our nation has undergone a permanent transformation from a volume-driven industry to one that requires careful planning and selection of the assets and liabilities it will take on to meet profitability goals.

Write notes on risk management and risk communication.-IRR can be approached in two different ways. They are the Economic Value Approach and the Earnings Approach.

2.Liquidity Risk: The danger of the bank's inability to cover its obligations in the form of cash outflows with its current inflows of cash is known as liquidity risk. This risk develops due to insufficient cash and near-cash assets, such as drawing rights, to cover current and foreseeable liabilities. Trading liquidity risk and funding liquidity risk are the two categories under which liquidity risk is broken down. Due to the illiquidity of the securities in the bank's trading portfolio, there is a risk associated with trading liquidity. Due to diverse balance sheet techniques adopted by various institutions within the same industry, funding liquidity risk develops as a result of the cash flow mismatch.

It is very feasible for some banks to have excess funding liquidity, while other banks could experience a liquidity deficit.

 Market Risk: Historically, banks' biggest problem has been managing credit risk. Market risk, which results from unfavourable changes in market factors including interest rates, foreign exchange rates, equities prices, and commodity prices, has become relatively more significant as a result of ongoing deregulation.

 B.Risk Management:-

Risk communication is the real-time exchange of knowledge, suggestions, and opinions between professionals or officials and those who are threatened (by a hazard) with losing their lives, their health, their livelihood, or their social or economic standing.

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What are the benefits and barriers in implementing HACCP? Explain the principles of HACCP.

There  types:-

1. Public Relations: High Hazard, Low Outrage:-

Apathetic viewers are by definition characterised by little outrage. It will be exceedingly tough to capture and maintain the interest of this audience, so discovering your core point and condensing it into as few words as you can while yet managing to make it engaging is crucial. The aim is frequently to incite more indignation because the risk is considerable, or at least higher than the outrage.I Call this paradigm public relations as communicating to uninterested parties is at the heart of PR. But environmental action, safety training, and health education also fall under this umbrella. Industrial hygienists most frequently engage in risk communication where they encourage others to take certain risks seriously.Given the size of the uninterested population, mass media is likely to be used extensively in high-hazard, low-outrage risk communication. Audience inattention, audience size, media resistance, the necessity to condense everything into succinct sound bites, and the political repercussions of trying to incite anger are some of the obstacles that must be overcome. The upside is that this audience has few, if any, concerns, reservations, or objections, thus there isn't much need to listen or answer them. But be prepared to switch up your approach when the crowd starts paying attention.

2. Stakeholder Relations: Moderate Hazard, Moderate Outrage:-

Stakeholder relations focuses on interpersonal communication in place of mainstream media, with the help of more specialised media like newsletters and websites. There are no real obstacles to overcome, but a one-on-one conversation can be excruciatingly ineffective. Additionally, since this is the only audience that genuinely wants to hear the technical specifics, you must be ready to do so.The type of risk communication that industrial hygienists (and everyone else) prefer best is stakeholder relations. The other three types of risk communication seek to duplicate it.

3.Outrage Management: Low Hazard, High Outrage:-

The audience is upset, mostly because of you. Although the outrage may be legitimate in a non-technical sense (for instance, you might have been less than honest or courteous), it isn't legitimate technically because the risk is modest. A bigger, less upset constituency that is interested in following the controversy's development is typically present alongside a core group of "fanatics." By listening, acknowledging, apologising, sharing control and credit, and other strategies, it is necessary to lessen audience outrage. When the "fanatics" declare victory or their constituency believes they have won enough, the debate is ended.Historically, industrial hygienists have viewed themselves as "Watch out" communicators rather than "Calm down" communicators. However, in recent years, managing risk disputes and the enraged employees and neighbours they cause has become an essential - and unwanted - component of many I.H. employment.In-person conversation is the preferred method of outrage control, but this time the "audience" speaks more than usual. Barriers include the audience's and your own fury at the audience, accepting the necessity of emphasising outrage when you'd really want to discuss content, and occasionally the media's confounding presence.

Write notes on risk management and risk communication.- The bright side is that, despite their hostile (or at the very least, extremely sceptic) attention, at least you have it.




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