IGNOU MCFT 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23 - MCFT Assignment

IGNOU MCFT 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23 - IGNOU MCFT Solved Assignment Assignments (Programme Wise). Master's Degree Programmes · Bachelor's Degree Programmmes · P.G. Diploma Programmes · Indira Gandhi National Open University has extended the IGNOU Assignment 2022 Submit Last Date for TEE December 2022 till 31 October 2022.

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Human Development and Family Relationships



Section A - Descriptive Questions

IGNOU MCFT 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23 IGNOU MCFT 001 Solved Assignment 2022-23 - IGNOU MCFT Solved Assignment Assignments (Programme Wise). Master's Degree Programmes · Bachelor's Degree Programmmes · P.G. Diploma Programmes · Indira Gandhi National Open University has extended the IGNOU Assignment 2022 Submit Last Date for TEE December 2022 till 31 October 2022.

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1. Explain the major characteristics of human development.

This study aims to analyze the impact of economic growth, the percentage of poor people, government spending in education, government spending on health, and the inequality of income distribution to the Human Development Index in Makassar City. This research is quantitative research. The type of data used in this study is secondary data in the form of annual time series starting from 2007 to 2016 which are quantitative data. Data analysis was done using multiple linear regression statistical analysis. The findings show that economic growth, the percentage of the poor, government spending in education, government spending on health, and the inequality of income distribution have a significant influence on the Human Development Index in Makassar City.

Studies of human development have been carried out by several experts. Dominant experts observed that inadequate investment in education and health inhibited inclusive growth and inhibited the participation of groups vulnerable to poverty. There are also several other experts who focus on the study of human development in institutional perceptions [3–5] and infrastructure perspectives. This shows that human development cannot be separated from the socio-economic dimension.

The economic development of a region not only looks at the level of Gross Domestic Product but also looks at the extent to which the development can be translated into several aspects so that a prosperous condition emerges. One form of development success can be seen from the level of human development in a region. Human development is a form of investment in human capital in an effort to participate in national development. Therefore the government's seriousness is needed in dealing with the problem of increasing human development.

There are various factors that can be considered as determining human development. Many studies have identified that social infrastructure, industrialization, population density, economic growth, government expenditure, and inequality in income distribution, can determine human development.

One of the human development problems in South Sulawesi, namely the achievement of the performance of the HDI of South Sulawesi does have a tendency to increase in absolute terms. However, this increase was not strong enough to raise the relative position of South Sulawesi HDI to the expected level. This achievement seems bad considering that various other regional development dimensions actually show quite impressive performance, such as economic growth and a reduction in poverty rates.

With the increase in the rate of economic growth from year to year and the decline in the level of poverty, an increase in the rate of human development should also be able to increase significantly by increasing the rate of growth and decreasing the level of poverty. But in reality the development of the South Sulawesi HDI has increased even though the increase is not too large. Meanwhile government spending on education and health is still relatively low while inequality in income distribution increases each year which will have an impact on human development in South Sulawesi.

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2. What do you understand by:

i) Fictional goals

Several theories underline the study of human psychology. They also form the basis for identifying human behavior, personality types, and mental disorders.

Some psychology theories include behaviorist, humanistic, biological, cognitive, personality, and psychoanalytic theories.

Fictional finalism makes up a part of the personality theory. It tends to point out what makes up a person’s personality.

In this article, we will focus on fictional finalism and other related information you need to know. So keep reading from start to finish.

Fictional finalism is an unconscious goal or ideal. It’s a future goal that a person aspires to achieve, and so he directs his lifestyle to meet the goal. Alfred Adler postulated it in his personality theory.

It also depends on the theory that human beings are highly motivated by future possibilities and goals or ideals that they expect to reach than by their experiences. However, there have been adjustments to the theory over time.

According to the earliest form of the theory, people will always have problems, issues, or inferiorities. So, your personality will be shown by how you overcome or don’t overcome the problems.

But Adler later rejected it as a basic motive. He considered the center of a person’s personality to be consciousness.

However, there is an underlying urge for perfection in every human. So every human action or behavior is an attempt to reach the fictional finalism.

Adler’s personality theory infers that fictional finalism begins from a person’s childhood. It infers that a child depends on his parents, so the dependence causes them to feel inferior. To overcome the feeling of inferiority, he strives to attain superiority.

In other words, a fictional goal of success begins when a child tries to overcome his feelings of inferiority. Such goals become a guiding fiction in the person’s present life. So, the picture of future success in his mind helps him overcome the difficulties of the present.

The child’s development of fictional finalism depends on his position in the family. From the theory, Adler made use of the case of a family with three children.

The firstborn child in the family feels deprived upon the arrival of another child. He feels he has lost his privileges, so he tries to survive independently without the need for affection. It usually leads him to seek leadership.

The second child usually tends to rival and compete with the first child. And so, he sets high goals for himself. He usually becomes successful.

But the last child is dependent on the older children, and the dependence may become too high.

However, he may desire to be independent, which will create an internal conflict.

On the other hand, an only child in a family is usually self-centered and addicted. When he grows up and is no longer the center of attention, he usually has difficulties relating to his peers. However, modern empirical studies don’t agree with it. So, an only child is emotionally and socially stable like other children.

Furthermore, goals are different depending on the individual. So, the drive to achieve superiority enables a person to develop from one stage of his life to the next.

