Ice Candy Man Summary, Themes and Characters

Ice Candy Man Summary, Themes and Characters

Bapsi Sidhwa: Ice-Candy-Man

Ice Candy Man Summary The novel Cracking India (first published as Ice-Candy-Man in 1980), by Bapsi Sidhwa, explores the war that occurred during the Partition of India in 1947. The political and social upheaval engendered by independence and Partition included religious intolerance that led to mass violence, killings, mutilations, rapes, dismemberments, and therefore the wholesale slaughter of infants, children, men, and women, along side the displacement of many refugees—Hindus fleeing to India and Muslims fleeing to Pakistan.

Told from the first-person perspective of Lenny Sethi, a Parsee child who is about 4 years old when the novel begins and approximately 10 years old at the top , the novel portrays the complicated and shifting political and social ramifications of the Partition of India into two countries: a Hindu-majority India and a Muslim-majority Pakistan. Lenny and her family plan to quietly endure the partition that transforms Lahore, India into Lahore, Pakistan in August 1947.

Simultaneously, the novel operates as a coming-of-age novel delineating the parallel growth and formation of identity within the protagonist, Lenny, and therefore the country, Pakistan. Both suffer severe growing pains, as Lenny’s child-like vision becomes a quickly-maturing voice reporting upon the violence she witnesses, the various friends who are lost, the buddies who are betrayed by their former friends and neighbors thanks to religious differences, and therefore the terrible human cost of dividing one country into two along brutally enforced religious lines. Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, and Parsees all vie for survival.

As a minority group, the Parsee people first seek alliance with other ethnic groups to assist protect them, on the other hand quickly resolve to remain on the sidelines of the growing battle, hoping to cover in plain sight. In fact, Lenny’s idyllic childhood, during the primary third of the novel, is an idealistic backdrop, displaying the ethnic and non secular harmony that existed in Lahore before the independence and Partition of India. Ice Candy Man Lenny’s pampered, secure childhood mirrors the peace that precedes the slaughter of Partition. This peaceful coexistence highlights the later terrors of spiritual intolerance. Ice Candy Man Summary during this way, Sidhwa unfolds the macrocosm of the war through the microcosm of Lenny’s life.

Other parallels also link private life with the larger world. Lenny’s nursemaid, Ayah, attracts a multi-ethnic crowd of admirers that mirrors the complex ethnic compositions of both India and Pakistan. The breakdown of Pakistani and Indian society into violent ethnic and non secular groups mirrors the breakdown of the previously harmonious relationships between ethnicities and religions in Lenny’s world.

The novel’s themes explore human understanding of being both a social insider and a social outsider depending upon a person’s caste, religion, ethnicity, and economic status. It also examines the experience of being handicapped; the consequences of spiritual and racial conflicts; the subjugation of girls through arranged child marriages and prostitution; obsessions with sexuality; and therefore the dangers of politically-motivated violence. By employing a child for the novel’s narrative voice and perceptions, Sidhwa confronts the histories of India and Pakistan and their social, historical, and political complexities humorously and compassion.

However, Lenny’s childhood contains many horrors once Partition occurs. These horrors culminate with the last word dreadfulness of her own betrayal of her beloved Ayah to the Ice-candy-man and his Muslim thugs. Even her family is confounded by her action; she will barely forgive herself.

The last third of the novel demonstrates the united efforts of Lahori women, across ethnic and non secular lines, to repair a number of the damage perpetrated during Partition and its aftermath. Since parents hide painful truths from their children, and Lenny has proven that she can't be trusted, Lenny’s mother hides her own secret work, which involves dangerous, illegal trade on the black market to earn money wont to rescue women from enforced prostitution and sex slavery. Lenny only learns about this work near the top of the novel, when her Godmother demonstrates her power and authority by locating and stealing Ayah back from the Ice-candy-man. Lenny’s mother’s work enables them to send Ayah back home to her family in Amritsar, India. Perhaps the novel’s most hopeful sign for the longer term of Pakistan is that these women close to assist each other , no matter ethnicity or religion.


Ice Candy Man Themes

Ice Candy Man, Bapsi Sidhwa is among the important signatures in Pakistani literary world. Being a Parsi, she is aware of her roots, past and the Parsi community. Ice-Candy-Man is her major novel which introduces a child-narrator Lenny who narrates the events in the wake of Partition of India. Sidhwa's concern for her Parsi community, place of women in Pakistani society, human struggle for survival and dignity of man are major themes injier novels. In Ice-Candy-Man, Sidhwa presents her Parsi community in a dilemma over the issue of support. Partition is immanent and the question of loyalty haunts the Parsi psyche.

