Sunday, October 4, 2020

Various strategies and techniques that could be used in advocacy

 Various strategies and techniques that could be used in advocacy

Various strategies and techniques that could be used in advocacy, Advocacy is that the active support of a thought or cause expressed through strategies and methods that influence the opinions and decisions of individuals and organisations.

In the social and economic development context the aims of advocacy are to make or change policies, laws, regulations, distribution of resources or other decisions that affect people’s lives and to make sure that such decisions cause implementation. Various strategies and techniques that could be used in advocacy, Such advocacy is usually directed at policy makers including politicians, officialdom and public servants, but also private sector leaders whose decisions impact upon peoples lives, also as those whose opinions and actions influence policy makers, like journalists and therefore the media, development agencies and enormous NGOs.

By “pro-poor advocacy” we mean advocacy for political decisions and actions that answer the interests of individuals who directly face poverty and disadvantage. Various strategies and techniques that could be used in advocacy, For those pursuing the goal of equitable and pro-poor ICT access, advocacy as a way to cause change are often appropriate during a range of circumstances, including:

(a) Where ICT policies could have the effect of reinforcing poverty and discrimination. for instance , “e-government” projects that use the web to enhance access to public services may, for those without internet access, have the reverse effect, unless they're complemented by other measures to enable universal access to the web .

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(b) When appropriate ICT about-face might be expected to enhance poor people’s lives and livelihoods. for instance , the adoption of broadcasting policies that enable community-based organisations to determine their own radio or television services.

(c) As a part of a wider programme of support for pro-poor ICT access. Various strategies and techniques that could be used in advocacy, for instance , the impact and effectiveness of investment publicly ICT access centres could also be improved by advocacy efforts to adopt and mainstream good practice like community participation in management or use of free and open source software.

There is much that has been written on advocacy and the way to realize influence. a number of the essential tenets of the art of persuasion, found in politics and communication studies, appear also in early Greek and Chinese philosophy. Various strategies and techniques that could be used in advocacy, it's widely recognised, for instance , that change comes rarely from force of argumentation alone or from the presentation of irrefutable evidence in support of the changes required. The latter is most starkly demonstrated by the slow response to global climate change warnings. Much depends on the character, approach and credibility of these seeking change and therefore the receptiveness of these they're seeking to influence . Various strategies and techniques that could be used in advocacy, Advocacy is inherently political and an understanding of political dynamics is at the guts of effective advocacy.

Even the foremost clear-minded advocacy for pro-poor ICT policies can meet resistance for various reasons, including lack of political will, bureaucratic inertia, and counter arguments from well-resourced interest groups pursuing their own advocacy efforts. Effective advocacy therefore requires research to map the policy terrain, the principal actors, the political relations and therefore the interests at stake. Various strategies and techniques that could be used in advocacy, within the ICT policy field this terrain typically will include government departments, communications regulators, telecommunications service providers, media organisations, sector associations and growing numbers of civil society interest groups. Various strategies and techniques that could be used in advocacy, Careful planning and a strategic approach are therefore needed if results are to be achieved.

Policy change rarely happens overnight and is usually linked to broader change within the political environment. Various strategies and techniques that could be used in advocacy, Effective advocacy requires long-term also as short-term thinking, an understanding of the points of resistance and therefore the means to realize traction, the readiness to make alliances, and therefore the flexibility to seize windows of opportunity.

This overview describes a number of the more commonly used advocacy techniques, from critical engagement like policy monitoring and policy dialogue, through organised campaigns for about-face , to pathfinder and demonstrator projects which will inform and influence future politics . Various strategies and techniques that could be used in advocacy, It highlights the importance for people facing disadvantage to be ready to assert their own needs and interests. It explains step by step the way to devise an efficient advocacy strategy for ICT policy reform. Various strategies and techniques that could be used in advocacy, it's amid case examples and signposting to further tools and resources.

Techniques for effective advocacy

Policy monitoring and public accountability

Almost all effective policy-related advocacy efforts commence with observation and monitoring of the implementation and effectiveness of policies already in situ . Various strategies and techniques that could be used in advocacy, These might include, for instance , commitments to ICT infrastructure roll-out, universal access policies, support for community-based ICT access centres, public interest broadcasting policies, or regulatory mechanisms to make sure fair pricing of services.