The inability of a person to achieve the primary goal may result in some psychological disorders like superiority complex or inferiority complex.

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ii) Collective unconscious

Collective unconscious (German: kollektives Unbewusstes) refers to the unconscious mind and shared mental concepts. It is generally associated with idealism and was coined by Carl Jung. According to Jung, the human collective unconscious is populated by instincts, as well as by archetypes: ancient primal symbols such as The Great Mother, the Wise Old Man, the Shadow, the Tower, Water, and the Tree of Life. Jung considered the collective unconscious to underpin and surround the unconscious mind, distinguishing it from the personal unconscious of Freudian psychoanalysis. He believed that the concept of the collective unconscious helps to explain why similar themes occur in mythologies around the world. He argued that the collective unconscious had a profound influence on the lives of individuals, who lived out its symbols and clothed them in meaning through their experiences. The psychotherapeutic practise of analytical psychology revolves around examining the patient's relationship to the collective unconscious.

Psychiatrist and Jungian analyst Lionel Corbett argue that the contemporary terms "autonomous psyche" or "objective psyche" are more commonly used today in the practice of depth psychology rather than the traditional term of the "collective unconscious". Critics of the collective unconscious concept have called it unscientific and fatalistic, or otherwise very difficult to test scientifically (due to the mystical aspect of the collective unconscious).[3] Proponents suggest that it is borne out by findings of psychologyneuroscience, and anthropology.

The term "collective unconscious" first appeared in Jung's 1916 essay, "The Structure of the Unconscious". This essay distinguishes between the "personal", Freudian unconscious, filled with sexual fantasies and repressed images, and the "collective" unconscious encompassing the soul of humanity at large.

In "The Significance of Constitution and Heredity in Psychology" (November 1929), Jung wrote:

And the essential thing, psychologically, is that in dreams, fantasies, and other exceptional states of mind the most far-fetched mythological motifs and symbols can appear autochthonously at any time, often, apparently, as the result of particular influences, traditions, and excitations working on the individual, but more often without any sign of them. These "primordial images" or "archetypes," as I have called them, belong to the basic stock of the unconscious psyche and cannot be explained as personal acquisitions. Together they make up that psychic stratum which has been called the collective unconscious.
The existence of the collective unconscious means that individual consciousness is anything but a tabula rasa and is not immune to predetermining influences. On the contrary, it is in the highest degree influenced by inherited presuppositions, quite apart from the unavoidable influences exerted upon it by the environment. The collective unconscious comprises in itself the psychic life of our ancestors right back to the earliest beginnings. It is the matrix of all conscious psychic occurrences, and hence it exerts an influence that compromises the freedom of consciousness in the highest degree, since it is continually striving to lead all conscious processes back into the old paths.

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Q.3. How is Vygotsky’s approach to cognitive development different from Piaget’s? Discuss.

Piaget and Vygotsky also differ in how they approach discovery learning. Piaget advocated for discovery learning with little teacher intervention, while Vygotsky promoted guided discovery in the classroom. Guided discovery involves the teacher offering intriguing questions to students and having them discover the answers through testing hypotheses (Woolfolk, A., 2004). The students are engaged in the discovery process; however, they are still receiving assistance from a more knowledgeable source.

A teacher utilizing Vygotskian methods for teaching would be a very active member in her student's education. The teacher would apply the technique of scaffolding by providing assistance and offering feedback when relating new information (Woolfolk, A., 2004). Teachers should also make sure that students are provided adequate tools for learning. Students should be taught how to use tools such as the computer, resource books, and graphs in order to better utilize these tools in the future (Woolfolk, A., 2004). Teaching in the Vygotskian method would also incorporate group or peer learning (Woolfolk, A., 2004). By having students tutor each other through dialogues and scaffolding, the students can begin to internalize the new information and come to a better understanding of the material.

I believe that both Piaget and Vygotsky provided educators with important views on cognitive development in the child. Piaget proposed that children progress through the stages of cognitive development through maturation, discovery methods, and some social transmissions through assimilation and accommodation (Woolfolk, A., 2004). Vygotsky's theory stressed the importance of culture and language on one's cognitive development.

Regarding the two cognitive theories, I would be more apt to apply Vygotskian principles to my classroom. I believe that principles such as scaffolding, co-constructed knowledge, dialogue, and cultural tools are all important components of a student's knowledge acquisition. By helping students within their zone of proximal development, we offer them useful learning strategies which they internalize and utilize later. Piaget proposed many applicable educational strategies, such as discovery learning with an emphasis on activity and play. However, Vygotsky incorporated the importance of social interactions and a co-constructed knowledge base to the theory of cognitive development.

In conclusion, a teacher's focus should be to provide assistance to students in need, and provide cultural tools as educational resources. Teachers should provide for group and peer learning, in order for students to support each other through the discovery process. Especially in today's diverse classroom, the teacher needs to be sensitive to her student's cultural background and language, and be an active participant in his knowledge construction.

4. Analyse the changing structure and nature of family in the present day urban context.

5. Discuss elements of parenting, and their consequences.

6. Explain the assumption of systems theory.


Section B - Short Answer Type Questions

1. Write short notes (in about 150 words each) on the following:

i) Nature vs. Nurture

ii) Genetic counselling

iii) Adoptive families

iv) Family developmental tasks

v) Burnout

vi) Cybernation

vii) Classical conditioning

viii) Gender roles



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