They are loyal to the Raj but now Parsis have to side either with India or the newly formed Pakistan. Sidhwa depicts Hindu-Muslim riots without any social discrimination. As the narrative progresses, history moves to the background and struggle for survival becomes the focus of the narrative. There are a number of novels written about Partition of India like Train to Pakistan by Khushwant Singh, Tamas by Bhisham Sahni, Azadi by Chaman Nahal, A Bend, in the Ganges by Manohar Malgaonkar, The. 

Rape by Raj Gill, Ashes and Petals by H.S. Gill, Twice Born Twice Dead by K.S. Duggal, The Dark Dancer by B.Rajan, Sunlight on a Broken Column by Attia Hosain and Ice-Candy-Man by Bapsi Sidhwa. These novels realistically portray and depict the upheaval that the Indian sub-continent experienced. It was the most shocking and traumatic experience of division of hearts and communities. These literary works leave the reader with the feeling of disquiet and disturbance. These novels deal with the tumultuous and traumatic moments in the life of one generation. (A Critic) observes that these works not only deal with the tumultuous times but also strips away the veneer of civilization that man hides behind. Ice Candy Man Summary They also hold a mirror to the element of savagery latent in man. "It seems, a stressful situation reveals the animal streak just waiting to be unleashed. This is made all the more strong by the support of a mob feeding on hatred."

Ice Candy Man deals with human emotions at play at different levels, heightened by turbulent times. In the process of shaping history, human emotions and relationships are relegated to the background. The tidal waves of violence, hatred and communal violence change the feelings of fraternity. Aradhika observes: "Like some ancient Satanic rites of witchcraft, the power to destroy, springs forth from an unsuspected fount within and the sheer pleasure of humiliating and massacring the victim is so great that one forgets one's own mortality." Bapsi Sidhwa in her novel Ice-Candy-Man delineates his characters and their antecedents with fidelity and with a feeling of contemporaneity. In the narrative of Ice-Candy-Man, the reader is introduced to the kind-hearted Khansama who is a veritable rebel, the loyal khalsa refusing to leave Lahore, Tota Ram the frightened Hindu and a Parsi family oscillating between-two view-points with neutrality hoping for their survival.

In Ice-Candy-man, the main characters are. Ice-Candy-Man and the 'Ayah', the maid-servant with the Parsi family. Ice-Candy-Man is a handsome and immensely popular youngman He is a generous fellow who is miles away from religious fanaticism. But one incident shakes his entire existence and his belief in the goodness of man is shattered. He becomes a witness to the mutilated bodies of Muslims in the hands of Hindus and he takes a vow to avenge the death of his Muslim fellows. This bitter experience wrenches out the darker side of his personality. This shattering blow transforms a kind and loving individual into a violent and frenzied person. On a crucial moment in the narrative, he asks the Ayah: Ice Candy Man "there is an animal inside me straining to break free. Marry me and perhaps it will be contained." Here Aradhika observes: "The ultimate betrayal is not by the innocent trusting little girl but by the devil of hatred that cannot be contained." Now the ice-candy-man plays the pivotal role of a raffish type man.

Like other novelists on Partition, Sidhwa also describes the ugly and terrifying face of Partition by recollecting the traumatic and agonising memories of those moments. Sidhwa also has tried to recreate history in emotion-laden and poignant scenes. The rumblings of Partition are felt in the beginning of the narrative and the atmosphere proper to the kind of a tale is gradually created. As the tension mounts, atmosphere becomes grim and awesome. Here one finds the worst kind of genocide in the history of mankind. Narratives like Ice-Candy-Man transport readers back into the corridors of time. This experience of being catapulted back into the dark and forgotten recesses of time leaves the readers shocked and unbelieving on the reaction of man. One witnesses the shocking and heart-rending scenes of the arrival of trains full of massacred Muslims chugging into the plateform with crowds waiting for another gift from Amritsar. Man is transformed into a brute, a savage lusting for blood. He is ripped apart, dissected to reveal animal form. The colourful streets of Lahore look ominously dreadful and deserted. The Hindus are still reluctant to leave their ancestral property where their generations have lived and prospered. Now they visualise a future devoid of any hope. These painful experiences are like the agonising throes of a new birth. It is still painful to recollect those traumatic and dreadful moments that turned the noble ones into beasts. Indeed the Partition of India remains the most agonising experience in history. A number of writers who wrote on Partitiontouch the gut of the problem in order that such blunders should never be committed by 'wise leaders'. Jagdev Singh observes, "The Partition of the Indian sub-continent in 1947 is one of the great tragedies, the magnitude, ambit and savagery of which compels one to search for the larger meaning of events, and to come to terms with the lethal energies that set off such vast conflagrations." These comments aptly throw light on the central theme of the novel Ice-Candy-Man.

