BPSC-103 UNDERSTANDING POLITICAL THEORY in English Previous Year Question Papers

 

SECTION-I

1.  What is liberty? Explain.

2.  Discuss the Marxist concept of freedom.

3.  Write a note on Alienation and similar concepts.

4.  What is equality of opportunity? Elaborate.

 

BPSC-103 UNDERSTANDING POLITICAL THEORY in English Previous Year Question Papers


SECTION-II

5.  Explain the meaning and concept of justice.

6.  Write short notes (in 200 words each) on the following:

a)  Global justice

b)  Late 20th century liberals

 

7.  (a) Meaning of rights.

(b) Relationship between rights and obligations.

8. How do Feminists view law?  

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Write a note on equality in the Indian Constitution.

 

Write a note on equality in the Indian Constitution. The Indian constitution recognises all persons as equals. This means that every existent in the country irrespective of his/ her estate, religion, educational and profitable backgrounds is recognised as equal. Write a note on equality in the Indian Constitution. Although, inequality still exists in the country, yet the principle of the equivalency of all persons is recognised. While earlier no law was to cover people from demarcation and ill-treatment now there are several that work to see that people are treated with quality. Write a note on equality in the Indian Constitution.

Write a note on equality in the Indian Constitution.


 Write a note on equality in the Indian Constitution. The term equivalency describes the condition of being the same, concerning status, rights or openings. The Constitution of India acknowledges that everyone is equal. It means that each existent who belongs to any estate, religion, race, profitable or educational history in the nation is equal.

 

·        Vittles in the Constitution

·        Regarding equivalency, the Constitution specifies as follows

.

Write a note on equality in the Indian Constitution.  Every existent has right from the chairman to an everyday stake must observe the same rule.

No estate demarcation grounded on age, religion, gender, race, place of birth.

 Fair access to public space that's everyone has equal access to public areas and installations similar as playgrounds, stores, requests, roads, wells and so on.

 

Write a note on equality in the Indian Constitution.  In India, there are several laws which cover the right of each person to be treated inversely. Utmost of these schemes and programmes are supporting depressed sections of communities. These give more significant impulses for development and growth for the historically marginalised parts of society.

 

Write a note on equality in the Indian Constitution.  In a popular country, like India, all grown-ups irrespective of what religion they belong to, how important education they've had, what estate they are, or whether they're rich or poor are allowed to bounce. This is called universal adult ballot and is an essential aspect of all republic. The idea of universal adult ballot is grounded on the idea of equivalency.

 

 Equality in Indian republic

 

 The Indian Constitution recognises every person as equal. This means that every existent in the country, including manly and womanish persons from all gentries, persuasions, lines, educational and profitable backgrounds are recognised as equal.

 

 The recognition of equivalency includes the following vittles in the Constitution

 

 Every person is equal before the law.

 No person can be discerned against on the base of their religion, race, estate, place of birth or whether they're womanish or manly.

 Every person has access to all public places.

Untouchability has been abolished.

 

 Steps taken by Government to Implement Equality

The two ways in which the government has tried to apply the equivalency that's guaranteed in the Constitution is

 

 First through laws

 Alternate through government programmes or schemes

 

 One of the way taken by the government includes the noon mess scheme.

 

 Issues of equivalency in other republic

 

 In numerous popular countries around the world, the issue of equivalency continues to be the crucial issue around which communities struggle.

 

 For illustration, in the United States of America, the African – Americans whose ancestors were slaves who were brought over from Africa, continue to describe their lives moment as largely unstable. They were treated extremely inversely in the US and denied equivalency through the law.

 

 The Civil Rights Act of 1964 banned demarcation on the base of race, religion or public origin. It also stated that all seminaries would be open to African – American children and that they would no longer have to attend separate seminaries especially set up for them.

The Constitution of India codifies the abecedarian rights-the introductory mortal rights of its citizens which are defined in Part III of the Constitution. One similar right is the right to equivalency which is defended under papers 14 to 18. Composition 14 is the most significant of the lot. This deals with the general principles of equivalency. All the situations not covered under 15 to18 are covered under this.

