Friday, October 1, 2021

The Factors for the growth of regionalism in India

 

The Factors for the growth of regionalism in India.

Regionalism is a political ideology that focuses on the national or normative interests of a particular region, group of regions or other subnational entity. These may be delineated by political divisions, administrative divisions, cultural boundaries, linguistic regions, and religious geography, among others. India is a country of unity in diversity, where the power of unity is strong in spite of diversities in area, population and human-cultural factors. This power helped to develop Indian Federation. The rise of regionalism in India is due to diversity and variation in the India economic and social culture. Reasons behind the birth of Regionalism in India.

There are various reasons for its emergence of Regionalism in Indian Politics such as:

1. Language

It is an important factor of integrating people and emotional attachments are developed, consequently, the demand of linguistic states started. Although, the intensity of the demand of linguistic states has been decreased now, yet the regional conflicts keep rising in the interest of language. Therefore, the problem of determining the national language of India has been an issue for a long time. The movement for linguistic states: Before Independence- Orissa Province became the first Indian state (pre-independence) organized on a linguistic basis due to the effort of Madhusudan Das who is considered as the Father of Oriya nationalism. Post-independence, the first state created on a linguistic basis was Andhra in 1953, created out of the Telugu-speaking northern parts of Madras State.

2. Religion

It is also one of the major factors of the regionalism. For Example: The demand of three autonomous states in Jammu & Kashmir is based on religion. The bases for their demands are- Kashmir for Muslim dominated, Jammu for Hindu dominated and laddakh for Buddhism dominated region.

The Factors for the growth of regionalism in India


3. Regional Culture

In Indian context the historical or regional culture considered the prime components of regionalism. The historical and cultural components interpret regionalism by way of cultural heritage, folklore, myths, symbolism and historical traditions. The North-east states were created on the basis of cultural aspect. Besides the economic issues, the regional culture played significant role in the formation of Jharkhand as a state (Formation Day: 15 November 2000).

4. Economic Backwardness

It is also major factors for the regionalism in India because the uneven pattern of socioeconomic development has created regional disparities. The categorization and sub-categorization of the states on the basis of socioeconomic indicators have generated resentment against the central leadership. For Example: Under Gadgil Formula (amended), the states like Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand are given special status and received 90% Central Financial Assistance. On the other hand, backward state likes Bihar getting only 30% waiver. Under the planned development, the differences between agriculture, industry and other infrastructural development encourage the regionalism.

5. Rise of Political Parties

The elitist character of leadership and unwarranted intervention by the centre in the affairs of the state has rendered the state vulnerable to regional forces. Sometimes, regional parties ignore the national interests and promote the regional interest only. Sometimes the regionalism helps to safeguard the minority interests. The Jharkhand Mukti Morcha, the TYC etc. belong to this category of the regional political parties.

Precious Question

The impact of the new economic policy on working class in India

 

The impact of the new economic policy on working class in India

The poverty lines for the year 1993-94 are Rs 229 and Rs 264 per capita per month for rural and urban areas respectively. However, Rs 228.9 and Rs 264.1 in 1993-94, no longer correspond to the expenditure norms corresponding to 2400 k cal and 2100 k cal as per the definition of poverty line. The price of consumption has been changed significantly. In food items its cost is much higher than that of non-food items. Secondly, due to penetration of urban businessmen or outsiders into the poor locals the price of basic essential items has been increased much more.

Thirdly, because of the crises of availability of money the rural poor either sell themselves partly or fully to their respective dominant persons or sell their livelihood to them to migrate to other parts especially into urban belts for sake of employment as labourers. Fourthly, the relative prices of the basic goods have been increased more than proportionately. For instance, the conditions of housing and transport in urban areas have been deteriorated to the extent of forcing people to live away from their places of work and to spend on transport. Similarly, the rural labour force has to migrate away from their village in order to get work.

In India, poverty is measured only in terms of the calories intake for survival. It does not include other ‘essential expenditures’ of human beings, i.e., clothes, shelter, health and medicine. It doesn’t go to see other ‘necessary expenditures’ of human beings, i.e., education, housing, healthy food, etc. It does not include expenditures on “necessary of efficiency of life”, i.e., recreational, sports, and other miscellaneous expenditure for growing children. Marx was perhaps right when he said that in capitalist world the human being would be equated with machine (Marx, 1844). He would be provided with wages for survival as if the fuel was provided to machine for its survival. Marx’s contention may not be fully true in democratic-industrial nations where the quality of opportunity is granted and where there is much concern about relative deprivation rather than the absolute deprivation, but in India where there is mass poverty and inequality Marx’s viewpoint cannot be ignored. Here in India a man is not even provided with ‘basic necessities of life’ for his survival.