The theme of inter-community marriage is at the core of Sidhwa's novels like Ice-Candy-Man, An American Brat and the Crow Eaters. Her handling of the theme of inter-community marriages is relevant and contemporary. This sensitive issue arouses acrimonious debates in Parsi Community. In Parsi faith, it is believed that a Parsi could be one only by birth. In mixed marriages, the children lose their right to be members of Parsi community. The Parsis have a patriarchal society. While dealing with the theme of marriage, Sidhwa maintains a balance without revolting against rigid social codes. In her novel An American Brat, Sidhwa examines the theme of inter-faith marriage in detail. Its protagonist Feroza migrates to America where she intends to marry a Jew boy David Press. Her Parsi community opposes this marriage and Feroza has to withdraw her move but she expresses her conviction to marry to boy of her choice only, irrespective of religion.

In Ice-Candy-Man, Sidhwa presents the theme of interfaith marriage through the love relationship between the Ice-Candy-Man and the Hindu Ayah. On seeing his fellow Muslims massacred, the Ice-Candy man goes mad with rage and keeps his beloved Ayah in the brothels of Hira Mandi in Lahore. Then he realizes his mistake and marries the Hindu Ayah but now love has become powerless. The Ayah is rescued and is taken to a Recovered Women's Camp in Amritsar. Thus, a number of themes have been well-integrated in the narrative of Ice-Candy-man.

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IGNOU MEG 08 Study Material 2020-21 : New Literature in English

IGNOU MEG 08 Study Material 2020-21 : New Literature in English
IGNOU MEG 08 Study Material, IGNOU MEG 08 Books, IGNOU MEG 08 Aspects of Language Solved Assignments, IGNOU MEG 08 Admit Card, IGNOU MEG 08 Exam Form, IGNOU MEG 08 Previous Year Papers Etc. In This Website students will get all answers of their question and also they will get all IGNOU related solution related with their MEG 08 subject.

Programme Name:
Master of Arts English
Programme Code:
MEG 08

IGNOU MEG 08 Study Material 2020-21 always recommend its candidates to first undergo the Study Material properly and analysis their respective course details before they begin with their studies. IGNOU MEG 08 Therefore, we had uploaded IGNOU Study Material structure for all the IGNOU courses which are offered by the university on this portal itself. This page will provide you with important information on every course of their programme. Once you get to understand your IGNOU Study Material, it might be beneficial for you to understand about your syllabus, assignment & their solution also . you'll be ready to carry each material once you'll get to understand about your IGNOU Study Material.

IGNOU MEG 08 New Literature in English  

Block- 1 Introduction
  • Unit-1 Naming the Discipline
  • Unit-2 African Literature: Culture and Post-Nationalist Politics in Kenya and Nigeria
  • Unit-3 Caribbean Literature: The Aesthetic of Diaspora
  • Unit-4 South Asian Literature
  • Unit-5 Australian Literature: Interrogating National Myths
  • Unit-6 Canadian Literature: Scanning the Literary Landscape

Block- 2 A Grain of Wheat: Ngugi Wa Thiong’o

  • Unit-1 Africa-The Dark Continent and Kenya—The Land of Gikuyu and Mumbi
  • Unit-2 Literature and Politics
  • Unit-3 Modern Novel in Africa
  • Unit-4 Ngugi wa Thiong’o – Life, Literature and Ideology
  • Unit-5 A Grain of Wheat – Summary
  • Unit-6 A Grain of Wheat – An Evaluation

Block- 3 A Dance of Forests: Wole Soyinka
  • Unit-1 An Introduction to Nigeria and to the Yoruba World
  • Unit-2 Wole Soyinka’s Life and Works
  • Unit-3 A Dance of the Forests: Summary
  • Unit-4 Critical Commentary on A Dance of the Forests

Block- 4 Dapsi Sidhwa: Ice-Candy-
  • Unit-1 The Author: Background, Works, and Significance of the Title
  • Unit-2 The Narrative Voice in Ice-Candy-Man
  • Unit-3 Feminist Inscriptions in Ice-Candy-Man
  • Unit-4 Parsi Identity in Ice-Candy-Man
  • Unit-5 Ice-Candy-Man as a Novel of Partition

Block- 5 A house for Mr. Biswas: V.S. Naipaul
  • Unit-1 Naipaul and his Critics
  • Unit-2 Mr. Biswas and the Tulsis
  • Unit-3 Mr. Biswas and his Dream House
  • Unit-4 Why did Mr. Biswas want a House?