 

 “ The State shall not deny to any person equivalency before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the home of India.”

This means that every person, who lives within home of India, has the equal right before the law. That equals will be treated inversely.

 

 This composition constitutes of 2 corridor, being

.1. Equality before law and

 

 2. Equal protection of thelaws.

Although both sound analogous, they do n’t mean the same. The word “ Law” in the former expression is used in a genuine sense – a philosophical sense, whereas the word “ Laws” in the ultimate expression denotes specific laws in force.

Equality before the law talks about equal domination of all citizens ( rich or poor, high or low, sanctioned ornon-official) to the ordinary law of the land administered by the ordinary law courts and is a negative conception as implies the absence of any honor in favor of any individual and equal domination of all classes to the ordinary law. Whereas, equal protection of the laws is a Positive Concept as it implies equivalency of treatment in equal circumstances both in boons conferred and arrears assessed. So, all the persons must be treated likewise on reasonable bracket. Among equals law should be equal and inversely administered. The guarantee of equal protection applies against substantial as well as procedurallaws.The above right isn't an absolute right. Hence, is subject to an exception – reasonable bracket.

 

 Composition 14 forbids class legislation but permits reasonable bracket. The two tests of bracket are as follows

1. Ineligible Differentia The bracket must be innovated on an comprehensible mark which distinguishes those that are grouped together from other. Arbitrariness is ananti-thesis to the right top equivalency. Hence, there should be no compass of arbitrariness in bracket.

 In Maneka Gandhiv. Union of India the Supreme Court easily ruled out the room for arbitrariness.‘ Composition 14 strikes at arbitrariness in State action and ensures fairness and equivalency of treatment. The principle of reasonableness, which logically as well as philosophically, is an essential element of equivalency ornon-arbitrariness, pervades Composition 14 like a miscarrying omnipresence.’ Rule of law which permeates the entire fabric of the Indian Constitution excludes arbitrariness. Wherever we find arbitrariness or radicalism there's denial there's denial of rule of law.

Examine the liberal justification of inequality.

 

Examine the liberal justification of inequality. Scholars who contend that we should think often about imbalance frequently have some variety of a prioritarian view. As far as they might be concerned, prosperity matters more for the individuals who are more awful off, and we ought to focus on working on their day to day routines over the existences of others. A few others accept we should think often about disparity since it is innately terrible that one individual is more regrettable off than one more through no issue of her own – some add the necessity the two people ought to be similarly meriting. Regardless, hardly any logicians would contend that we ought to demolish the good, or deteriorate the normal, while keeping the more awful off similarly as seriously off, Examine the liberal justification of inequality. just to limit the disparity hole. By and large or aggregate, more unfortunate. In addition, in many perspectives it is sensible to think often more about imbalance at the base and less with regards to disparity at the top. Examine the liberal justification of inequality. We ought to like to decrease disparity by aggravating the off more extravagant as opposed to shutting the hole between the individuals who are now in an ideal situation. I trust a nearer assessment at how these equalitarian/prioritarian inclinations convert into financial worries can lead one to dismiss a couple of normal presumptions. Examine the liberal justification of inequality.

 

Examine the liberal justification of inequality. It is generally expected accepted that the liberal monetary model, when contrasted with solid government assistance models, is inconvenient to human financial fairness. Lessening neediness, equalitarianism and abundance rearrangement are, all things considered, one of the main standards of the government assistance State. Examine the liberal justification of inequality. The augmenting of the hole between the top and the base is regularly refered to as a worry in liberal States. I wish to contend that out of the different imbalance insights accessible, in case we check out the ones that appear to be more significant for equalitarian morals, then, at that point, solid government assistance States toll more terrible than financially liberal States. For that, I will zero in on an examination between the US and European government assistance States' degrees of disparity.

 

Examine the liberal justification of inequality.

It is actually the case that under straightforward measures, for example, the Gini coefficient imbalance in the US is more extensive and has been rising. Yet, in case we reject any type of outrageous equalitarianism that endorses exacerbating everybody off to limit the hole, then, at that point, a more intensive gander at the US economy appears to uncover that it has prompted a superior dissemination of abundance generally – an image that straightforward measures miss.

