Wednesday, December 8, 2021

Amitav Ghosh as a writer of travelogues


Amitav Ghosh as a writer of travelogues

Amitav Ghosh as a writer of travelogues: IT’S 2017, and Amitav Ghosh is entering his 31st year as a published author – quite a milestone in the life of a non-pulp writer. (His first book, The Circle of Reason, was published in 1986). Perhaps that’s why he was recently honoured with a Lifetime Achievement Award at the Tata Literature Live! festival. His millions of fans in India and around the world, however, point out that they’re expecting many more books from their favourite author, thank you, so perhaps a lifetime award might have been a bit premature.

Amitav Ghosh as a writer of travelogues: Yet, at this juncture of his literary career – one that in the barren, pre-liberalisation days of 1986, he’d never thought he’d have – he’s a bit mystified by what’s happening in the world of the arts. Specifically, Ghosh is wondering why, despite the clear and present danger of climate change, few writers are focusing on the subject at all.

Amitav Ghosh as a writer of travelogues: Ghosh’s own non-fiction work on the issue, The Great Derangement: Climate Change and the Unthinkable, published last year, is still a bestseller. Amitav Ghosh as a writer of travelogues But as he points out, though there are quite a few books available on nature, very few say much about the biggest danger the earth has been in since the dinosaurs were wiped out several millennia ago.

“Climate change is the greatest crisis that human beings, as a species, have ever faced,” says Ghosh. “Yet it is largely absent from the arts. Amitav Ghosh as a writer of travelogues I think this raises many serious questions.” The Great Derangement was his attempt to answer these questions. His 2004 novel, The Hungry Tide, set in the fast-depleting Sundarbans, had dealt with the subject fictionally.

The human-environment interaction has long been a subject for books, in all the languages of the world. Ghosh names several Indian local language writers too: Bengal’s Adwaita Mallabarman (Titash Ekti Nadir Naam), Odisha’s Gopinath Mohanty (Paraja), and Maharashtra’s Vishwas Patil. “But we should note that there is a big difference between ‘nature’ and ‘climate change’, which represents a profound rupture in our ecosystem,” says Ghosh.

Amitav Ghosh as a writer of travelogues

Ghosh is an award-winning author, travel writer, anthropologist and climate change activist, writing both fiction and non-fiction. His books range from historical novels to straight out travelogues to novels set in present-day circumstances, to, well, everything that interests him. Which means that his fans are interested in everything that interests him too, because genre has no place in his works. Only the writing matters.

Amitav Ghosh as a writer of travelogues: It’s hard for his fans, just emerging dreamily from his Ibis Trilogy, a series of historical novels set in India, China and the Indian Ocean at the time of the colonisation, to believe that Ghosh never imagined he could have a literary career. But frankly, anyone reasonably adult in 1986 and reasonably bookish felt the same way. There were only a few publishers for English-language writers (aside from those publishing textbooks), so anyone burning to write just had to do it in their spare time – or become an advertising copywriter or journalist.

Ghosh chose the latter. “I took a job with the Indian Express, because it seemed to me that this was the closest thing to a literary career that was available to me then,” he says. “And I did indeed learn a great deal from my time as a journalist.”

Amitav Ghosh as a writer of travelogues: His journalistic background, combined with his Master’s degree and Ph.D. in social anthropology, comes across clearly in all his works, whether it’s his 1998 travelogue, Dancing in Cambodia, At Large in Burma; his 1988 novel, The Shadow Lines; his 1992 work of non-fiction about Egypt, In An Antique Land; or The Great Derangement.

“I had a deep interest in human-environment relations even before I did my advanced degrees,” says Ghosh. Amitav Ghosh as a writer of travelogues “As an undergraduate, I went to Orissa and spent a month doing fieldwork in a village. It was a real revelation for me since I had grown up in cities.”  

Research is the backbone of all his books. Not just for his historical novels, but also for his travelogues and essays, even if he’s actually experienced the things he writes about.

“Writing about personal experience does not make research unnecessary,” explains Ghosh. “Suppose, for example, that I were writing about the years I spent in Delhi. Even though my memories of that time are quite vivid, I would almost certainly need to look at street maps, newspapers, etc, if I were to write about them.”

It’s because he spends so much time on research that his fans are constantly frustrated – there are always years between his new releases.

Then again, perhaps researching and writing faster wouldn’t do his fans much good: there’s a reason why Ghosh is one of the world’s most admired writers and it has to do with the fact that every piece of work he publishes has the same level of excellence, both in the research and in the writing.

Amitav Ghosh as a writer of travelogues: Bengal, Burma, London, China, North Africa, the Persian Gulf—Amitav Ghosh’s books are plotted all over the globe. Often with more than one place featuring in the same story, they blur geographical boundaries and sometimes, even time periods. Born in Kolkata to a diplomat father, Ghosh grew up in India, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka, studied in Delhi, Oxford and Alexandria, and currently resides in New York. It’s as if, like him, his stories too are always on the move and remind us how interconnected the world is. Amitav Ghosh as a writer of travelogues Increasingly so, since climate change has begun taking centre stage in his books starting with The Great Derangement: Climate Change and the Unthinkable (2016). Ghosh talks to NGTI about his relationship with travelling and his love for Venice, which features prominently in his latest book, Gun Island. Edited excerpts from a telephonic interview:

I have been travelling since I was a kid. My father was a great fan of the railways; he knew the Bradshaw’s timetable (by London’s W.J. Adams) by heart. In those days, you could hire a saloon, which had a kitchen and bedrooms. We would rent these and travel to different parts of India with my uncles, aunts and cousins; a cook would travel along and make us meals every day. We treated the saloon like a hotel. There was no air conditioning and it required a lot of planning, but the experience was just lovely. There’s nothing like it today. So you see, travel has been the reality of my life. It also reflects contemporary life; today, tourism is one of the world’s biggest industries.

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Clear Light of Day


Clear Light of Day

Clear Light of Day: Clear Light of Day Clear Light of Day is a novel published in 1980 by Indian novelist and three-time Booker Prize finalist Anita Desai. Set primarily in Old Delhi, the story describes the tensions in a post-partition Indian family, starting with the characters as adults and moving back into their lives throughout the course of the novel. While the primary theme is the importance of family, other predominant themes include the importance of forgiveness, the power of childhood, and the status of women, particularly their role as mothers and caretakers, in modern-day India.

Clear Light of Day: The novel is split into four sections covering the Das family from the children's perspective in this order: adulthood, adolescence and early adulthood, childhood, and a final return to an adult perspective in the final chapter. The story centers on the Das family, who have grown apart with adulthood. It starts with Tara, whose husband Bakul is India's ambassador to the US, greeting her sister Bimla (Bim), who lives in the family's Old Delhi home, teaching history and taking care of their autistic brother Baba. Their conversation eventually comes to Raja, their brother who lives in Hyderabad. Bim, not wanting to go to the wedding of Raja's daughter, shows Tara an old letter from when Raja became her landlord, in which he unintentionally insulted her after the death of his father-in-law, the previous landlord. The section closes with the two sisters visiting the neighbors, the Misras. In part two of the novel, the setting switches to partition-era India, when the characters are adolescents in the house. Raja is severely ill with tuberculosis and is left to Bim's ministrations.