Block- 6 Caribbean Poetry: Derek Walcott and Edward Brathwaite
  • Unit-1 Introduction to Caribbean poetry
  • Unit-2 Derek Walcott-I
  • Unit-3 Derek Walcott-I
  • Unit-4 (Edward) Kamau Brathwaite-I
  • Unit-5 (Edward) Kamau Brathwaite-II
  • Unit-6 Theoretical Paradigms for Carribbean Literature

Block- 7 The Solid Mandala: Patrick White
  • Unit-1 The Novelist and The Novel
  • Unit-2 Openings and Preoccupations
  • Unit-3 Denizens of the Australian Emptiness
  • Unit-4 Message in Motifs
  • Unit-5 Techniques

Block- 8 The Novelist and Her Main Thematic Concerns
  • Unit-1 The Novelist and Her Man Thematic Concerns
  • Unit-2 Hager and The Theme of Self – Alienation
  • Unit-3 The Stone Angel: A Novel of Awakening
  • Unit-4 Major Aspects of the Novel

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A Wheat of Grain Summary in Hindi

A Wheat of Grain Summary in Hindi

गेहूँ का एक दाना

A Grain of Wheat Summary in Hindi, दिसंबर 1963 में अपने उरु (ब्रिटिश औपनिवेशिक शासन से स्वतंत्रता) की कगार पर केन्या में एक अनाज की फसल होती है। हालांकि ऐतिहासिक घटनाएं वास्तविक दुनिया में कहानी का लंगर डालती हैं, लेकिन किताब के लिए Ngũgĩ की प्रस्तावना हमें बताती है कि पात्र खुद काल्पनिक हैं - सिवाय जब संदर्भ राष्ट्रीय ऐतिहासिक नेताओं (जैसे उहुरू, जोमो केन्याटा के बाद केन्या के पहले राष्ट्रपति) के लिए बनता है।
आजादी के बाद 4 दिनों की अवधि में, थाबाई गांव के लोग स्वतंत्रता के जश्न के लिए खुद को तैयार करते हैं। हालाँकि, अभी भी एक बहुत दूर की घटनाओं की परेशान करने वाली घटनाएं पुस्तक के पात्रों को प्रभावित नहीं करती हैं। किकुयू के कई लोग (केन्या में सबसे बड़ा नृवंश) किसी तरह मऊ विद्रोह (1952 में शुरुआत) से पीड़ित थे। वर्तमान विद्रोह की प्रतिक्रिया के रूप में, ब्रिटिश सरकार ने आपातकाल की स्थिति की घोषणा करके प्रतिक्रिया व्यक्त की (क्योंकि आपातकाल के कारण), जिस काल में थाबाई या आसपास के गांवों में किसी भी व्यक्ति को संदिग्ध षड्यंत्रकारियों के रूप में जबरन हिरासत में रखा, कैद और प्रताड़ित किया जा सकता है।
हालाँकि कथा आम तौर पर उहुरू उत्सव के लिए आगे बढ़ती है, अतीत के ये मुद्दे अभी भी कहानी के पात्रों को परेशान करते हैं। गेहूं के एक दाने में एक अनूठी कथा शैली होती है, जो एक बिंदु से दूसरे पृष्ठ के स्थान पर एक चरित्र से दूसरे में, अक्सर अपनी बात को बदल देती है। 
कभी-कभी, कथा एक प्राथमिक व्यक्ति "हम" में फिसल जाती है क्योंकि महत्वपूर्ण घटनाओं को याद करते समय गांव की आवाज सुनी जाती है। प्रत्येक चरित्र में एक वर्तमान संकट है, लेकिन प्रत्येक में एक इतिहास भी है, इसलिए उपन्यास अक्सर वर्तमान की घटनाओं से अतीत और वापस फिर से बदलता है, जिससे पात्रों को अपने अनुभवों और अंतरतम विचारों को प्रकट करने की अनुमति मिलती है।
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कहानी कुछ केंद्रीय पात्रों के इर्द-गिर्द घूमती है, जिनके आपातकाल के दौरान के अनुभवों ने उनके वर्तमान जीवन को बदल दिया है। कुछ को हिरासत में लिया गया था; कुछ को हिरासत में रखा गया। 
अन्य लोग अपने देशवासियों के खिलाफ हो गए, ब्रिटिश प्रशासन के लिए काम कर रहे थे या खुद को बचाने के लिए विद्रोह के सदस्यों को धोखा दे रहे थे। थाबाई के ग्रामीणों के लिए, विशेष रूप से किहिका का एक नुकसान, आपातकाल के दौरान ब्रिटिशों के खिलाफ अपने वीर कार्यों के लिए जाना जाने वाला व्यक्ति - ने उन्हें एकजुट किया है। हालाँकि वह कई सालों से मर चुका है, यह किहिका की कहानी है जो कहानी के लिए बैकग्राउंड डिवाइस के रूप में भी कथा के लिए एक पृष्ठभूमि देती है। पुस्तक के नए खंड किहिका की बाइबल में दिए गए अंशों द्वारा प्रस्तुत किए गए हैं।
वर्तमान कथा का अधिकांश हिस्सा थबई के विभिन्न लोगों के इर्द-गिर्द घूमता है, जो मुगो को समझाने की कोशिश करते हैं, एक शांत व्यक्ति ने आपातकाल के दौरान अपने कार्यों के लिए एक नायक माना, उहुरू उत्सव में बात करने के लिए। मुगो अजीब तरह से अनिच्छुक लगता है - वास्तव में, वह एक गुप्त रहस्य छिपा रहा है जो केवल कथा के भीतर ही सामने आएगा। Gikonyo और Mumbi, एक पति और पत्नी, दोनों मुगो को शिकार करने के लिए उसे भाग लेने के लिए प्रभावित करते हैं और इस प्रक्रिया के भीतर खुद को आपातकाल के दौरान अपने जीवन के रहस्यों को प्रकट करते हैं।
देशी केन्याई अपनी स्वतंत्रता के लिए तैयारी कर रहे हैं, लेकिन ब्रिटिश प्रशासक केन्या को दूर करने की तैयारी कर रहे हैं, क्योंकि सरकार को काली शक्ति में स्थानांतरित कर दिया गया था। एक बार जॉन थॉम्पसन, एक बार अपराधियों के खिलाफ क्रूर काम करता था और अब एक बदनाम अधिकारी, अंग्रेजों द्वारा उनकी प्रगति को छोड़ने के विचार से उदास है - अपने जीवन के काम - केन्या में। करंजा, एक किकुयू, जो आपातकाल के दौरान होमगार्ड के सदस्य के रूप में अंग्रेजों के लिए काम करते थे, वे काले सत्ता में स्थानांतरण के विचार से व्यथित हैं, क्योंकि वे श्वेत प्रशासकों के बीच अपनी पसंदीदा स्थिति खो देंगे और इसलिए उनका सम्मान और भय है। खुद के लोग। हालाँकि, करंजा ने थम्बई में मुंबी के कगार पर रहने की उम्मीद की, जिसे वह लंबे समय से प्यार करता था और जिसका बच्चा गिरिकोनी हिरासत में था। यह करंजा है, जो थाबाई के अधिकांश ग्रामीणों द्वारा संदिग्ध है, क्योंकि वह जिसने करिजा के लड़कपन के दोस्त वीर कीहिका को धोखा दिया था।

