Wednesday, May 19, 2021

International business environment is relevant for the Managers

 International business environment is relevant for the Managers

International business environment is relevant for the Managers International business refers to the trade of goods, services, technology, capital and/or knowledge across national borders and at a global or transnational scale. It involves cross-border transactions of goods and services between two or more countries. Transactions of economic resources include capital, skills, and people for the purpose of the international production of physical goods and services such as finance, banking, insurance, and construction. International business environment is relevant for the Managers International business is also known as globalization. To conduct business overseas, multinational companies need to bridge separate national markets into one global marketplace. International business environment is relevant for the Managers There are two macro-scale factors that underline the trend of greater globalization. The first consists of eliminating barriers to make cross-border trade easier (e.g. free flow of goods and services, and capital, referred to as "free trade")

The second is technological change, particularly developments in communication, information processing, and transportation technologies. "International business" is also defined as the study of the internationalization process of multinational enterprises. International business environment is relevant for the Managers A multinational enterprise (MNE) is a company that has a worldwide approach to markets, production and/or operations in several countries. Well-known MNEs include fast-food companies such as: McDonald's (MCD), YUM (YUM), Starbucks Coffee Company (SBUX), Microsoft (MSFT), etc. Other industrial MNEs leaders include vehicle manufacturers such as: Ford Motor Company, and General Motors (GMC). International business environment is relevant for the Managers Some consumer electronics producers such as Samsung, LG and Sony, and energy companies such as Exxon Mobil, and British Petroleum (BP) are also multinational enterprises. Multinational enterprises range from any kind of business activity or market, from consumer goods to machinery manufacture; a company can become an international business. International business environment is relevant for the Managers Therefore, to conduct business overseas, companies should be aware of all the factors that might affect any business activities, including, but not limited to: difference in legal systems, political systems, economic policy, language, accounting standards, labor standards, living standards, environmental standards, local cultures, corporate cultures, foreign-exchange markets, tariffs, import and export regulations, trade agreements, climate, and education. Each of these factors may require changes in how companies operate from one country to another. Each factor makes a difference and a connection. One of the first scholars to engage in developing a theory of multinational companies was Canadian economist Stephen Hymer.  

International business environment is relevant for the Managers Throughout his academic life, he developed theories that sought to explain foreign direct investment (FDI) and why firms become multinational. There were three phases of internationalization according to Hymer's work. The first phase of Hymer's work was his dissertation in 1960 called the International Operations of National Firms. In this thesis, the author departs from neoclassical theory and opens up a new area of international production. International business environment is relevant for the Managers At first, Hymer started analyzing neoclassical theory and financial investment, where the main reason for capita movement is the difference in interest rates. After this analysis, Hymer analyzed the characteristics of foreign investment by large companies for production and direct business purposes, calling this Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). By analyzing the two types of investments, Hymer distinguished financial investment from direct investment. The main distinguishing feature was control. Portfolio investment is a more passive approach, and the main purpose is financial gain, whereas in foreign direct investment a firm has control over the operations abroad. So, the traditional theory of investment based on differential interest rates does not explain the motivations for FDI. According to Hymer, there are two main determinants of FDI; where an imperfect market structure is the key element. 

The first is the firm-specific advantages which are developed at the specific companies home country and, profitably, used in the foreign country. International business environment is relevant for the Managers The second determinant is the removal of control where Hymer wrote: "When firms are interconnected, they compete in selling in the same market or one of the firms may sell to the other," and because of this "it may be profitable to substitute centralized decision-making for decentralized decision-making". Hymer's second phase is his neoclassical article in 1968 that includes a theory of internationalization and explains the direction of growth of the international expansion of firms. In a later stage, Hymer went to a more Marxist approach where he explains that MNC as agents of an international capitalist system causing conflict and contradictions, causing among other things inequality and poverty in the world. International business environment is relevant for the Managers Hymer is the "father of the theory of MNEs", and explains the motivations for companies doing direct business abroad. Among modern economic theories of multinationals and foreign direct investment are internalization theory and John Dunning's OLI paradigm (standing for ownership, location and internationalization). Dunning was widely known for his research in economics of international direct investment and the multinational enterprise. International business environment is relevant for the Managers His OLI paradigm, in particular, remains as the predominant theoretical contribution to study international business topics. Hymer and Dunning are considered founders of international business as a specialist field of study.