The impact of the new economic policy on working class in India


He cannot think of ‘necessary expenditures’ as his capability is insufficient even to the extent of filling up ‘essential expenditures’ for survival. It is pathetic to note that even though the “essential expenditures” of the existence is not fully covered while measuring the poverty line by the government, millions of people in India are under the clutches of poverty line. According to Planning Commission, people under the BPL were reduced from 25.49 percentage in 1987 to 18.96 per cent in 1993-94 (Government of India, 1995, Economic Survey, 1995-96: 169).

However, as per modified expert group methodology, the Planning Commission in its Ninth Five-Year Plan states the figure of BPL as 38.9 per cent for 1987-88 and 36 per cent for 1993-94 (Government of India, 1999, Ninth Five-Year Plan: 29), Hence, in contrary to its previous claim of reduction of poverty to 19 per cent in 1993- 94, the Planning Commission agreed that the figure was in fact double the previous, that is, 36 per cent in 1993-94. The data indicates that despite non-inclusion of the all ‘essential’, ‘necessary’ and ‘efficiency’ expenditures more than 36 crore Indians are under the BPL. Therefore, if such expenditures were included, perhaps more than 75 crore Indians would have been trapped under the poverty line.

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The significance of the 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments in Indian democracy

 

The significance of the 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments in Indian democracy

Local government in India refers to governmental jurisdictions below the level of the state. India is a federal republic with three spheres of government: central, state and local. The 73rd and 74th constitutional amendments give recognition and protection to local governments and in addition each state has its own local government legislation. Since 1992, local government in India takes place in two very distinct forms.

Urban localities, covered in the 74th amendment to the Constitution, have Nagar Palika but derive their powers from the individual state governments, while the powers of rural localities have been formalized under the panchayati raj system, under the 73rd amendment to the Constitution. Within the Administrative setup of India, the democratically elected Local self-governance bodies are called the "municipalities" (abbreviated as the "MC") in urban areas and the "Panchayati Raj Institutes (PRI)" (simply called the "panchayats") in rural areas. There are 3 types of municipalities based on the population, Municipal Corporation (Nagar Nigam) with more than 1 million population, Municipal Councils (Nagar Palika) with more than 25,000 and less than 1 million population, and Municipal Committee (Nagar Panchayat) with more than 10,000 and less than 25,000 population. PRIs in rural areas have 3 hierarchies of panchayats, Gram panchayats at village level, Mandal or block panchayats at block level, and Zilla panchayats at district level.

Panchayats cover about 96% of India's more than 5.8 lakh (580,000) villages and nearly 99.6% of the rural population. As of 2020, there were about 3 million elected representatives at all levels of the panchayat, nearly 1.3 million are women. These members represent more than 2.4 lakh (240,000) gram panchayats, about over 6,672 were intermediate level panchayat samitis at the block level and more than 500 zila parishads at district level. Following the 2013 local election, 37.1% of councillors were women, and in 2015/16 local government expenditure was 16.3% of total government expenditure.

The significance of the 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments in Indian democracy


The 73rd Constitutional Amendment Act (1992)

The idea which produced the 73rd and Amendment was not a response to pressure from the grassroots, but to an increasing recognition that the institutional initiatives of the preceding decade had not delivered, that the extent of rural poverty was still much too large and thus the existing structure of government needed to be reformed. This idea evolved from the Centre and the state governments. It was a political drive to see PRIs as a solution to the governmental crises that India was experiencing.

The Constitutional (73rd Amendment) Act, passed in 1992 by the Narasimha Rao government, came into force on April 24, 1993. It was meant to provide constitutional sanction to establish "democracy at the grassroots level as it is at the state level or national level". Its main features are as follows: The Gram Sabha or village assembly as a deliberative body to decentralised governance has been envisaged as the foundation of the Panchayati Raj System.73rd Amendment of the Constitution empowered the Gram Sabhas to conduct social audits in addition to its other functions. A uniform three-tier structure of panchayats at village (Gram Panchayat — GP), intermediate or block (Panchayat Samiti — PS) and district (Zilla Parishad — ZP) levels. All the seats in a panchayat at every level are to be filled by elections from respective territorial constituencies. Not less than one-third of the total seats for membership as well as office of chairpersons of each tier have to be reserved for women.

Reservation for weaker castes and tribes (SCs and STs) have to be provided at all levels in proportion to their population in the panchayats. To supervise, direct and control the regular and smooth elections to panchayats, a State Election Commission has The Act has ensured constitution of a State Finance Commission in every State/UT, for every five years, to suggest measures to strengthen finances of panchayati raj institutions. To promote bottom-up-planning, the District Planning Committee (DPC) in every district has been accorded to constitutional status. An indicative list of 29 items has been given in Eleventh Schedule of the Constitution. Panchayats are expected to play an effective role in planning and implementation of works related to these 29 items.