जैसा कि अधिक से अधिक रहस्य और आपातकाल से हताश कृत्यों को कथन के माध्यम से प्रकट किया जाता है, यह स्पष्ट हो जाता है कि मुगो, जिसे कई लोगों द्वारा प्रतिद्वंद्वी कीहिका के रूप में माना जाता है, वास्तव में किहिका की मृत्यु के लिए उत्तरदायी था। मुगो अंत में मुम्बी को अधिकतम राशि देता है, हालांकि वह अपना रहस्य रखती है। उहुरू समारोह में, गद्दार को आगे लौटने के लिए कहा जाता है, और करंजा को चेक किया जाता है। हालांकि, यह मुगो है जो कबूल करता है और बाद में नए शासन के सैनिकों द्वारा नेतृत्व किया जाता है। 
करंजा, नए समाज के भीतर अपनी जगह खो चुका है और मुम्बी के प्यार की किसी भी उम्मीद को थबाई छोड़ देता है। पुस्तक के अंतिम दृश्य के भीतर, गिकोनी को पता चलता है कि मुम्बी के लिए उसका प्यार अभी भी खड़ा है और उसके साथ मिलकर सुलह करने की योजना है।

A Grain Of Wheat Notes 

A Grain of Wheat Summary Characters Themes

A Grain of Wheat

A Grain of Wheat is taken into account one among Kenyan author Ngugi wa Thiong’o’s greatest literacy achievements. The title derives from 1 Corinthians 15:36: "How foolish! What you sow doesn't come to life unless it dies"; the verse John 12:24 also applies: “Very truly I tell you, unless a kernel of wheat falls to the bottom and dies, it remains only one seed. But if it dies, it produces many seeds.” it's the penultimate book of Ngugi's to be written in English before he began writing in Gikuyu.

Ngugi wrote his novel when he was studying at Leeds University in 1964-66; he had received a British Council Scholarship and was conducting postgraduate work. He became distracted from his research MA by his reading and writing what would become the novel. He was inspired by the writings of Marx and Engel also as Frantz Fanon’s The Wretched of the Earth; Joseph Conrad’s Under Western Eyes was also a serious influence on A Grain of Wheat, as Ngugi had studied Conrad as an undergraduate

A Grain of Wheat Characters

A handsome, introverted, mysterious man who lives within the village and hung out within the detainment camps. Mugo is viewed by everyone as a hero because he worked with Kihika and never cracked struggling . He secretly was the one who betrayed Kihika, which he eventually admits after hearing Mumbi open up to him regarding her own life story; he announces he was guilty at the Uhuru celebration, which he originally thought he might attend during a capacity as savior of the people. he's nervous, filled with contradictory thoughts, and frustrated that folks think he's courageous and humble.

A wise elder of the village who was active in freedom movement in prior decades and is now preparing for the Uhuru celebrations. He encourages Mugo to talk , and later serves on his trial after he confesses.