Clear Light of Day: Aunt Mira ("Mira-masi"), their supposed caretaker after the death of the children's often absent parents, dies of alcoholism. Earlier, Raja's fascination with Urdu attracts the attention of the family's Muslim landlord, Hyder Ali, whom Raja idolizes. After recovering from TB, Raja follows Hyder Ali to Hyderabad. Tara escapes from the situation through marriage to Bakul, leaving Bim to provide for Baba alone, in the midst of the partition and the death of Gandhi. In part three Bim, Raja and Tara are depicted awaiting the birth of their brother Baba in pre-partition India. Aunt Mira, widowed by her husband and mistreated by her in-laws, is brought in to help with Baba, who is autistic, and to raise the children. Raja is fascinated with poetry. He shares a close bond with Bim, the head girl at school, although they often exclude Tara. Tara wants to be a mother, although this fact brings ridicule from Raja and Bim, who want to be heroes. The final section returns to modern India and shows Tara confronting Bim over Raja's daughter's wedding and Bim's broken relationship with Raja. This climaxes when Bim explodes at Baba. After her anger fades, she decides that family love is irreplaceable and can cover all wrongs. After Tara leaves, she goes to her neighbors the Misras for a concert, where she is touched by the unbreakable relationship they seem to have. She tells Tara to come back from the wedding with Raja and forgives him.

Clear Light of Day: One morning in 1980, Tara Das wanders around in her childhood home in Old Delhi, feeling nostalgic. Her sister, Bim, is a teacher and takes care of the house. The two discuss the old days. Tara has been married to Bakul, who works in Indian embassies in foreign countries and travels a lot, and has two teenage daughters. Tara is attractive, but, unlike the intelligent and fiercely self-possessed Bim, she is mild-mannered, pliable, and dependent on her husband. Tara and Bakul are in town for the wedding of Raja’s daughter; Raja is their brother, from whom Bim is estranged.

Clear Light of Day

The sisters discuss the aging house and have tea sometime after. Tara serves Bakul tea with little milk that is left after the cat is fed, demonstrating Bim’s disdain towards Bakul. Their brother, Baba, comes in. He is a grown man but is mentally slow. Baba plays musical records all day long, which worries Tara. She asks Baba to go to the office, which he sadly declines. Tara is sad looking at the state of her brother and declines Bakul’s invitation to go out.

Clear Light of Day: The needle of Baba’s gramophone breaks and the silence caused by it disturbs him so much that he rushes out to the streets; there, he gets distraught by the crowd and comes running back crying. Bim and Tara discuss their brother, Raja, and his marriage to the daughter of Hyder Ali, their landlord. There are sour feelings between Bim and Raja, the two of whom used to be very close, and Bim shows Tara a letter in which Raja tells Bim that, in the aftermath of Hyder Ali’s death, he will charge her the same rent as their parents were charged. Bim finds his tone insulting and arrogant; she keeps the letter as a token of remembrance and refuses to go to Hyderabad for the marriage.

Clear Light of Day: That evening they visit the Misras, their neighbors. The Misras were a rich family fallen into hard times due to their sons’ debauchery, vices, and laziness. Their sisters, separated from their husbands, work hard to feed the family and yet are marginalized. The youngest, Mulk, causes a scene for not getting to host his musicians or an audience; only Bakul can quell his temper. Bim has them all return home, in order to avoid the Misras having to feed them all.

Back at the house, Bim speaks of seeing a specter of their Aunt Mira after she died; the two sisters talk of the Partition of India and Pakistan, and of the events that followed.

In 1947, Bim and Raja are closer to each other than the rest of the siblings. Raja hero-worships Hyder Ali, their landlord and neighbor. Given his aptitude for Urdu, he is invited frequently to their house to browse among the vast collection of Urdu poetry. He takes to going there frequently, earning disapproval from his parents, aunt, and Bim. He begins to compare the two households and begins to detest his own. He takes Urdu as his primary language in school instead of Hindi, against his family’s wishes. He yearns to go to Jamia Millia, a college known for its inclination towards Islamic culture, but this is against his father’s wishes. Mr. Das finally tells him that it is unsafe for a Hindu boy to study Islamic culture during these troubled times. Raja does not know how to refute this, and he enrolls at the Hindu college.

Bim, Raja, Tara, and Baba are not particularly close to their parents, who are rarely home. One day, their mother falls ill and dies in the hospital. They are not very affected, but their aunt takes to drinking out of stress.

The father also dies in an accident and Raja is stricken with tuberculosis. He is querulous and miserable, and Bim is frustrated by his obsession with the Alis. Raja is particularly distressed when the Alis flee town due to the riots and fires resulting from the Partition.

Tara spends more time with Misra sisters, whom Bim finds unambitious. Tara meets Bakul there and is love-struck, although Bim finds him pompous, arrogant, and dull.

Dr. Biswas, a young man who frequently ministers to Raja and Aunt Mira (the latter of whom is descending into senile, drunken disaster), begins to be infatuated with Bim and invites her to a concert. She is not at all interested, and even though she agrees to a meeting with his mother, she realizes that she is not interested in marriage.

Clear Light of Day: Raja is required to take over his father’s business, but he refuses. He wants to go to Hyder Ali, who has left for Hyderabad given the communal tension. On Raja’s insistence, Bim goes to Hyder Ali’s house to see what is going on. Baba sees the daughter’s gramophone and records and immediately becomes obsessed. They bring the gramophone, a dog, and a servant back with them.

Bakul marries Tara and takes her with him. Aunt Mira grows worse and, after a series of embarrassing accidents, dies in her bed. She is buried in her only sari, which she never wore in life. Now that his health is improved, Raja leaves for Hyderabad to look for Hyder Ali. Baba and Bim are left together, but they are pleased with this development.

Mrs. Das gives birth to her fourth (and unexpected) child, Baba. He begins exhibiting some growth defects, so she calls for Aunt Mira.

Aunt Mira, a distant cousin of Bim’s mother, was widowed in her early teenage years (in the 1940s) and was thus reduced to unpaid house help. She started aging prematurely and hideously, and so was deemed unfit for the men of her household. Aunt Mira—disposable to her in-laws, for whom she was forced to work for as payment for the death of the husband—was sent for. The children are skeptical, but they all begin to love each other. She became a parental figure for children, as their parents hardly cared for them.

Aunt Mira had the parents buy a cow for fresh milk, but the animal later died when a careless servant did not lock it up and it fell into the garden well. Aunt Mira was forever haunted by this incident, as were the children.

Clear Light of Day: Tara develops as a diffident, anxious child while Bim and Raja flourish. Tara is haunted by her childhood incidents, like shooting of a rabid dog and dismissal of a teacher for being in love with a foreigner. Bim, who does well at school and defends the principal in her firing of the teacher, becomes a figure of resentment for Tara.

As Raja grows up, Tara and Bim spend more time together but their relationship has many fractures. Tara abandons Bim twice in minor events—first in the midst of a bee-attack and then when Bim forced her to smoke while they dressed up in Raja’s pants and discovered a sense of power in wearing male clothing. Tara has trouble forgetting when Bim cuts off Tara’s hair, promising her that she will grow curls afterward.

Tare begins to grow apart from her siblings and closer to Jaya and Sarla Misra, as there were levity and life in their house as compared to her own house. The Misra sisters treated her kindly and would frequently take her out to clubs and other places. At their marriage parties, Bim tells Tara she disapproves of the Misra girls marrying without proper education; she asserts that she doesn’t intend to marry.

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The poetry of Sri Aurobindo


The poetry of Sri Aurobindo

The poetry of Sri Aurobindo: Sri Aurobindo was born in India 15th August 1872. From an early age he was educated in England at St Paul’s school and then Kings College Cambridge. Abrilliant scholar the young Aurobindo had the opportunity to take a prestigious position in the Civil Service. However during his university years he became increasingly committed to the ideal of Indian Independence so turned down the opportunity. The poetry of Sri Aurobindo ON returning to India he became increasingly influential in the Indian independence struggle. In 1909 Aurobindo was arrested on a charge of sedition for his alleged role in the Alipor Bomb plot. It was whilst in jail that Aurobindo underwent profound spiritual realisations became aware of Vasudeva “God” in everything. Receiving spiritual instruction from Sri Krishna and Swami Vivekananda he followed his inner Command or “Adesh” to withdraw from politics.