 

Examine the liberal justification of inequality. A major piece of the expansion in the American abundance disparity was at the exceptionally top, among the families over the 99.9th percentile whose total assets outperformed 20 million dollars in 2012. However, for what reason would it be a good idea for us to mind whether Warren Buffett currently has 50 billion dollars rather than 20 billion dollars more than George Soros? Regardless of whether Oprah currently can bear the cost of two a greater number of private Islands than Madonna? This hole is generally insignificant and surprisingly comic to consider. The existences of tycoons and extremely rich people are not altogether more unjustifiable on the grounds that their abundance presently varies by somewhere in the range of handfuls or many millions, not to mention are our lives most noticeably terrible as a result of it. Assuming a very rich person gets another billion, the Gini coefficient will show a more noteworthy expansion in imbalance than on the off chance that few families go from neediness to outrageous destitution; its ability to follow ethically huge disparity is restricted.

While the fifth percentile of genuine dispensable family pay distribution has been practically indistinguishable from 1994 to 2007 in the US, the UK, Germany and France, any remaining percentiles have seen their pay increment more in the US than in any of different nations. This propose the adjustment of US disparity is a result of the US rich being more extravagant than previously (and being more extravagant than the wealthy in Welfare States) and the more unfortunate leftover generally as old as (and about as old as poor in Welfare States). Normal pay expanded, absolute pay expanded, everybody except the base 5% got more extravagant and the base 5% continued as before – which is all viable with the Gini coefficient and other shortsighted proportions of imbalance expanding. These progressions don't resemble a more awful result in examination with Welfare States. It's likewise important that from 1994 to 2007 the US base fifth isn't involved similar families, who are continually being supplanted by helpless migrants and more youthful families at a lot higher rate than in Europe. Almost 58% of US families in the base 20% in 1996 moved to a more extravagant gathering by 2005.

 

By far most of a country's populace isn't at the exceptionally base. Other than the fifth percentile in Welfare States regularly being similarly wealthy and here and there somewhat good, every other percentile acquires more in the US than in the UK, Germany or France. A few of them procure altogether more. By far most of Americans are, and have become, essentially more affluent than by far most of residents of Welfare States. Examine the liberal justification of inequality.

Assuming we check out the normal expendable family pay in 2004, the US most minimal decile is more well off than the least decile of numerous Welfare States, and some other decile is more affluent in the US than in some other European country, except for Switzerland and Austria. For example, other than having the most minimal decile somewhat more regrettable off, there is no US pay decile less fortunate than their particular Danish decile. Denmark burns through 30.1% of its GDP on government assistance; the US, 19.2%. So much for the Danish model. Numerous nations that toll well in this realistic have likewise low friendly consumption (for example Canada and Switzerland). It appears, then, at that point, that outrageous equity might have come at the expense of leaving everybody, including poor people, more regrettable off; or, here and there, at the expense of leaving the poor the equivalent and every other person more unfortunate than they might have been.

 

I accept this is, truth be told, a fairly exact image of US imbalance, to the extent two-line analogies go. Be that as it may, it is no spirit squashing truth. Does a bar abruptly turn out to be more terrible on the grounds that Bill Gates strolled ready? The other 10 individuals didn't get more unfortunate. All things considered, America, the greater part of them really got more extravagant. Examine the liberal justification of inequality.

 

Seemingly, each of the numbers above are the aftereffect of the US's shocking limit with regards to delivering abundance, fuelled by an unrestricted economy, low duty economy. Yet, these realities are simply about homegrown abundance and homegrown imbalance. How does the liberal model effect abundance dissemination around the world?

Write a note on the Alienation and similar concept.

 

Write a note on the Alienation and similar concept. The detachment or offense of people from some fundamental part of their temperament or from society, frequently bringing about sensations of weakness or defenselessness. Write a note on the Alienation and similar concept.

 

Today, the idea of estrangement has become a piece of customary language, Write a note on the Alienation and similar concept. much utilized in the media. We might be told, for instance, that who gatherings are becoming distanced from society, or that youngsters are estranged from standard qualities.