The old woman
A strange and disturbed woman within the village whose deaf and dumb son is killed. She looks at Mugo in ways in which make him uncomfortable. At the top of the novel, he's drawn to her hut; she thinks he's her son, then she immediately dies.

A villager who boasts of being active within the Mau Mau and claims he was maimed within the Emergency. He likes to inform stories and make his own narrative.


The deaf and dumb son of the old woman. he's nevertheless strong and has many lovers. he's killed by policemen who assume he's a Mau Mau terrorist.

Mugo's cruel and drunken aunt with whom he lives; he wishes he could kill her, but she dies of unhealthiness .

A woman within the village who looks older than she is. She carried secrets from villages during the Emergency and have become famous for staving off a police search of her person. After Uhuru, though, she seems demoralized.

A member of the Mau Mau and husband of Mumbi, he spends years during a detention home dreaming of returning to her. he's bitter and disillusioned when he comes back and finds she features a child by another man. He throws himself into work and becomes wealthy; he's a model for people within the village. he's injured within the Uhuru celebration, but this enables him to start out performing on his attitude toward Mumbi.

The beautiful sister of Kihika who dreams of sacrifice and noble deeds, she falls crazy with Gikonyo when she is young and yearns for him while he's away within the detention home . When she hears from Karanja (who also loved her but whom she detests) that Gikonyo is coming home, she yields to Karanja's advances and bears a toddler by him. She confides her story to Mugo, and he successively tells her he betrayed Kihika. She doesn't want him or anyone else to suffer for her brother, though. At the top of the novel she is on the brink of a reconciliation with Kihika.
The brother of Mumbi and a brave insurgent within the Mau Mau. he's liable for killing DO Robson and taking up Mahee prison, becoming a hero to the people. he's betrayed by Mugo and is captured and hanged. His life and deeds are legendary, and a part of Uhuru is meant to celebrate him.

Harry Thuku
An early leader of the Movement who is jailed, sparking a processional to free him.

General R
A serviceman (he served in WWII) whose goals are to urge Mugo to talk at Uhuru and to punish Kihika's betrayer. he's stern and quiet and doesn't boast or become involved in politics. When he was young he had a tyrannical father whom he wanted to kill, and was distressed when his mother stood up for his father albeit he beat her. He arrests Mugo and takes him to trial after Mugo confesses.
A serviceman who serves with General R. As a young man he worked for Dr. Lynd but was bitter against her; along side two other men, he attacked her and her dog. When he sees her years later he refers to her a ghost.

An old flame of Kihika's who unsuccessfully tried to woo Mumbi once they were young. Karanja is prideful, spiteful, and happy to cooperate with the whites if it means he can lord over others. While others are fighting or interned, he becomes a homeguard and eventually a Chief. He also pursues Mumbi and gets her to roll in the hay him while Gikonyo is away; she bears his child but refuses to be during a relationship with him. After he's told to step down from being Chief, he's employed at Githima and tries to cultivate the great will of Thompson. he's suspected of getting betrayed Kihika; even after Mugo confesses to being truth betrayer, Karanja remains unhappy and disillusioned.

Mr. Rogers
The European who has the thought to open a Forest Research Station in Githima; he's killed by a train and doesn't live to ascertain this happen.

Dr. Henry Van Dyke
A corpulent, drunken meteorologist at the Station who has an affair with Margery Thompson; he dies after a train strikes his car.

A Kenyan who works at Githima and sometimes annoys Karanja.

John Thompson
The DO at Githima, Thompson was once destined for an illustrious career, but the fast and violence led by Mugo at Rira ruined his fortunes. He now oversees Githima and lives together with his wife Margery, although their relationship is fraught. he's preparing to return to Britain because he doesn't want to stay when in Githima blacks are in power.

Mrs. Dickinson
The librarian at Githima and girlfriend of Roger Mason. She orders Karanja around, which Karanja resents.

Margery Thompson
The beautiful and buxom wife of Thompson, she carries on an affair with Van Dyke until he dies. She is restless with Thompson but later feels closer to him once they're leaving.

Dr. Lynd
A plant pathologist who works at Githima, she is unmarried and likes living in Kenya albeit the time of white rule is passing. She is naive and self-centered, thinking she is sweet to Africans although she is really condescending towards them. Years ago, Koina, her houseboy, and his compatriots assaulted her; they also killed her beloved dog, which looms large in her psyche. Thompson finds her annoying.

Jomo Kenyatta
Although he doesn't appear within the text, Kenyatta may be a force behind the actions of the text. he's a pacesetter of the Kenyan people and thrown into jail by British . He doesn't approve of the Mau Mau, and is inspiring to the people.

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The MP
The representative of the village who rarely visits. He cares more about his own power and position than his constituents. he's untruthful about buying Burton's land when Gikonyo involves see him a few loan.

