Wednesday, July 8, 2020

The model of cognitive ‘information processing theory’

Information processing theory is that the approach to the study of cognitive development evolved out of the American experimental tradition in psychology. Developmental psychologists who adopt the knowledge processing perspective account for mental development in terms of maturational changes in basic components of a child's mind. the thought is predicated on the idea that humans process the knowledge they receive, instead of merely responding to stimuli. this attitude equates the mind to a computer, which is liable for analyzing information from the environment. consistent with the quality information-processing model for mental development, the mind's machinery includes attention mechanisms for bringing information in, memory for actively manipulating information, and LTM for passively holding information in order that it are often utilized in the longer term .

This theory addresses how as children grow, their brains likewise mature, resulting in advances in their ability to process and answer the knowledge they received through their senses. the idea emphasizes endless pattern of development, in contrast with cognitive developmental theorists like Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development that thought development occurs piecemeal at a time.

Origins of Data Processing Theory

During the primary half the 20 th century, American psychology was dominated by behaviorism. Behaviorists only studied behaviors that would be directly observed. This made the inner-workings of the mind appear to be an unknowable “black box.” round the 1950s, however, computers came into existence, giving psychologists a metaphor to elucidate how the human mind functioned. The metaphor helped psychologists explain the various processes the brain engages in, including attention and perception, which might be compared to inputting information into a computer, and memory, which might be compared to a computer’s space for storing .

This was mentioned because the information science approach and remains fundamental to psychology today. information science is particularly curious about how people select, store and retrieve memories. In 1956, psychologist George A. Miller developed the thought and also contributed the idea that one can only hold a limited number of pieces of data in STM . Miller specified this number as seven plus or minus two (or five to nine chunks of information), but more recently other scholars have suggested the amount could also be smaller.
The main two theorists related to the Cognitive information science Theory are Atkinson and Shiffrin. In 1968 these two proposed a multi-stage theory of memory. They explained that from the time information is received by the processing system, it goes through different stages to be fully stored. They broke this right down to sensory memory, short term memory, and future memory (Atkinson).

John (Jack) William Atkinson

John (Jack) William Atkinson was born on New Year's Eve , 1923. Atkinson served within the military during war II. After the war, Atkinson visited Wesleyan University and received his undergraduate psychology degree. He then attended the University of Michigan and was awarded his Psychological Doctorate. He also hung out as an educator . Atkinson was an American Psychologist who focused his research on human motivation, achievement, and behavior. Atkinson is that the father of motivation as a field of study in Psychology. He was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He was also awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship, along side two fellowships at the middle for Advanced Study in Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University . These awards are only a get few out of the various awards, honorary doctorates, and fellowships he had throughout his lifetime. John William Atkinson gave up the ghost on October 27, 2003.

Richard Shiffrin

Richard Shiffrin Richard Shiffrin was born on March 13, 1942 in New Haven , Connecticut. he's currently a professor of science within the department of psychological and brain sciences at Indiana University, Bloomington. He co-authored the Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory in 1968, who at the time was his academic advisor at Stanford University . Shiffrin has won five major awards throughout his life so far: 1995 Fellow of the National Academy of Science; 1996 Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences; 1996 Fellow of the American Psychological Society; 2002 Rumelhart Prize; 2005 Fellow of the American Philosophical Society.

Humans as information science Systems
Consider a computer, and the way one types words onto a document or into an enquiry engine. The action of typing data into a computer are often described as “input”. There are “similarities to how humans receive information and computers receive data input” (Miller, 2016, p. 323). Furthermore, “we can correlate thinking with a computer program; the mind’s information storage capacity with the quantity of gigabytes available on a laptop; forgetting information with the delete key on a keyboard; recalling old information with an online search engine; intellectually strategizing with using Microsoft tools; and eventually making a choice with computer output”. When information-psychologists consider the structure of the cognitive system because it relates to computers during this way, they often ask it as cognitive architecture (Miller, 2016, p. 323). Understanding how an individual's cognitive architecture uses its computer pieces allows information-psychologists to “complete an analysis of each step of what an individual does to information”.

Information-processing theory may be a theory of human development; therefore, information-processing psychologists are ready to “view children at various developmental levels so as to assess their knowledge state from the connection between the input and therefore the output” (Miller, 2016, p. 323). Simply put, psychologists are ready to analyze “developmental changes at almost every phase of processing”, because they will view how children at different stages of development receive different input, but also perform various other information-processing techniques discussed earlier during this section (Miller, 2016, p. 324). it's important to notice that when children are developmentally analyzed through the lens of information-processing, “theorists express their findings that show the flow of data through the human information-processing device” (Miller, 2016, p. 324). the sector has been mentioned because the “psychology of boxes and arrows, because many of those expressions of knowledge are shown within the sort of flow diagrams, often referred to as models” (Miller, 2016, p. 324).

Cognitive processes

Cognitive processes include perception, recognition, imagining, remembering, thinking, judging, reasoning, problem solving, conceptualizing, and planning. These cognitive processes can emerge from human language, thought, imagery, and symbols.

In addition to those specific cognitive processes, many cognitive psychologists study language-acquisition, altered states of mind and consciousness, beholding , sound perception , STM , LTM , storage, retrieval, perceptions of thought and far more.

Cognitive processes emerge through senses, thoughts, and experiences. the primary step is aroused by listening , by listening , it allows processing of the knowledge given. Cognitive processing cannot occur without learning, they work hand in hand to completely grasp the knowledge .cognitive process