 

Write a note on the Alienation and similar concept.With such utilization of the idea we get the impression of the sensation of partition of one gathering from society, Write a note on the Alienation and similar concept. however the idea has customarily been utilized in human science, fundamentally by Karl Marx, to communicate a substantially more significant feeling of alienation than most contemporary use (IMO).

 

Starting points of the idea

 

Sociological use of the term originates from Marx's idea of estrangement which he used to foster the impacts of free enterprise on the experience work specifically and society all the more by and large.

 

Write a note on the Alienation and similar concept. Marx fostered his hypothesis of estrangement from Feuerbach's philosophical investigate of Christianity – Feuerbach contended that the idea of an almighty God as a profound being to whom individuals should submit to arrive at salvation was a human development, the projection of human power relations onto otherworldly being. Write a note on the Alienation and similar concept. Christianity viably masked the way that it was truly human power relations which made all the difference for the social request, rather than some higher profound reality, in this way distancing from the 'reality' of force was truly kept up with.

 

Write a note on the Alienation and similar concept.

Marx applied the idea of distance to work in modern entrepreneur social orders, contending that liberation for laborers lay in their wrestling control away from the little, ruling decision class.

 

Afterward, Marxist motivated modern sociologists utilized the idea to investigate working relations under specific administration frameworks in plants.

 

Marx's recorded realist approach started with the manner in which individuals sort out their issues together to deliver merchandise and get by. For Marx, to be estranged is to be in a genuine condition which as genuine outcomes, and to transform it we want to really change the manner in which society is coordinated rather than changing our impression of it.

 

Write a note on the Alienation and similar concept.Work in the past may well have been all the more truly requesting, yet Marx contended that it was likewise less distancing on the grounds that specialists (experts for instance) had more command over their functioning conditions, work was more talented and it was really fulfilling, in light of the fact that laborers could 'see themselves in their work'.

 

Nonetheless, in nineteenth century modern industrial facilities, laborers successfully had zero command over the thing they were doing, their work was incompetent and they were adequately a 'pinion in a machine', which produced undeniable degrees of distance – or sensations of feebleness, weakness, and of not being in charge.

 

Write a note on the Alienation and similar concept.It doesn't take an over the top jump to apply this investigation to late-present day working conditions – in inexpensive food outlets, for example, McDonald's or call focuses, for instance.

 

Marx's hypothesis proposes industrialist creation makes distance in four principle regions:

 

1.  Laborers are distanced from their own work power – they need to fill in as and when required and to play out the undertakings set by their managers.

2.  They are distanced from the results of their work – which are effectively guaranteed by business people to be sold as items on the commercial center for benefit, while laborers just get a negligible portion of this benefit as wages

3.  Laborers are distanced from one another – they are urged to contend with one another for occupations.

4.  They are distanced from their own species being – as per Marx, fulfilling work is a fundamental piece of being human, and free enterprise makes work a wretchedness, so work under private enterprise hence estranges man from himself. It is as of now not a delight, it is just a way to procure wages to get by.

5.  Marx's notable (yet much misjudged) answer for the ills of estrangement was socialism – a method of getting sorted out society in which laborers would have considerably more command over their functioning conditions, and subsequently would encounter substantially less distance.

 

Proceeding with Relevance

 

While the breakdown of Communism recommends that Marx's overall hypothesis of estrangement is at this point not significant, many firms today appear to have accepted a few parts of the hypothesis – for instance, it is well set up that expanding laborer portrayal and support lessens specialist 'distance', as laid out in the Taylor Review of Modern Working Practices. One more illustration of how firms battle distance is the different media and tech organizations which configuration work areas to be 'simple and agreeable'.

 

Different sociologists have endeavored to apply the idea of distance to criminal science (Smith and Bohm, 2008) and surprisingly the investigation of wellbeing and sickness (Yuill 2005). Write a note on the Alienation and similar concept.

Discuss the neo-liberal view of liberty.