Gikonyo's father, a hardworking squatter and lothario who got obviate Wangari and Gikonyo, their son.

Gikonyo's mother. She usually takes Mumbi's side within the martial conflict and criticizes her son.

Mumbi, Kihika, and Kariuki's father; he's an elder, a warrior, and a farmer. he's well-respected and favors his son Kihika.

Mumbi, Kihika, and Kariuki's mother. She is critical of her daughter for leaving Gikonyo.

The brother of Kihika and Mumbi, and therefore the son of Mbugua and Wanjiku. he's not a member of the Mau Mau, and Karanja helps secure him an edge in lyceum .

The Reverend Jackson Kigondu
A well-respected Christian who encourages Kihika to travel to high school . He was active within the revivalist movement and thought of himself a Christian soldier. He was killed by the Mau Mau.

Teacher Muniu
A teacher at Kihika's school who doesn't like being corrected by the young. Plans to beat Kihika publicly.

A friend of Mumbi and Njeri's who is initially involved Kihika but becomes depressed when he leaves for the forest. Later, Mugo saves him from a beating she received while performing on the ditch . She is killed, and was possibly pregnant.

A Grain of Wheat Summary

A Grain of Wheat takes place in Kenya on the brink of its Uhuru (independence from British colonial rule) in December 1963. Although historical events anchor the story in real world , Ngũgĩ’s preface to the book tells us that the characters themselves are fictional – except when reference is formed to national historic leaders (such as Kenya’s first president after Uhuru, Jomo Kenyatta).
Over a period of 4 days leading up to independence, the people of the village of Thabai ready themselves for the celebration of freedom. However, the troubling events of a not-too-distant past still affect the book’s characters. Many of the Kikuyu people (the largest ethnos in Kenya) were somehow suffering from the Mau uprising (beginning in 1952). As a response to the present uprising, British government responded by declaring a state of emergency (referred to because the Emergency), during which era any of the people in Thabai or surrounding villages might be forcibly detained, imprisoned and tortured as suspected conspirators.

Although the narrative generally moves forward to the Uhuru celebration, these issues from the past still haunt the story’s characters. A Grain of Wheat features a unique narrative style, which shifts its point of view from one character to a different , often within the space of one page. Occasionally, the narrative slips into a primary person plural “we” because the voice of the village is heard when recalling important events. Each character features a present-day crisis, but each features a history also , therefore the novel frequently shifts from the present-day happenings to the past and back again, allowing characters to reveal their experiences and innermost thoughts.
The story revolves around a couple of central characters, whose experiences during the Emergency have altered their present-day lives. Some were detained; some tortured in detention. Others turned against their countrymen, working for British administration or betraying members of the Rebellion to save lots of themselves. For the villagers of Thabai, one loss especially – that of Kihika, a person known for his heroic actions against British during the Emergency – has united them. Although he has been dead for several years, it's Kihika’s story that gives a backdrop for the narrative also as a framing device for the story. The new sections of the book are introduced by passages underlined in Kihika’s Bible.
Much of the present-day narrative revolves around various people of Thabai trying to convince Mugo, a quiet man considered a hero for his actions during the Emergency, to talk at the Uhuru celebration. Mugo seems strangely reluctant – actually , he's hiding a dark secret which will emerge only much later within the narrative. Gikonyo and Mumbi, an estranged husband and wife, both hunt down Mugo to influence him to participate and within the process find yourself revealing their own secrets of life during the Emergency to Mugo.

While the native Kenyans are preparing for his or her independence, British administrators are preparing to go away Kenya once the govt has been transferred to black power. John Thompson, once a perpetrator of cruel acts against detainees and now a disgraced official, is depressed at the thought of British abandoning their progress – his life’s work – in Kenya. Karanja, a Kikuyu who worked for British as a member of the homeguard during the Emergency, is additionally distressed at the thought of the transfer to black power, as he will lose his favored status among the white administrators and therefore the respect and fear of his own people. However, Karanja hopes to stay in Thabai to be on the brink of Mumbi, who he has long loved and whose child he fathered while Gikonyo was in detention. it's Karanja who is suspected by most of the villagers of Thabai because the one that betrayed the heroic Kihika, Karanja’s boyhood friend.

As more and more secrets and desperate acts from the Emergency are revealed through the narration, it becomes clear that Mugo, regarded by many as a hero to rival Kihika, was actually liable for Kihika’s death. Mugo finally confesses the maximum amount to Mumbi, although she keeps his secret. At the Uhuru celebration, the traitor is asked to return forward, and lots of check out Karanja. However, it's Mugo who confesses and is later led away by the soldiers of the new regime. Karanja, having lost his place within the new society and any hope of Mumbi’s love, leaves Thabai. within the book’s final scene, Gikonyo realizes his love for Mumbi still stands and plans to reconcile together with her .