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The federal system in India

 

The federal system in India

Federalism in India refers to relationship between the Central Govt and the State governments of India. The Constitution of India establishes the structure of the Indian government. Part XI of the Indian constitution specifies the distribution of legislative, administrative and executive powers between the union government and the States of India. The legislative powers are categorised under a Union List, a State List and a Concurrent List, representing, respectively, the powers conferred upon the Union government, those conferred upon the State governments and powers shared among them. This federalism is symmetrical in that the devolved powers of the constituent units are envisioned to be the same. Historically, the state of Jammu and Kashmir was accorded a status different from other States owing to an explicitly temporary provision of the Indian Constitution namely Article 370 (which was revoked by the Parliament in 2019). Union territories are unitary type, directly governed by the Union government. Article 1 (1) of the constitution stipulates two tier-governance with an additional local elected government. Delhi and Puducherry were accorded legislatures under Article 239AA and 239A, respectively.

The fundamental rights of citizens are the same throughout India.

Features

There are two or more levels (tiers) of government.

Each level of government has its own jurisdiction in matters of legislation, taxation, and administration even though they govern the same citizens.

Powers and functions of each tier of government are specified and guaranteed by the Constitution.

The Supreme Court has been given the power to settle disputes between state governments.

Executive powers

The Union and States have independent executive staffs controlled by their respective governments. In legislative and administrative matters, the union government cannot overrule the constitutional rights/powers of a state government except when presidential rule is declared in a State. The Union's duty is to ensure that the government of every State is carried on in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution as per Article 355 and Article 256. The State governments cannot violate the Central laws in administrative matters. When a State violates the Constitution, Presidential rule can be imposed under Article 356 and the President takes over the State’s administration with ex post facto consent of the Parliament per Article 357.

The federal system in India


Financial powers

Article 282 accords financial autonomy in spending financial resources available to the states for public purpose. Article 293 allows States to borrow without limit without consent from the Union government. However, the Union government can insist upon compliance with its loan terms when a state has outstanding loans charged to the consolidated fund of India or a federally-guaranteed loan. The President of India constitutes a Finance Commission every five years to recommend devolution of Union revenues to State governments. Under Article 360, the President can proclaim a financial emergency when the financial stability or credit of the nation or of any part of its territory is threatened. However, no guidelines define "financial emergency" for the country or a state or union territory or a panchayat or a municipality or a corporation. An emergency like this must be approved by the Parliament within two months by a simple majority and has never been declared. A state of financial emergency remains in force indefinitely until revoked by the President. The President can reduce the salaries of all government officials, including judges of the supreme court and high courts, in cases of a financial emergency. All money bills passed by the state legislatures are submitted to the President for approval. He can direct the state to observe economy measures.

Disputes Resolution

States can make agreements among themselves. When a dispute arises with other states or union territory or the union government, the Supreme Court adjudicates per Article 131. However, Article 262 excludes Supreme Court jurisdiction with respect to the adjudication of disputes in the use, distribution or control of interstate river waters. Under Article 263 the President can establish an interstate council to coordinate/resolve disputes between states and the Union. States have their own jurisdiction.

Academic research and theories

According to Kumarasingham, there are three distinctive features of India's federalism. First, its origins in Partition and the Princely States. Second, its constitutional power over the borders. Third, its early compromise of different cultural elements in the first decade.

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Discuss how democracy and development are co-related

 

Discuss how democracy and development are co-related

In 1998, the United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) established the International Panel on Democracy and Development (IPDD). This panel was made up of international figures and was chaired by Boutros Boutros-Ghali. The Interaction Between Democracy and Development recalls the discussions of this panel and highlights its insights. Discuss how democracy and development are co-related The panel began by discussing democracy and development separately, and then discussed their interrelation, globalization and the proper role of the international community. Discuss how democracy and development are co-related According to The Interaction Between Democracy and Development, democracy embodies four basic principals: freedom, justice, free participation of citizens and human rights. These "democratic principals" are thought to "...constitute a fundamental source of common value that can be described as the common heritage of humankind." Discuss how democracy and development are co-related Though common to all "true democracies," these principals will take on different forms, and will be realized by different means, in different societies. It is thought that democracy should reflect the specific social, cultural and economic context of a given society.

