Explain Jindyworobak


Explain Jindyworobak

Explain Jindyworobak: The Jindyworobak Movement was an Australian literary movement of the 1930s and 1940s whose white members, mostly poets, sought to contribute to a uniquely Australian culture through the integration of Indigenous Australian subjects, language and mythology. The movement's stated aim was to "free Australian art from whatever alien influences trammel it" and create works based on an engagement with the Australian landscape and an "understanding of Australia's history and traditions, primeval, colonial and modern". The movement began in Adelaide, South Australia, in 1937, when Rex Ingamells and other poets founded the Jindyworobak Club. Ingamells outlined the movement's aims in an address entitled On Environmental Values (1937).

Explain Jindyworobak: "Jindyworobak" comes from the Woiwurrung language, formerly spoken around modern-day Melbourne, meaning "to join" or "to annex". It was used by James Devaney in his 1929 book The Vanished Tribes, in which he claims to have sourced it from a 19th-century vocabulary. Ingamells is said to have chosen the word due to its outlandish and symbolic qualities. The name was sometimes shortened to "Jindy", and "Jindys" came to refer to members of the group, which included Nancy Cato, Ian Mudie and Roland Robinson. The Jindyworobaks found inspiration in the Australian bush ballad tradition, Kangaroo (1928) by D. H. Lawrence and P. R. Stephensen's The Foundations of Culture in Australia (1936), and shared a vision similar to that of some of their contemporaries in the arts, such as author Xavier Herbert, artist Margaret Preston and composer John Antill. However, the movement also attracted criticism for being culturally insular and overtly nationalist. The Jindyworobak Anthology was published annually from 1938 to 1953, and the Jindyworobak Review (1948) collected the first ten years of this publication. An extensive history of the movement, The Jindyworobaks, was published in 1979.

Explain Jindyworobak: Starting off as a literary club in Adelaide, South Australia in 1938, the Jindyworobak movement was supported by many Australian artists, poets, and writers. Many were fascinated by Indigenous Australian culture and the Outback, and desired to improve the white Australian's understanding and appreciation of them. Other features came into play, among them white Australia's increasing alienation from its European origins; the Depression of the 1930s which recalled the economic troubles of the end of the 19th century; an increasingly urban or suburban Australian population alienated from the wild Australia of the Outback etc.; the First World War and the coming of World War II and also the coming of early mass market media in the form of the radio, recordings, newspapers and magazines. Sense of place was particularly important to the Jindyworobak movement. Ingamells produced Colonial Culture as a prose manifesto of the movement, "in response to L. F. Giblin's urging that poets in Australia should portray Australian nature and people as they are in Australia, not with the 'European' gaze." and shortly after the first Jindyworobak Anthology came out. In 1941, the poet and critic A. D. Hope ridiculed the Jindyworobaks as "the Boy Scout school of poetry", a comment for which he apologised in Native Companions in 1975 saying "some amends are due, I think, to these Jindyworobaks". Others such as R. H. Morrison derided "Jindyworobackwardness". Hal Porter wrote of meeting Rex Ingamells who he said "buys me a porter gaff and tries to persuade me to be a Jindyworobak - that is, a poet who thinks that words from the minute vocabulary of the earth's most primitive race must be used to express Australia".[3] Although "Jindies" concentrated on Australian culture, not all were of Australian origin—for example, William Hart-Smith, who is sometimes connected to the movement, was born in England, and spent most of his life in New Zealand after a decade (1936–1946) in Australia. Anthologies of Jindyworobak material were produced until 1953.

Explain Jindyworobak: Jindyworobak movement, brief nationalistic Australian literary movement of the 1930s to mid-1940s that sought to promote native ideas and traditions, especially in literature. The movement was swelled by several circumstances: the economic depression focused attention on comparable hardships of an earlier era (the early 1890s); the influx of “alien” culture threatened to overwhelm the young literature then in the making; and travelers described with wonder the little known Australian Outback. Among the discoveries of the period was a romantic notion of the spirit of place and the literary importance of what could still be discerned of Aboriginal culture. Xavier Herbert’s Capricornia (1938) typifies the goals of the Jindyworobak movement.

Explain Jindyworobak

Explain Jindyworobak: Xavier Herbert, in full Alfred Francis Xavier Herbert, (born May 15, 1901, Port Hedland, W.Aus., Austl.—died Nov. 10, 1984, Alice Springs, Northern Territory), Australian novelist and short-story writer best known for his voluble novel Capricornia (1938), a comic chronicle about life in the Northern Territory of Australia and the inhumane treatment suffered by the Aborigines there at the hands of white men.

The son of a railroad engineer, Herbert knew many Aborigines as a child and learned their language. He studied pharmacy at the University of Melbourne but then turned to journalism, traveling over northern Australia and also working as a sailor, miner, aviator, deep-sea diver, and stock rider. In 1935 he became superintendent of Aborigines at Darwin, a position that led to the writing of Capricornia. He also spent two years in England and served as a sergeant during World War II.

Explain Jindyworobak: Herbert never fulfilled the promise of his first novel: the novels Seven Emus (1959) and Soldiers’ Women (1961) and his collected short stories, Larger than Life (1963), were somewhat less well received by the critics and public alike. His sprawling saga Poor Fellow My Country (1975) expressed his pessimistic view of life but lacked the richness and vitality of Capricornia. His autobiography, Disturbing Element, was published in 1963.

Explain Jindyworobak: Perhaps more so than in other countries, the literature of Australia characteristically expresses collective values. Even when the literature deals with the experiences of an individual, those experiences are very likely to be estimated in terms of the ordinary, the typical, the representative. It aspires on the whole to represent integration rather than disintegration. It does not favour the heroicism of individual action unless this shows dogged perseverance in the face of inevitable defeat. Although it may express a strong ironic disapproval of collective mindlessness, the object of criticism is the mindlessness rather than the conformity. This general proposition holds true for both Indigenous Australians and those descended from later European arrivals, though the perception of what constitutes the community is quite radically different in these two cases. The white Australian community is united in part by its sense of having derived from foreign cultures, primarily that of England, and in part by its awareness of itself as a settler society with a continuing celebration of pioneer values and a deep attachment to the land. For Aboriginal peoples in their traditional cultures, story, song, and legend served to define allegiances and relationships both to others and to the land that nurtured them. For modern Aboriginal people, written literature has been a way of both claiming a voice and articulating a sense of cohesion as a people faced with real threats to the continuance of their culture.

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