 

Discuss the neo-liberal view of liberty. neoliberalism, belief system and strategy model that accentuates the worth of unrestricted economy rivalry. In spite of the fact that there is extensive discussion concerning the characterizing elements of neoliberal idea and practice, Discuss the neo-liberal view of liberty. it is most normally connected with free enterprise financial matters. Specifically, neoliberalism is regularly described as far as its faith in supported financial development as the resources to accomplish human advancement, its trust in unrestricted economies as the most-proficient designation of assets, its accentuation on negligible state mediation in monetary and get-togethers, and its obligation to the opportunity of exchange and capital.

 

Discuss the neo-liberal view of liberty. Albeit the terms are comparable, neoliberalism is unmistakable from current progressivism. Both have their philosophical roots in the traditional progressivism of the nineteenth century, which advocated monetary free enterprise and the opportunity (or freedom) of people against the exorbitant force of government. That variation of progressivism is frequently connected with the financial analyst Adam Smith, who contended in The Wealth of Nations (1776) Discuss the neo-liberal view of liberty.that markets are administered by an "imperceptible hand" and along these lines ought to be dependent upon negligible government impedance. In any case, radicalism advanced after some time into various unique (and regularly contending) customs. Present day progressivism created from the social-liberal practice, which zeroed in on obstructions to individual opportunity—including destitution and disparity, infection, segregation, and obliviousness— Discuss the neo-liberal view of liberty.that had been made or exacerbated by liberated private enterprise and could be improved distinctly through direct state intercession. Such measures started in the late nineteenth century with laborers' pay plots, the public subsidizing of schools and medical clinics, and guidelines on working hours and conditions and ultimately, by the mid-twentieth century, incorporated the wide scope of social administrations and advantages normal for the alleged government assistance state. Discuss the neo-liberal view of liberty.

 

Discuss the neo-liberal view of liberty.

Discuss the neo-liberal view of liberty. By the 1970s, be that as it may, monetary stagnation and expanding public obligation incited a few financial experts to advocate a re-visitation of old style radicalism, which in its restored structure came to be known as neoliberalism. The scholarly establishments of that restoration were basically crafted by the Austrian-conceived British financial specialist Friedrich von Hayek, who contended that interventionist measures focused on the reallocation of abundance lead unavoidably to despotism, and of the American market analyst Milton Friedman, who dismissed government monetary arrangement as a method for affecting the business cycle (see likewise monetarism). Their perspectives were eagerly embraced by the significant moderate ideological groups in Britain and the United States, which accomplished power with the extended organizations of British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher (1979–90) and U.S. Pres. Ronald Reagan (1981–89).

 

Discuss the neo-liberal view of liberty. Neoliberal belief system and strategies turned out to be progressively persuasive, as delineated by the British Labor Party's true deserting of its obligation to the "normal responsibility for method for creation" in 1995 and by the mindfully down to earth approaches of the Labor Party and the U.S. Leftist alliance from the 1990s. As public economies turned out to be more reliant in the new period of monetary globalization, neoliberals additionally advanced deregulation approaches and the free development of worldwide capital. Discuss the neo-liberal view of liberty.The most clear indication of the new significance of neoliberalism, nonetheless, was the rise of libertarianism as a political power, as confirmed by the expanding conspicuousness of the Libertarian Party in the United States and by the formation of arranged research organizations in different nations, which looked to advance the freedom advocate ideal of business sectors and strongly restricted legislatures.

 

Starting in 2007, the monetary emergency and Great Recession in the United States and western Europe drove a few business analysts and political pioneers to dismiss the neoliberals' emphasis on maximally unrestricted economies and to call rather for more noteworthy unofficial law of the monetary and banking enterprises.

 

Protestant ethic, in sociological hypothesis, the worth connected to difficult work, frugality, and proficiency in one's common calling, which, particularly in the Calvinist view, were considered indications of a singular's political decision, or everlasting salvation.

 

German humanist Max Weber, in The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1904–05), held that the Protestant ethic was a significant element in the monetary achievement of Protestant gatherings in the beginning phases of European private enterprise; in light of the fact that common achievement could be deciphered as an indication of timeless salvation, it was energetically sought after. Calvinism's antagonism to the love of the tissue, its accentuation on the strict obligation to utilize the undeniable assets available to every individual, and its efficiency and systemization of lifestyles were likewise viewed by Weber as financially critical parts of the ethic. Discuss the neo-liberal view of liberty.