High profile ICT policy monitoring by civil society advocacy groups can, on its own, contribute to improved policy implementation and effectiveness by highlighting public policy targets and drawing public attention to under performance or to policy failure. Various strategies and techniques that could be used in advocacy, Governments and public bodies, especially in democratic societies, are sensitive to critical reports, and more so when these are supported robust evidence and analysis, come from a reputable source, and are widely published and disseminated.

Policy monitoring by civil society groups could also be within the sort of one-off investigation into a specific area of interest; it's going to contains a baseline study, perhaps at the commencement of a replacement policy, and a follow-up study later to determine what results were achieved; or it's going to be a periodic monitoring report, like an annual review.

Policy monitoring and public accountability are made easier where government departments and other public bodies, including regulatory organisations, maintain and publish data and reports during a timely fashion and undertake research and consultation to facilitate deciding within the public interest. Various strategies and techniques that could be used in advocacy, Where this is often not the case, where the knowledge is poor or unreliable, or where independent data is required , civil society organisations and coalitions may organise their own research and data gathering, or they'll believe third party sources like commercial and academic research.

Right to information laws can help and, in countries where such laws are weak or absent, their adoption or improvement has itself been a key demand of civil society organisations, not only those working within the communication policy field. Various strategies and techniques that could be used in advocacy, In some cases investigative journalism could also be needed to uproot and expose policy failings.

Impact may often be enhanced by involving citizens and civil society organisations within the process of policy monitoring and review and by gathering demand-side data using techniques like citizen surveys, social audits and participatory policy review. Various strategies and techniques that could be used in advocacy, Such social accountability mechanisms have gained increasing recognition as effective means of strengthening civic engagement in politics and policy monitoring.

Policy dialogue – ICT and mainstream development policy

Policy monitoring alone may prompt corrections to policy failure or cause improved policy implementation, but most civil society groups concerned with ICT policy also carry their own ideas about what policies are desirable. vthey're curious about gaining influence earlier within the policy-making process. At its most straightforward this involves engagement in policy dialogue with bureaucrats and politicians.

The Women of Uganda Network (WOUGNET), for instance , features a core programme activity on “gender and ICT policy advocacy” with attention on equitable access to ICTs and engendering ICT politics . Various strategies and techniques that could be used in advocacy, Their priorities include not only attention on existing ICT policies like the agricultural Communications Development Fund (a levy applied to telecom providers to support areas that are underserved by markets) but also engaging in policy development processes like the review of the National ICT Policy. Various strategies and techniques that could be used in advocacy, WOUGNET participates actively in government-organised stakeholder consultations on ICT policy, it contributes its own studies and reports, and it responds to draft policy proposals.

Civil society organisations like WOUGNET, whose field of interest is within the development of the utilization of ICTs, tend to focus their policy dialogue efforts on areas of politics that are explicitly and primarily concerned with ICT policy: universal access arrangements, national e-strategies, etc. this might seem a clear strategy but, on its own, it also can have the disadvantage of limiting policy dialogue to a comparatively narrow range of actors – especially those that already share an identical outlook or others perhaps more curious about ICT growth than in pro-poor development.

Strategic engagement in policy dialogue on pro-poor ICT access also can be gained by taking, as a primary focus, areas of mainstream development policy – education, health, rural livelihoods, then on – and contributing to more strategically framed development politics like the preparation of National Development Strategies. Various strategies and techniques that could be used in advocacy, this attitude can assist in gaining traction for a pro-poor ICT access agenda across a broader political and policy-making spectrum. Various strategies and techniques that could be used in advocacy, It also can assist better understanding of the important world policy choices that politicians and their constituents face – cleaner water or faster connectivity, more clinics or more ICT access centres – and better articulation of the role of ICTs in poverty reduction.

For effective pro-poor ICT policy dialogue, engagement on both fronts could also be the foremost productive strategy: ensuring that ICT politics is informed by a pro-poor perspective and strengthening that position by building support across government, especially those most engaged with poverty reduction and pro-poor development.

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