The poetry of Sri Aurobindo: Thus after being dramatically acquitted by his good friend and lawyer C.R.Das Aurobindo moved to the French province of Pondicherry where over time he built up a spiritual community or Ashram. Although never outwardly looking for disciples. He began to attract sincere seekers and soon the fledgling ashram grew. The poetry of Sri Aurobindo A significant moment in the growth of the Ashram and life of Sri Aurobindo was the arrival of Madame Alfonso who became known as “The Mother” and was an integral part of Sri Aurobindo’s mission and spiritual identity. After breaking his leg in an accident Sri Aurobindo retired from active life living in relative seclusion to undertake his arduous spiritual disciplines. The poetry of Sri Aurobindo Although withdrawn from the world Sri Aurobindo was a prolific writer. He wrote philosophy, literature, poetry and many letters to his disciples.

The poetry of Sri Aurobindo: After attaining his full spiritual realisations and being successful in his attempts to bring down a new spiritual consciousness Sri Aurobindo left the body on December 5th 1950.

The poetry of Sri Aurobindo: Sri Aurobindo (born Aurobindo Ghose; 15 August 1872 – 5 December 1950) was an Indian philosopher, yoga guru, maharishi, poet, and Indian nationalist. He was also a journalist, editing newspapers like Bande Mataram. He joined the Indian movement for independence from British colonial rule, till 1910 was one of its influential leaders and then became a spiritual reformer, introducing his visions on human progress and spiritual evolution. Aurobindo studied for the Indian Civil Service at King's College, Cambridge, England. After returning to India he took up various civil service works under the Maharaja of the Princely state of Baroda and became increasingly involved in nationalist politics in the Indian National Congress and the nascent revolutionary movement in Bengal with the Anushilan Samiti. The poetry of Sri Aurobindo He was arrested in the aftermath of a number of bombings linked to his organization in a public trial where he faced charges of treason for Alipore Conspiracy. However Sri Aurobindo could only be convicted and imprisoned for writing articles against British colonial rule in India. He was released when no evidence could be provided, following the murder of a prosecution witness, Narendranath Goswami, during the trial. During his stay in the jail, he had mystical and spiritual experiences, after which he moved to Pondicherry, leaving politics for spiritual work. At Pondicherry, Sri Aurobindo developed a spiritual practice he called Integral Yoga. The poetry of Sri Aurobindo The central theme of his vision was the evolution of human life into a divine life in divine body. He believed in a spiritual realisation that not only liberated but transformed human nature, enabling a divine life on earth. In 1926, with the help of his spiritual collaborator, Mirra Alfassa (referred to as "The Mother"), Sri Aurobindo Ashram was founded. His main literary works are The Life Divine, which deals with the philosophical aspect of Integral Yoga; Synthesis of Yoga, which deals with the principles and methods of Integral Yoga; and Savitri: A Legend and a Symbol, an epic poem.

The poetry of Sri Aurobindo

The poetry of Sri Aurobindo: Aurobindo Ghose was born in Calcutta (now Kolkata), Bengal Presidency, India on 15 August 1872 in a Bengali family that was associated with the village of Konnagar in the Hooghly district of present-day West Bengal. His father, Krishna Dhun Ghose, was then assistant surgeon of Rangpur in Bengal and later civil surgeon of Khulna, and a former member of the Brahmo Samaj religious reform movement who had become enamoured with the then-new idea of evolution while pursuing medical studies in Edinburgh. His mother Swarnalata Devi's father Shri Rajnarayan Bose was a leading figure in the Samaj. She had been sent to the more salubrious surroundings of Calcutta for Aurobindo's birth. Aurobindo had two elder siblings, Benoybhusan and Manmohan, a younger sister, Sarojini, and a younger brother, Barindra Kumar (also referred to as Barin). Young Aurobindo was brought up speaking English, but used Hindustani to communicate with servants. Although his family were Bengali, his father believed British culture to be superior. He and his two elder siblings were sent to the English-speaking Loreto House boarding school in Darjeeling, in part to improve their language skills and in part to distance them from their mother, who had developed a mental illness soon after the birth of her first child. Darjeeling was a centre of Anglo-Indians in India and the school was run by Irish nuns, through which the boys would have been exposed to Christian religious teachings and symbolism.

The poetry of Sri Aurobindo: Krishna Dhun Ghose wanted his sons to enter the Indian Civil Service (ICS), an elite organisation comprising around 1000 people. To achieve this it was necessary that they study in England and so it was there that the entire family moved in 1879. The three brothers were placed in the care of the Reverend W. H. Drewett in Manchester. Drewett was a minister of the Congregational Church whom Krishna Dhun Ghose knew through his British friends at Rangpur. The boys were taught Latin by Drewett and his wife. This was a prerequisite for admission to good English schools and, after two years, in 1881, the elder two siblings were enrolled at Manchester Grammar School. Aurobindo was considered too young for enrolment, and he continued his studies with the Drewetts, learning history, Latin, French, geography and arithmetic. Although the Drewetts were told not to teach religion, the boys inevitably were exposed to Christian teachings and events, which generally bored Aurobindo and sometimes repulsed him. There was little contact with his father, who wrote only a few letters to his sons while they were in England, but what communication there was indicated that he was becoming less endeared to the British in India than he had been, on one occasion describing the British colonial government as "heartless".

Drewett emigrated to Australia in 1884, causing the boys to be uprooted as they went to live with Drewett's mother in London. In September of that year, Aurobindo and Manmohan joined St Paul's School there. He learned Greek and spent the last three years reading literature and English poetry, while he also acquired some familiarity with the German and Italian languages; Peter Heehs resumes his linguistic abilities by stating that at "the turn of the century he knew at least twelve languages: English, French, and Bengali to speak, read, and write; Latin, Greek, and Sanskrit to read and write; Gujarati, Marathi, and Hindi to speak and read; and Italian, German, and Spanish to read." Being exposed to the evangelical structures of Drewett's mother developed in him a distaste for religion, and he considered himself at one point to be an atheist but later determined that he was agnostic. A blue plaque unveiled in 2007 commemorates Aurobindo's residence at 49 St Stephen's Avenue in Shepherd's Bush, London, from 1884 to 1887. The three brothers began living in spartan circumstances at the Liberal Club in South Kensington during 1887, their father having experienced some financial difficulties. The club's secretary was James Cotton, brother of their father's friend in the Bengal ICS, Henry Cotton.

Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura


Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura

Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura: Raja Rao’s Kanthapura is one of the finest novels to come out of mid-twentieth century India. It is the story of how Gandhi’s struggle for independence from the British came to a typical village, Kanthapura, in South India. Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura Young Moorthy, back from the city with “new ideas,” cuts across the ancient barriers of caste to unite the villagers in non-violent action––which is met with violence by landlords and police. Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura The dramatic tale unfolds in a poetic, almost mythical style which conveys as never before the rich textures of Indian rural life. Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura The narrator is an old woman, imbued with the legendary history of the region, who knows the past of all the characters and comments on their actions with sharp-eyed wisdom. Her narrative, and the way she tells it, evokes the spirit of India’s traditional folk-epics. Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura This edition includes extensive notes on Indian myths, religion, social customs, and the Independence movement (given at the end of the book) which fill out the background for the American reader’s more complete understanding and enjoyment.

Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura: On the surface level, the novel ‘Kanthapura’ (1938) by Raja Rao recounts the rise of a Gandhian nationalist movement in a small South Indian village of the same name. Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura The story is narrated by Achakka, an elder Brahmin woman with an all-encompassing knowledge about everyone in her village. Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura She narrates the story in the style of a sthala-purana, a traditional history of a village, its people, its gods, and local practices. What is more intriguing about the novel is the charming world that it introduced the readers to. And it is not a world that is fictional or unrealistic. Rather it is one that we are all familiar with. Raja Rao relocated the events of the novel in a rural area. Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura One might wonder why Rao did not select one of India’s cities, which were being ruled by the British. Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura This could be because of the fact that villages had always formed India. Before India even came under the British rule, the village had been the only existing form of a community.

Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura: ‘Kanthapura’ begins by Achakka's lengthy first sentence, which situates her village in the broader context of India and the British Empire as a whole. She does this from the viewpoint of someone traversing the landscape. Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura The flood of place names she provides demonstrates her deep familiarity with the place and establishes her as an authority on her village.
Dominant castes like Brahmins are privileged to get the best region of the village, while lower castes such as Pariahs are marginalized. Despite this classist system, the village retains its long-cherished traditions of festivals in which all castes interact and the villagers are united.

Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura

Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura: The village is believed to be protected by a local deity named Kenchamma. She supposedly battled a demon “ages, ages ago” and has protected Kanthapura’s people ever since. The villagers frequently pray to her for help, perform ceremonies to honour her, and thank her for their good fortune. Kenchamma exemplifies the traditional religion that Kanthapura’s people gradually come to leave behind.

Nature plays a significant role among the population of the village because the mountains around the village and the river has always been present, even long before the first child was born in Kanthapura. All elements of nature have a strong power over the village.

In the novel, the protagonist Moorthy is a Brahmin. Everybody in the village calls him as ‘corner house Moorthy’ or ‘our Moorthy’. The villagers treat him as a ‘small mountain’ while Gandhi as ‘big mountain’. Moorthy goes about from door to door carrying the message of Gandhi even to the Pariah Quarter and made to know about the political, social, economic resurrections.

Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura: The British government accuses Moorthy of provoking the townspeople to inflict violence and arrests him. While Moorthy spends the next three months in prison, the women of Kanthapura take charge, forming a volunteer corps under Rangamma's (major female character) leadership. Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura Rangamma instils a sense of patriotism among the women by telling stories of notable women from Indian history. The novel ends with Moorthy and the town looking to the future and planning to continue their fight for independence.

Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura: Thus, ‘Kanthapura’ evokes a sense of community and freedom, construed as a spiritual quality which overcomes all bounds and crosses all barriers. Raja Rao’s novel Kanthapura In order to allow an easy interchange between the world of men and the world of gods, between contemporaneity and antiquity, Rao thus equips his story with a protagonist whose role it is to motivate the villagers into joining the political cause of India's struggle for freedom without reservation.

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Forms of Hind Swaraj


Forms of Hind Swaraj

Forms of Hind Swaraj: Hind Swaraj or Indian Home-Rule involves 20 short parts. It is written in a dialogic structure between the Reader and the Editor of a diary/paper. The upside of the dialogic structure is that it gives the Editor (here Gandhi) with a chance to talk about the whole array of issues with every one of their suggestions and complexities.

Principally Hind Swaraj manages two issues: (an) an evaluate of present day development, (b) the nature and structure of Indian Swaraj and the methods and strategies to accomplish it.

Gandhi's Hind Swaraj is principally known for its trenchant evaluate of present day development.

In Hind Swaraj he additionally harps on the state of India as it has created under the British principle and tutelage. He makes an essential plan that under the effect of the British principle India is transforming into a 'skeptical' nation. He rushes to include that he isn't thinking about a specific religion, yet rather of that Religion which underlies all religions. We are getting some distance from God, he includes. He compares modem human advancement to a 'mouse' 'chewing' our kin while evidently calming them. 
At that point he turns his ethical look to some of significant advancements like railroads and the development of new world class like legal counselors and specialists. Every one of these improvements, he affirms, have just prompted the impoverishment of the India. As indicated by him railroads have helped the British to fix their grasp over India. In addition, they have been likewise liable for 'starvations', plagues and different issues for the nation. He counters the contention that railroads have added to the development of Indian patriotism by saying that India had been a country much before the British showed up. In part XI of Hind Swaraj he contends that legal counselors have contributed more to the debasement of India. In addition, they have highlighted the Hindu-Muslim disputes, helped the British to unite their position and have sucked the blood of the poor of India. In the following part he portrays how specialists have bombed the Indian culture. As he would see it, specialists have been fundamentally answerable for making the individuals 'liberal' and taking less consideration of their bodies. He closes his study of present day human advancement by contrasting it with an Upas tree, a toxic plant which crushes all life around it.

In another part of the Hind Swaraj he analyzes the English instructive framework presented in India and depicts it as 'bogus training'. For him the essential point of training ought to be to bring our faculties under our influence and to help assimilate moral conduct in our life. He assaults the recently risen world class, a result of the Macaulay arrangement of instruction, as they have subjugated India.

Forms of Hind Swaraj

Swaraj of the Hind Swaraj

Swaraj and the technique to accomplish it was the primary worry of the Hind Swaraj. In part IV of Hind Swaraj he advances a fundamental definition that negligible exchange of intensity from British hands to Indian hands would not prompt genuine swaraj. He includes that would be simply having 'English principle without Englishmen'. All things considered, he contends, India might be called 'Hindustan' however it would remain 'Englistan'. Henceforth it would not be swaraj of his origination. What's more, in part XIV (How Can India Become Free?) he attempts to characterize genuine swaraj by saying that on the off chance that we (people) turned out to be free, India would be free. It is in the equivalent vain that he opines that 'it is swaraj when we figure out how to run ourselves! Such a swaraj, he further includes, would need to be experienced by every single one of us. 

Gandhi additionally utilizes the term swaraj for home-rule or self-government for the Indian individuals. In any case, he clarifies that there is an advantageous connection between swaraj as 'self-rule' of individual Indians and swaraj as the home-rule or self-government for the Indian individuals. At the end of the day, home-decide that Indian individuals would accomplish would be genuine just to the degree they are effective in acting naturally 'administering' people. In the section XV. Gandhi advances the proposal that the genuine test is to free a large number of our kin and not just to change the legislature. How might it be accomplished? Not by the utilization of arms and brutality. This is for two reasons, he includes. One, any retreat to brutal resistance would require a great many Indians being equipped which in itself is an over the top difficult task. Two, all the more significantly, if India resorts to arms, the 'sacred place where there is' India would turned out to be 'unholy'. All the while, India would turn into a land more regrettable than Europe. He eagerly dismisses the utilization of beast power for accomplishing swaraj for India. He presents new contentions for such dismissal. One, there is a cozy connection between the methods and the end. In this way he dismisses the fundamental details of Indian progressives that India could be liberated distinctly by vicious methods both on good and moral grounds. Furthermore, he additionally dismisses the Moderates' view that Indians could be liberated by negligible supplication and requesting. Except if upheld by successful authorizations that would be a pointless activity. Henceforth India would require detached obstruction, in light of 'affection power' or 'soul-power' to push ahead headed straight toward Swaraj. In part XVII he extravagantly harps on the idea of latent opposition, yet Satyagraha. He clarifies the idea of inactive opposition as a strategy for verifying rights by experiencing 'individual sufferings'. Here by suggestions he legitimizes the utilization of soul power based on the idea of 'relative truth'. He further contends that aloof opposition isn't a 'weapon of the powerless'. Or maybe it is a weapon of the solid. He finishes up the whole exchange by saying that genuine home guideline is conceivable just through latent opposition. Be that as it may, he likewise rushes to include that a genuine aloof resistor should watch 'immaculate purity' embrace 'deliberate neediness' 'follow truth' and 'develop courage'.