Examine J.S. Mill’s notion of liberty.

 

Examine J.S. Mill’s notion of liberty. Mill thinks that individual liberty is an essential prerequisite of social progress, because liberty encourages creativity and innovation. Examine J.S. Mill’s notion of liberty-It is the individual creativity and the innovation that has propelled the growth of mankind and social progress. Without it, the social progress would be stunted and there would be stagnation and glut in the social development.

Examine J.S. Mill’s notion of liberty. He accepts that civilization couldn't advance until and except if such a space of liberated opportunity is ensured to the people. The individual would be diminished to the disabled life, lacking moral fortitude to sanction any autonomous strategy. Examine J.S. Mill’s notion of liberty.  Plant kept up with that society would be squashed by the heaviness of the aggregate unremarkableness. He accepted that human advancement couldn't advance until and except if such a space of unbound opportunity is ensured to the people. Plant kept up with that society would be squashed by the heaviness of the aggregate un-remarkableness. Examine J.S. Mill’s notion of liberty.

 

Subsequently, Examine J.S. Mill’s notion of liberty.  freedom is an essential condition for the full adjusted and all round improvement of an individual. It offers a single chance to consume this existence, as the person in question wants. It gives one free decisions and opportunity to pick one such choice or decision that suits their character. Examine J.S. Mill’s notion of liberty. Freedom guarantees a daily existence liberated from any obstructions. The obligation of any sort can't be satisfied except if one is guaranteed matching freedom. Without freedom, neither one of the ones can share liability, nor one can appreciate power. Truth be told, freedom is ideal to which all people and entire mankind yearns. No big surprise many conflicts have been wedged Examine J.S. Mill’s notion of liberty. for it, numerous upheavals have been propelled by it and the fire of freedom has touched off numerous Independence developments. Examine J.S. Mill’s notion of liberty.

 

Examine J.S. Mill’s notion of liberty.

Just monetary freedom isn't adequate for the development and advancement of the individual and society. In case common and political opportunity are not guaranteed to the people, just financial opportunity would not get the job done to his free and liberated development and advancement. The social equality development in USA is a valid example. In spite of the success and all round monetary turn of events, American individuals fomented for the fulfillment of the social equality and opportunity. The political freedom implies an air wherein state doesn't meddle in the existence of its residents and people without adequate reasons and ground. The political freedom has two angles outer and inner. The outside freedom suggests that state or society isn't docile to some other society and state. It has total opportunity and independence in all regards. It isn't directed or affected by some other outer power.

 

Just monetary freedom isn't adequate for the development and advancement of the individual and society. On the off chance that common and political opportunity are not guaranteed to the people, just financial opportunity would not get the job done to his free and unbound development and advancement. The social liberties development in USA is a valid example. Notwithstanding the thriving and all round financial turn of events, American individuals disturbed for the achievement of the social equality and opportunity. The political freedom implies an air wherein state doesn't meddle in the existence of its residents and people without adequate reasons and ground. The political freedom has two angles outer and inside. The outside freedom suggests that state or society isn't compliant to some other society and state. It has total opportunity and independence in all regards. It isn't directed or affected by some other outer power.

 

In this manner, political and common freedom is a vital condition for the full adjusted and all round advancement of an individual. It offers a single chance to consume this existence, as the individual cravings. The obligation of any sort can not be satisfied except if one is guaranteed matching freedom. Without freedom, neither one can share liability nor one can appreciate power. Indeed, freedom is ideal to which all people and entire humankind seeks. No big surprise many conflicts have been wedged for it, numerous insurgencies have been roused by it and numerous Independence developments have been lighted by the fire of freedom.

 

Examine J.S. Mill’s notion of liberty. Regardless of whether Indian Independence development and its twisting impact on different states of the supposed Third World, American War of Independence, French Revolution, Glorious Revolution of Britain or Velvet Revolution in eastern Europe–every one of these have been enlivened by freedom.