 A Grain of Wheat Themes

Colonialism and its Legacies
Kenya was colonized by British in 1895 and wasn't independent until 1963. within the subsequent years the country struggled to barter a post-colonial reality during which the divisions caused by political and economic oppression, the Emergency, violence, racism, exploitation of rivalry and competition amongst Kenyans, and psychological trauma endured and deepened. albeit Ngugi doesn't take his readers into the times after colonialism, he hints at the difficulties the characters will face. Thompson's claim that Africa will always need Europe might not be true within the sense he wishes it to be, but it's prescient therein Europe's involvement within the region can never fully be erased. Finally, on a more personal level, all of the characters' lives are suffering from colonialism, whether or not they are in detention camps or the Movement or losing their homes and land or trying to repair their fractured families or handling paternalistic colonial administrators. Colonialism is an inescapable reality, even after it's ostensibly over.

Individuals and therefore the Community
The novel's narrative focuses on the individual, with time given to Mugo, Mumbi, Gikonyo, Karanja, Kihika, and even minor characters like General R and Koina. Individual stories are significant, especially Mumbi's, as they facilitate greater growth for the self and for the community. As for that community, it's also Ngugi's focus, and one that has attracted an outsized amount of critical writing discussing whether or not he successfully managed to convey the struggles of the masses at an equivalent time as he relayed the individuals' tales. Indeed, a number of the individual characters seem as if they're thinly drawn so as to market the understanding that they're merely a part of the Kenyan people as an entire , and when individuals do make choices for themselves those choices reverberate back through the community.

Betrayal, Guilt, and Redemption
Almost every character feels guilty about something during this novel, and people sources of guilt tend to derive from a betrayal of another character or of the Kenyan people. Mumbi has betrayed her husband, Karanja has betrayed his people by becoming a homeguard and Chief, and Mugo has betrayed Kihika. These characters manifest their guilt differently, with both Mumbi and Mugo eventually taking the trail toward redemption while Karanja can only choose that of exile. Mumbi and Mugo's redemption comes from open confession of their sin and a willingness to simply accept the results . Mumbi's also comes from being faithful herself and regaining control of her life; she is going to be ready to live out those choices, whereas Mugo's fate is death. Nevertheless, Mugo's death offers redemption to the community as an entire .

Many of the characters during this novel do reprehensible things: they betray loved ones and therefore the ir community and the Movement, they commit acts of violence, they engage in selfishness and bitterness, and that they compete and fight with one another . Some characters invite forgiveness (either directly or subtly), while others don't . Forgiveness is vital on both a private and communal level, and people levels are associated with one another . Individuals must work to forgive those that have wronged them so as to figure together to create a stronger community. within the vacuum left by British rule, it'll be more important than ever for Kenyans to trust one another , work together, and make a mutually sustaining and fulfilling community. Mugo's public confession, an act of posing for forgiveness, is critical , and indicates a model for the longer term .

Power of Nature

Kenya has extremes of temperature, weather, and landscape; nature features a thematic also as literal importance within the novel. Fertile land of one's own (the shambas) signifies autonomy, independence, and fulfillment. The detention home located within the hot, barren sandy desert signifies monotony, despair, emptiness, and estrangement.
The sun are often warm and life-giving or burning-hot and oppressive. Rain are often cleansing or a dark omen of troubles to return . The forest may be a place to cover safely also as an area to commit acts of violence. Digging within the earth are often sustaining or it are often traumatic (the trench). Ngugi's weaving of nature into his story isn't surprising given its prominence in Kenya's history and society, and also is a useful literary tool to suggest, signify, and convey.

Violence is an undeniable a part of the Movement. Many characters perform violent acts, speak positively of violence, or ignore it when it happens ahead of them. Others decry and excoriate it, but usually this happens when British or their African loyalists roll in the hay . Ngugi's view of violence is thus complex. He understands that violence is important to the Mau Mau because occasionally it's the sole tool they need in their quest to throw off their colonial oppressor. That oppressor uses violence with abandon, so why should the oppressed not get up and use violence for his or her own ends? Ngugi isn't unequivocally supportive of violence, though, and a number of other of his scenes (such because the scene between Koina and Dr. Lynd) make the reader uncomfortable and hint at a number of the issues of using violence in promoting human rights.

Silence and Confession

Silence during this novel rarely results in redemption, whereas confession does. Mugo's silence about his role in Kihika's death is poisonous, disturbing his own psyche and polluting the health of the community. it's mistaken for courage and helps create the mythic reputation he has within the village, but it's false. Silence also can cause death, because it does for the deaf and mute Gitogo. Real healing only happens when someone speaks up, confesses, and divulges secrets. Mumbi's story and therefore the resulting confession from Mugo tear off the facade of unity and permit a more authentic (albeit painful) reality to emerge; this reality allows for an honest assessment of the community's divisions and wishes , and facilitates a move toward a far better future.

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