Another significant idea which he presents in Hind Swaraj is that of the composite idea of Indian patriotism. ln Hind Swaraj he advances the contention that Indian individuals comprised a country much before the British came. The happening to the Mohammedans prior had barely had any effect to the reality of India being a country. All the while, he contends that India couldn't stop to be a country just in light of the fact that individuals having a place with various religions live here. Individuals with various strict foundations would keep on establishing one country insofar as they keep up the standard of non-impedance in each other's religion. All the while, he offers an exceptionally significant expression:

'On the off chance that the Hindus accept that India ought to be inhabited distinctly by Hindus, they are living in lala land. Hindus, Mohammedans, Parsees and Christians who have made India their nation are individual comrades and they should live in solidarity if just for their own advantages. In no piece of the world are one nationality and one religion synonymous terms nor has it at any point been in India'.

Somewhere else in Hind Swaraj he dismisses the British postulation that India was never a country. Or maybe it has consistently been a combination of various statements of faith and networks. He attests that our soothsayers and sages established the framework of our national solidarity and Indian nationhood by building up focuses of journey on the four corners of India. All the while, they terminated the creative mind of our kin with the possibility of nationhood. Accordingly in Hind Swaraj Gandhi establishes a genuine framework of mainstream patriotism for which he lived and kicked the bucket for.

 Rear Swaraj presents the expansive shapes of an elective society - another civilizational structure in a simple structure. In the part managing 'genuine progress' he characterizes it as that 'method of lead which calls attention to man the way of obligation'. He further includes that ethical conduct is only to accomplish 'dominance over one's brain'.

In a similar section he affirms that the old Indian progress possesses all the necessary qualities for being the genuine human advancement. With that in mind, he recognizes its basic beliefs, for example, points of confinement to extravagance as far as extravagances and delights, accentuation on familial calling, rustic life, and good control of sages over the rulers, its check on superfluous intensity and its inclination for little scale advances and decentralized nation. He concedes that at present current India is moving endlessly from these old qualities. Be that as it may, he sticks his expectation in the majority of the individuals of India living in hinterland who keep on persevering in its ancient custom. Concerning who might play out all these cumbersome errands, he rests his confidence in the new band of satyagrahis who should assume the of job of models instead of that of vanguards.

There are different ideas in Hind Swaraj dispersed everywhere throughout the book viz. swadeshi, brahamcharya, nature fix, another instructive and legitimate framework, connection between the methods and the end and obligations and rights which he explained in his later works. Toward the finish of the book he makes a grave affirmation that an amazing remainder would be devoted to the fulfillment of the sort of Swaraj he had clarified and has really experienced in his very own inward being.

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Tuesday, December 7, 2021

Mahesh Dattani treat the issue of Gender in Tara


Mahesh Dattani treat the issue of Gender in Tara

Mahesh Dattani treat the issue of Gender in Tara: Mahesh Dattani is a contemporary Indian playwright and his play Tara revolves around the separation of conjoined twins. Gender discrimination is the reason for the separation and the exercise of the parental authority is also observed in the course of the play. The research focuses on how parental authority and gender discrimination lead to the death of the daughter Tara and deterioration of Patel’s family. The gender discrimination and parental authority account for the death of the innocent girl, Tara. The paper also looks into the aspect of society playing an invisible role in the separation of the twins.

Mahesh Dattani treat the issue of Gender in Tara: Drama in India was evident since the time of Vedas, yet the English drama was made familiar only in the twentieth century post Independence. Theatre is a dynamic and a powerful tool of expression as the emotions and feelings are visually realized by the audience. The impact of a drama is vast because of its dialogues, narrative composition, settings and light effects. The Contemporary Indian theatre has experienced many prominent playwrights like Girish Karnad, Vijay Tendulkar, Mahesh Dattni etc. These playwrights serve as the voices of the society and the contemporary Indian English Drama serves as a medium for the playwrights to express their opinions and ideas about the society. Mahesh Dattani is an eminent contemporary Indian playwright who uses his plays to represent the dark evils of the society. All his plays make the audience or the readers think about the social evils that are dominant in the society. Tara is a play by Mahesh Dattani which encompasses several themes related to social evils into one play. This research paper focuses on the parental authority and gender discrimination that victimized the children and how gradually the family was also led to pain and suffering. Parents and their notion of gender led to the death of their own daughter and it is also the reason why Chandan flees to London to escape the harsh and crude memories that burdened him in India.

Mahesh Dattani treat the issue of Gender in Tara: Tara and Chandan are conjoined twins and their separation brings in a lot of chaos into the family. Though it is only the mother and the grandfather who were keen on separation, the father can also be held responsible as he gave in to the decision of his wife. The father and the mother should be the source of impartiality towards their children. Patel and Bharati failed to be in the true sense of the term ‘parenthood’. They made their children suffer both psychologically and physiologically through the operation. Their impudent decision over separation and preferring Chandan over Tara, not only with regard to separation but also the post-operation concerns that Patel had for Chandan and his education made Tara feel low and unnoticed by her father. Her life was a sacrifice and she was not even aware that she was making a sacrifice for the sake of her brother. The operation went futile as it did harbor only pain and suffering.

The article “Contemporary Indian Theatre: Three voices” by Erin B Mee highlights the parental authority in the plays of Mahesh Dattani. In Tara, the parental authority is vital as the children comply with the words of their parents. The children do whatever their parents wanted them to do. Starting from their separation, Chandan’s education, Tara’s food chart was decided by the parents. The playwright Mahesh Dattani himself mentions in an interview with Erin B Mee that his plays deal with the invisible issues of the society and Tara is about a life of a girl who “wastes away and dies after coming to know she wasn’t really loved the way she thought she was” ( Mahesh Dattani 21). Lata Mishra’s “Gender Politics in Tara” also talks about the gender discrimination that is meted out to Tara and how Mahesh Dattani uses the medium of the family to discuss the gender role conflicts that dominate in our society. S.L. Bhyrappa in “Abiding values in Indian Literature” suggests that “Not by proposing solutions to the immediate problems of his society, but by transforming the nature of the human being does the writer try to cure the ills of society and make his unique contribution to the betterment of the human conditions”(Bhyrappa 183). Mahesh Dattani does not give any suggestions or ideas at the end of his play. He leaves it open to the discretion of his audience.

Mahesh Dattani treat the issue of Gender in Tara

Mahesh Dattani treat the issue of Gender in Tara: The research incorporates Jim O’Neil’s theory of Gender role conflict. Jim O’Neil’ claims that gender role conflict occurs when rigid, sexist, or limiting gender roles result in restriction, devaluation, or violation of self and/or others (1981b). This theory holds true with regard to Tara. In the course of the play, she undergoes two operations and she eventually dies. Her death is because of the gender difference that the mother saw amongst her children. Tara’s value or importance was not recognized. They wanted Chandan to be the beneficiary of the separation. Tara lost her leg that belonged to her. She was not even aware that the leg belonged to her neither had they got her approval for providing her leg to Chandan. This does not mean that Tara would have refused to give her leg; she would have given it to Chandan without any complains. The parents have behaved in an unjust manner. Their illusion was disillusioned through the consequences of the operation. Both the children were doomed to suffer because of one unjust decision. Further speculation of the cause of this prenatal preference is that it is deeply rooted in the society. The society has invisible issues and this gender difference within a family space is because of the societal expectations of a man to be physically strong and helpful to the family. The girls should be the silent sufferers and Tara becomes a symbol of sacrifice herself.

The death of the daughter Tara is the ultimate result of parental preference of the son over the daughter. The parents wanted the son to have a distinct future for himself, so the mother preferred to give the third leg to Chandan and the father, after operation, was so keen on the education of his son. The Gender discrimination begins with parental preference of son over the daughter and belittling the importance of daughter. Home, in this play, is a reflection of the society and how parents blindly give in to the notion of gendered preference. The concept of a girl and a boy had let to the major destruction of Patel’s family. Parents have complete authority over their children and they do not give them any reason for their actions and decisions. Patel did not want the children to know about the reason of the separation operation because it is a gendered preference and the children will not be unable to stand it because it will hurt them so much. Nevertheless they could not hide it from the children and when they came to know about it, Tara and Chandan were shocked and Tara dies and Chandan flees to London. Mr and Mrs. Patel destined themselves to sorrow and misery and they are left only with guilt. The parents ruined the lives of their own children and they failed miserably as the family is broken beyond repair.