In doing so, however, a democratic society must be aware of three potential pitfalls. First, the domination of the majority does not constitute democracy. Minority groups deserve representation and without it, democratic governance is simply a tyranny of the majority. Discuss how democracy and development are co-related Second, minority political representation in and of itself does not guarantee harmony and in some cases can exacerbate problems. Finally, despite a need for cultural diversity in politics, minority status should not be the basis for access to power. That is, ethnicity, cultural or religious ties should not be prerequisites to political power (even for minority groups). To avoid these pitfalls, a culture of democracy must be established (in addition to the physical structures of democracy such as a parliament).

This culture should include a tolerance and respect for others, dialogue between groups, and a sense of pluralism. In other words, democracy only works when people respect differences, discuss them, and are willing to share power. Discuss how democracy and development are co-related Without these concepts ingrained into a culture, democracy may have free participation of citizens, but the other democratic values of freedom, justice and human rights are likely to be neglected.

In defining development, this book went beyond the common conception of development as economic advancement. According to the IPDD, it includes the "...whole range of economic, social and cultural progress to which peoples aspire." Discuss how democracy and development are co-related Thus, while economic advancement is a piece of development, the IPDD's definition includes social and cultural advancement as well. As such, development (like democracy) should be tailored to cultural contexts.

Discuss how democracy and development are co-related


If local social and cultural contexts are not taken into account during development, an impression of the "colonization" of local culture by "world culture" may result, exacerbating "patterns of withdrawal" and possibly leading to increased violence. Discuss how democracy and development are co-related In reference to the relationship between democracy and development, the IPDD stated that there is "...now widespread agreement that a close relationship exists between them." This relationship is thought to be complementary and mutually reinforcing. A "true democracy" is thought to require a minimum standard of living, which in turn requires a minimum level of development.

On the other hand, efficient development is thought to require democratic governance. Further, the IPDD claims that "democracy, development and peace form a trilogy, a common purpose." This is thought to be because democracies generally solve their internal disputes peacefully and because many conflicts have a material root that could be eliminated through successful development. Thus, though distinctly different phenomena, democracy, development, and peace are thought to be highly interrelated. Discuss how democracy and development are co-related This interrelation is increasingly important due to globalization. According to the IPDD, globalization can be "...understood to mean increased political, economic and social interdependence between all countries in the world..." and this is thought to be "inevitable". Discuss how democracy and development are co-related While globalization can be a genuine asset for democracy, it can also threaten "democratic values." The panel recognized that the current form of globalization has had mixed results, in some cases helping to spread democratic values, and in others leading to exploitation. In part, the negative effects of globalization are thought to be a result of the undemocratic nature of international relations.

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Sunday, August 29, 2021

MED 002 Solved Assignment 2021-22 In Hindi Medium

 

MED 002 Solved Assignment 2021-22 In Hindi Medium

MED 002 Solved Assignment 2021-22 In Hindi Medium, MED 002 Solved Assignment 2021-22, MED 002 Assignment 2022, FREE MED 002 Assignment , IGNOU Assignments 2021-22- Gandhi National Open University had recently uploaded the assignments of this session for the year 2021-22. Students are recommended to download their Assignments from this webpage itself. They don’t need to go anywhere else when everything regarding the Assignments are available during this text only.

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IGNOU MED 002  Solved Assignment 2021-22 In Hindi Medium: FREE IGNOU Assignment You can Get All students of university who needs to submit assignments should download old assignments of the respective course of 2021 available above and submit at the concerned study center. The last dates will be 30th April and 30th October of every year until their registration is valid. New assignments will not be available any more for students as course was revised.

MED 002 Solved Assignment 2021-22 In Hindi Medium


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Monday, November 23, 2020

MPS 003 INDIA DEMOCRACY AND DEVELOPMENT Solved Assignment 2020-21

MPS 003 INDIA DEMOCRACY AND DEVELOPMENT Solved Assignment 2020-21

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MPS 003 Solved Assignment 2020-21


SECTION-I

1. Explain how democracy and development are related to each other.

2. Discuss the nature of relationship between police, army and bureaucracy.

3. What are the causes of internal migration? Explain.

4. Discuss the working of federal system in India.

5. Compare the main provisions of the 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendments.

SECTION-II

6. Comment on the following in about 250 words each.

a) Sustainable Development

b) Caste Inequalities


7. Comment on the following in about 250 words each.

a) Media and Democracy

b) Ethnic politics


8. Comment on the following in about 250 words each.

a) Economic reforms and working class

b) The basis of regionalism


9. Comment on the following in about 250 words each.

a) Gender and Justice

b) Substantive Democracy


10. Comment on the following in about 250 words each.

  a) Language and politics in India. 
b) Role of civil society in Indian democracy


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