Mahesh Dattani treat the issue of Gender in Tara: The play is set in the twenty-first century where gender conflicts still continue to pervade in the lives of the Indian families. The Gender conflicts and differences begin at home. The society plays an important invisible role for gender conflicts to begin at home. The society had different evils in the past like female infanticide, through this play Mahesh Dattani makes the readers think that there may be no female infanticide in the society in the present but it has taken a new form where the son is preferred over the daughter in terms of education and providing opportunities. So a girl child’s future takes a back seat and in this play the same happens and Tara is dead at the end. The male child preference had always been a dominant part of the society. Ram Sharma in his “A history of Indian English Drama” article also talks about how Mahesh Dattani talks about the contemporary issues of the society. Mahesh Dattani and his plays are eminent for his contemporaneity.

With education and exposure to knowledge we tend to believe that the male child preference does not happen in the educated urban spaces and it is the thing of the past. The male child is always considered to be prominent even till date and Tara holds this true because of the separation of twins to prefer Chandan, the son.

Tara is unique in Indian writing in English as the play revolves around the lives of conjoined twins of different sex. The conjoined twins are usually of the same sex. This play gains its prominence because of the difference in gender of the twins. The separation of the twins comes into light only because of this aspect. Separation of twins here becomes a necessity as they are of different sexes. There is no noble cause or reason as to benefit both the daughter and son to have a distinct, wonderful future for them. The operation could have been justified only if it were to be performed with a genuine reason where Tara and Chandan could have their own future without depending on each other both physically and emotionally. The ulterior motive of separation was to favor Chandan. Mahesh Dattani brings into limelight the fact that even educated parents in the 21st century have biased notions and ideas towards gender. Tara is a byproduct of such notion. The mother, Bharati victimizes her own children by her impudent decision over the surgery.

Mahesh Dattani treat the issue of Gender in Tara: The family’s ideas and perceptions are shaped by the society and the family ultimately reflects the society. The grandfather is absent in the play. Yet his presence is felt through the dialogues of the other characters in the play. He is a strongly gendered person. He was the one who was behind the idea of favoring Chandan. He has left his entire property to Chandan. He has also influenced his daughter in the separation of the twins. Patel feels inferior to his father-in-law because he is not as rich as his father-in-law and he assumes that he has no say against his father-in-law. He becomes passive and in spite of he knowing the fact that he is risking his own daughter’s life, he stayed quite. The invisible society is reflected through the invisible grandfather. The grandfather leaves all his property to Chandan and there is no share to Tara in his property. This shows that the grandfather marginalizes women and he had strongly believed that women are supposed to be under men and they should not be provided with power or any material benefits. Tara was almost invisible to the grandfather. He used his material power and wealth to make the Dr. Thakkar perform the operation. The grandfather comes across as a person with strong gender notions of preferring men over women. Yet all his actions went futile as both the children ended up being crippled and Chandan goes to London after Tara dies and he refuses to come back to India. The grandfather becomes more like a villain and he had inflicted sufferings on his grandchildren through his notion of suppressing women and denying them everything they deserve. Tara did not wish for anything in her life, she was an innocent and meek girl and she was shocked when she came to know the truth about the operation.

The preference of Chandan over Tara is a gendered preference. The doctors clearly mentioned that the third leg belongs to the daughter and it involves huge risk if the leg has to be given to Chandan. But they were willing to accept the risk rather than providing the leg to Tara to who it belonged. Dr. Thakkar also willingly accepted to perform the operation because of his own personal benefits. Tara’s grandfather was an influential person in Bangalore and Dr. Thakkar could use his influence to start a large nursing home in the heart of the city and the success of the operation will also bring huge fame and reputation to him. The operation, thus was not considered as the life and future of two children, rather on one hand it was to prefer the son and make him more strong physically and on the other hand it was a business where the doctor preferred his own benefits and Tara was not a subject of consideration and her future was unnoticed by the parents and the doctor.

The play also features how children are oblivious to the gender discrimination and how they fall prey to their parents’ decision. Chandan always considers Tara as an integral part of himself and he argues with his father when Patel asks him to go to office with him leaving Tara behind. When Patel says that Tara will not accompany them, she looks hurt and Patel immediately says that it is her wish to accompany them. This shows how Patel fails to be impartial towards his daughter and Patel is keen about the future of the son. The daughter stays out of the picture. He exercises his control over his son and he wanted him to work and he insists Chandan to go to office, whereas Chandan is more interested in writing stories and Patel fails to recognize the hidden talent of his son. Patel wanted Chandan to be independent and he wants to shape the future of his son. So he exercises the parental authority to make him comply with his decision. Patel uses his authority over the children to make them what he wants to do.

The irony lies in the fact that the daughter has done a great sacrifice but she is hardly recognized. The rigid gender difference make devalues the self of Tara. Tara is naïve and innocent and her life is more of a sacrifice, an unknown sacrifice. It can be called an unknown sacrifice because she didn’t know that Chandan will be benefitted out of the operation. The children are pure at their hearts and they are left with confusions and perplexities as they are unable to understand their own parents’ motives and intentions. Patel’s behavior made Tara think that her father hates her. Tara says to Chandan, Tara: You say that because he’s nice to you….he talks to you more often. ( Dattani 373)

Tara considers that Chandan is her father’s favorite as most of the times Patel talks about Chandan going abroad and pursuing his career. This shows how the gender conflicts and gender differences are made to be realized by the daughter unconsciously. After her kidney transplantation operation, she even tries convincing Chandan to go to college without her. But he is not ready to go alone. He wants his sister to accompany him. Tara and Chandan are clueless about the concept of gender discrimination and biases and hence they stand above Mr. and Mrs. Patel. The generation gap is apparent where Chandan is not biased towards his sister and he believes that both of them are equal.

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The Old Woman’ and Indian Dancers

The Old Woman’ and Indian Dancers

The Old Woman

The Old Woman’ and Indian Dancers: The poem "The Bird of Time" is also from the book. It's a poetry that's full of empathy. The Old Woman’ and Indian Dancers As the title suggests, the poem is about an elderly woman who was once a wife and mother but has now been forced to begging on the street due to her circumstances. The Old Woman’ and Indian Dancers The poem's second stanza is notable for its harsh realism and is often regarded as Naidu's most realistic stanza.

Each stanza of the poem contains fourteen lines. Naidu's usage of Arabic in the poem also serves as an excellent example of code mixing. The poem's main foot is Anapest.

The Old Woman’ and Indian Dancers: Comparing the old woman in this poem to the dancers in the previous poem might be instructive. The Old Woman’ and Indian Dancers What is striking in this comparison is that the old woman is very sharply portrayed while the dancers are hazy and blurred.

Indian Dancers

The Old Woman’ and Indian Dancers: This poem is from Naidu's poetry book The Golden Threshold, and it is characterised by an excess of rich and overripe imagery. The poem generates a hypnotic atmosphere and conjures up pictures of a lack of sharpness and clarity.

The poem's major foot is the anapest, which consists of two unstressed syllables followed by a stressed syllable. The Old Woman’ and Indian Dancers An iamb begins each line. Each line has an additional weak tension at the end. The poem's words imply a dancer's physical exertion, and the poet provides a type of break in between beats of four feet to help the dancer overcome this exertion.

The poem creates image after image and still when the poem ends we do not have a very clear picture of dancers. What is get is an impression, an experience but clear picture. The reason for this is that the poem, as has been mentioned, offers lack of clarity for the mood is entranced. The Old Woman’ and Indian Dancers The idea behind the poem is to create a sense of super sensuality and to blur the boundaries between senses. Words such as ‘ravished’, ‘rapture’, ‘celestially panting’, and ‘passionate bosoms’, create a sense of excess.

The Old Woman’ and Indian Dancers: Many might consider the aesthetic that informs the poem as escapist or decadent for the reason that poem does not focus on the labour, sorrow, sweat, and degradation of the dancers. The Old Woman’ and Indian Dancers The poem offers a loss of subjectivity and invites us to experience the sensuality of the dancers into the “voluptuous watches of the night”. The poet warns us against the facile and dismissive judgement by depicting the dancers with excess. It seems that the poet is aware of what she was doing. The Old Woman’ and Indian Dancers The poet urges her dancers to retain their dignity and not be transformed into a living ghost. This perspective allows us to look at her poetry as a resistance against colonialism and modernity.

The Old Woman’ and Indian Dancers

The Indian Dancers shows her mastery of ever complex and long metrical structures which are apparent. She has not attempted much in blank verse or in the sonnet form as yet. But, her poems exhibit a marvellous melody and rhythmical grace, and cling to the mind long after they are read. Further, there are beautiful usages of phrase and imaginative temperament that make her illuminate by a single flash of epithet, a world of new ideas and feelings and unfamiliar relations between familiar things and spiritual meanings and joys in facts which convey no messages to ordinary ears.

The Old Woman’ and Indian Dancers: Sarojini is a poet of extreme lyrical sensibility. She has an eye for the most delicate aspects of beauty, an ear for the music of life and nature and a superb sense of rhythm, rhyme and cadence. The Old Woman’ and Indian Dancers She scatters memorable phrases over a page like stars and was so filled with rhythm and romance of life that lyrics sang in her mind and overflowed from her exotic and passionate nature into song. By the use of jewelled phrases and epithets she could throw open a new world of experience and feelings. The ornate adjectives, dreamy similies and liquid phrases enhance the romantic unearthliness of her themes. 

The Old Woman’ and Indian Dancers: This poem is full of compassion. The poem tells us about an old woman, as is clear from the very title, who once was a wife and a mother, but now has been reduced to beg on the street by her extreme circumstances. In the second stanza of the poem Naidu presents the reality of the world to such an extent that it can be said to be the most realistic stanza ever written by Naidu.

There are 14 lines in the each stanza of the poem. Here Naidu also presents a fine example of code mixing through her use of Arabic in the poem. Anapest is the dominant foot in the poem.

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Discuss the structure of Midnight children


Discuss the structure of Midnight children

Discuss the structure of Midnight children: Salman Rushdie's novel Midnight's Children was published in 1981. It depicts India's passage from British colonial control to independence, as well as the country's split. Discuss the structure of Midnight children It's thought to be a work of postcolonial, postmodern, and magical realism literature. Saleem Sinai, the main character, tells the narrative, which is situated in the background of true historical events. The use of fictitious tales to preserve history is self-reflexive. In1981, Midnight's Children received the Booker Prize as well as the James Tait Black Memorial Prize. Discuss the structure of Midnight children To commemorate the Booker Prize's 25th and 40th anniversaries, it was given the "Booker of Bookers" Prize and the finest all-time prize winners in 1993 and 2008. In 2003, the BBC's The Big Read poll of the UK's "best-loved novels" included the work. It was also included in Penguin Books' list of Great Books of the Twentieth Century.

Discuss the structure of Midnight children: Midnight's Children is a rough metaphor for events in India prior to and, especially, during India's independence and division. Saleem Sinai, the protagonist and narrator of the narrative, was born on the day India became an independent country. He was born with telepathic abilities as well as a huge, perpetually leaking nose and a very keen sense of smell. There are three parts to the novel. Discuss the structure of Midnight children The tale of the Sinai family is told in the first volume, which focuses on the events leading up to India's independence and partition. Saleem was born at 12 a.m. on August 15, 1947, making him the same age as independent India. He subsequently finds that all infants born in India between the hours of 12 a.m. and 1 a.m. on that date are endowed with extraordinary abilities.

Discuss the structure of Midnight children: Saleem uses his telepathic abilities to organise a Midnight Children's Conference, which is a reflection of the challenges India experienced in its early statehood, such as cultural, linguistic, religious, and political divides. Saleem works as a psychic conduit, connecting hundreds of youngsters from all over the world while also striving to understand the meaning of their abilities. Discuss the structure of Midnight children Those born closest to the stroke of midnight, in particular, have more potent abilities than the rest. Saleem's enemy, Shiva "of the Knees," and Parvati, dubbed "Parvati-the-Witch," are two of the children with significant abilities and roles in Saleem's narrative.

Meanwhile, Saleem's family embarks on a series of migrations and endures the subcontinent's countless conflicts. Discuss the structure of Midnight children He also suffers from forgetfulness throughout this time, until he experiences a quasi-mythological exile in the Sundarban jungle, where he regains his memories. He reconnects with his childhood buddies as a result of this. Later, Saleem becomes entangled in Indira Gandhi's Emergency declaration and her son Sanjay's "cleansing" of the Jama Masjid slum. Saleem is imprisoned as a political prisoner for a period of time, and these sections feature stinging accusations of Indira Gandhi's overreach during the Emergency, as well as a personal ambition for power verging on godhood.

Discuss the structure of Midnight children: The Emergency signals the end of the Midnight Children's power, and Saleem has little choice but to pick up the few pieces of his life he can still find and write the chronicle that encompasses both his personal and national histories, a chronicle written for his son, who, like his father, is both chained and supernaturally endowed by history.

Midnight's Children is a grand book, in the ambition and the scope of its subject, and in the daring and dynamism of its method. Discuss the structure of Midnight children It is also an intimate book, attentive to childhood memories of people and neighbourhoods. In both these respects, subject and method, the novel has sources which influenced and informed its construction, and these will be discussed in more detail below. Discuss the structure of Midnight children One of them is the novel The Tin Drum by Günter Grass, first published in German in 1959. In 1985, Rushdie paid this tribute to Grass and to the novel:

Discuss the structure of Midnight children:  This was four years after the publication and great triumph of his own Midnight's Children, a novel which demonstrates the daring that Rushdie claims Grass inspired in him, and which in its own right has inspired a generation of Indian writers. Discuss the structure of Midnight children Midnight's Children is now a central text in the study of the postcolonial phenomenon in writing in English, and has engaged the attention of scholars and critics, as well as the general student of literature.

Midnight’s Children is a faux autobiography in which personal farce and political realism fuse, only to disintegrate into contingency and absurdity. Its narrator, Saleem Sinai, combines the story of his own childhood with that of India itself, having been born at midnight on the day of India’s independence from British colonisation. Discuss the structure of Midnight children Saleem asserts, ‘To understand just one life, you have to swallow the world’, and this elastic novel twangs enjoyably in all directions to encompass its narrator and his relatives, as well as the nation and its inhabitants. The refracted and distorting approach to narrative is mimicked in the physical form of the narrator himself. There is no grotesquery with which Rushdie doesn’t endow Saleem: he has bulbous temples, a bald spot, an enormous nose and a bit of his finger is missing. Discuss the structure of Midnight children His self-mythologisation, as he admits, can easily be read as the revenge fantasy of a nobody, particularly when Saleem describes being at a school dance where all the popular boys, including one with the surname Rushdie, get the best dance partners.

Discuss the structure of Midnight children

Fiction, fantasy and reinvention

Discuss the structure of Midnight children: The novel makes great sport with the Orientalist conception of India as being a ‘dream’, a ‘myth’, a ‘mass fantasy’ in which Indians’ experiences are nothing more than exotic diversions like those cooked up by Scheherazade. Discuss the structure of Midnight children Rushdie refers to The Arabian Nights throughout the novel; despite its Western cultural status as a go-to for stereotypes about the Middle East, he reminds us at the same time that telling stories is a way of ensuring our own survival.

Rushdie’s notion of India as a ‘collective fiction’ of ‘myths fantasies nightmares’ has political as well as artistic meaning. In the novel, Independence and Partition push a vast and varied human and geographical territory into new identities and self-definitions. Discuss the structure of Midnight children ‘Beyond the door, history calls,’ Saleem reminds himself, although his (and everyone’s) version of history is skewed by emotion and subjectivity. Saleem frequently breaks off to rebuke himself for an error in his own chronology, lamenting, ‘although I have racked my brains, my memory refuses, stubbornly, to alter the sequence of events’. Discuss the structure of Midnight children Thus the linear structure of Midnight’s Children suffers amusing hitches and hiccups as the narrator encounters the impossibility of creating a definitive version of the past.

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Monday, December 6, 2021

Forms and varieties of prose | Meg 07 IGNOU Solved Assignment


Forms and varieties of prose

Forms and varieties of prose: Forms and varieties of prose | Meg 07 IGNOU Solved AssignmentProse is verbal or written language that follows the natural flow of speech. It is the most common form of writing, used in both fiction and non-fiction. Prose comes from the Latin “prosa oratio,” meaning “straightforward.”

Common Types of Prose

Prose can vary depending according to style and purpose. There are four distinct types of prose that writers use:

·        Nonfictional prose. Prose that is a true story or factual account of events or information is nonfiction. Textbooks, newspaper articles, and instruction manuals all fall into this category. Anne Frank’s Diary of a Young Girl, composed entirely of journal excerpts, recounts the young teen’s experience of hiding with her family in Nazi-occupied Netherlands during World War II.

·        Fictional prose. A literary work of fiction. This is the most popular type of literary prose, used in novels and short stories, and generally has characters, plot, setting, and dialogue.

·        Heroic prose. A literary work that is either written down or preserved through oral tradition, but is meant to be recited. Heroic prose is usually a legend or fable. The twelfth-century Irish tales revolving around the mythical warrior Finn McCool are an example of heroic prose.

·       Prose poetry. Poetry written in prose form. This literary hybrid can sometimes have rhythmic and rhyming patterns. French poet Charles Baudelaire wrote prose poems, including “Be Drunk” which starts off: “And if sometimes, on the steps of a palace or the green grass of a ditch, in the mournful solitude of your room.”

The Function of Prose in Writing

·        George Orwell was known for his attitude toward plain language. He once said: “Never use a long word where a short one will do.” Prose can also:

·         Fulfill a story’s promise. In literature, the basic purpose of prose in writing is to convey an idea, deliver information, or tell a story. Prose is the way a writer fulfills her basic promise to a reader to deliver a story with characters, setting, conflict, a plot, and a final payoff.

·        Create a voice. Each writer has their own way of using language, called a writer’s voice. Using prose in different ways helps writers craft and show off this voice. Take Charles Dickens’ voice in David Copperfield as an example: “New thoughts and hopes were whirling through my mind, and all the colors of my life were changing.”

·        Builds rapport through familiarity. Prose is often conversational in tone. This familiarity helps connect readers to a story and its characters. Jane Austen was known for her straightforward, accessible prose. Take this line from Emma: “Emma Woodhouse, handsome, clever, and rich, with a comfortable home and happy disposition, seemed to unite some of the best blessings of existence; and had lived nearly twenty-one years in the world with very little to distress or vex her.”

A biography is the story of the life of a person. A biography tries to protect the personality of the subject. It helps the readers to share the person concerned’s hopes, fears, likes, dislikes, facts and fancies. In case of an autobiography, the writer is himself/herself his/her biographer. In this way, it tends to be more subjective.

Forms and varieties of prose: Events are seen, felt and understood through consciousness of the author himself/herself. It is another thing that with the passage of time, it may give much objectivity to the recollection. Again, in an autobiography and biography, there is a big difference, whereas an autobiography is more selective in the incidents it describes, a biography covers the whole life of the subject from the birth to death and even discuss his/her reputation after his/her death. An autobiography is no doubt incomplete, at the same time it is or in advantageous position of presenting events at first hand. The author/authress is in a position to write what he/she has experienced himself/herself.

Forms and varieties of prose | Meg 07 IGNOU Solved Assignment

A Travelogue is a description of the author’s travels. It is a sort of autobiographical account wherein the focus is on the places and people he/she has met in his/her travels and not on incidents in the writer’s personal life or his/ her personality. There is a very strong tradition of writing travelogues in the English writing. Addison, who is known to be the father of the periodical essay, wrote a travelogue. There are a lot of travelogue written in English literature by Indians. The first Indian writer of English literature Dean Mahomet also wrote a travelogue, “The Travels of Dean Mahomet through Several Parts of India” (1974)


Varieties of Prose

Uptil now, we have discussed the forms of non-fiction prose. Now, we shall concentrate on varieties of prose written by authors. There are three varieties of prose namely descriptive, narrative and expository. There can be no hairline distinction. An author is independent to use one, two or all the three forms of prose in a single passage. Narrative prose describes incidents and events. It deals with what happens with the passage of time. In the narrative prose, the attention is absorbed in the action. So far as narration is concerned, it can be slow or fast. The narration may be colourful, exciting and heightened or factual and matter of fact. Narrative prose can be both highly imaginative and thoroughly objective. A narrative prose can deal with external happenings or interpersonal relationships. The author is at liberty to narrate the changing feelings.

Emotions and internal events: Non-fiction prose-forms like travelogues, autobiographies and biographies deal with the narratives based on facts, whereas short stories and novels are the product of author’s imagination, but no hard and fast line can be drawn between non-fiction and fiction prose. One can find a great deal of historical facts in good historical novels. At the same time autobiographies can be full of imagination and the facts may not be so important. Fiction based on factual events can be seen. Such novels are called a “faction” (fact + fiction) or non[1]fiction novel. In “Cold Blood” (1966) by Truman Capotes novel, the basis of treatment is that of crime and punishment in Kansas. It is based on the interviews by the accused. “The Executioner’s Song” (1979) by Norman Mailer the term ‘true life novel’ has been used as the novel chronicles the life and death of Gray Gilmore, a murder, who demanded his own execution in Utah. Whereas, short stories and novels, have a big narrative voices, the narrative prose also finds an important place in the non-fiction also.

Forms and varieties of prose: Expository Prose: The use of expository prose is done to explain or define a subject under consideration. Works of scholarship religion, philosophy, science, technology, economics, history, commerce, political science. Expository prose presents details logically, clearly, concretely and in sequence. It is the objective of the author to present facts and ideas and narrate a story to describe something. Dynamic authors use a number of devices to make their subject-matter effective, for that, they use examples to illustrate their point of view, vary their tone from one of public rhetoric to one of personal conversation present analogies in support of their view point, narrate lucid anecdotes and use figurative language, such as personification, metaphor and similes. A lot of non-fiction prose is explicatory. Nevertheless, it means that expository prose has no scope in fiction.

Interesting Prose: There is one thing very clear lhat prose should be read as interestingly as verse. In analysing prose, the fiction of author should be closely examined – whether it is range of vocabulary or the usage of words. The structure and syntax of sentences must be given due attention, whether they are short or long? Does the author make simple senses or does he give preference to complex ones using many clauses and qualifying parenthetical comments. The rhythm of sentences need be closely examined, how the sentences flow. The style of the author is revealed by the use of punctuation marks and the structure of paras. The meaning should be kept in mind while analysing the style of author. The literary meaning of a piece of expression depends on the manner it is said. Apparent meaning does not constitute the full meaning of the text under consideration.

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