Issues of Human Rights

Issues of Human Rights

The world is going into a new decade. Unfortunately, it’s not been the best few years for human rights. Research like the 2018 Rule of Law index shows threats to human rights exist in ⅔ of the surveyed 113 countries. Since 2016, the index has reported diminishing scores. Many of the human rights issues fuel each other. As one becomes more significant, so do a host of others. 

Human trafficking 

Human trafficking is growing around the world. According to numbers from the UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime), there’s been an increasing global trend since 2010. The executive director pointed out that armed groups and terrorists use human trafficking to spread fear. Victims often end up working in the sex trade or other forced labor. Human trafficking isn’t limited to certain countries. Of those trafficked, women and girls make up the majority. As the issue becomes more severe and widespread, the international community needs to ramp up its efforts. 

Refugee crises 

According to the U.N. chief, the world is dealing with the “highest levels of displacement on record.” Reasons include climate change and armed conflict. Refugees fleeing their homes also experience persecution and discrimination. Other reports suggest the situation will only get worse in the future. What can be done? Providing assistance is expensive. The 2019 Global Humanitarian Overview estimates that the 132 million people displaced by conflicts in South Sudan, Yemen, Nigeria, and Somalia require over $20 billion. Because climate change and armed conflict aren’t easily resolved, the refugee crises will be of the biggest human rights issues in the future.  

Worker rights 

In Article 23.1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, all people have “the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and favorable conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.” These rights are threatened around the world in a myriad of ways. Injustices like wage theft, discrimination, and physical endangerment occur all the time. Work systems can make work-life balance difficult, taking a toll on employees’ mental health. In many places, inadequate pay is also an issue. The federal minimum wage in the United States has remained the same since 2009. As we go into a new decade, worker rights will become more significant.

Gender equality 

Gender inequality has been a human rights issue for hundreds of years. Even with decades of progress, the World Economic Forum believes it could take the world another century to realize gender equality. It’s a complicated issue because there isn’t just one problem to address. Access to education, political representation, reproductive rights, economic opportunities, and more contribute to gender inequality. Making significant changes and monitoring progress will remain a top human rights in the future.

LGBTQ+ rights 

LGBTQ+ rights are not an especially recent human rights issue, but they will evolve in the future. Depending on the country, the state of these rights varies widely. All over the world, definitions are changing and expanding. This makes navigating the issues more challenging and complex for society and the human rights community. In the future, how we approach LGBTQ+ rights and gender identity may change, but standing against discrimination will remain necessary.

Issues of Human Rights


Human rights and technology 

Looking at the past, innovations spread at a lightning pace. Inventions like the internet impact how we communicate and how ideas develop. Technology also changes our relationship with powerful institutions. Unfortunately, legal protections and structures have not developed at the same speed. The future will include questions about human rights as they apply to data privacy, the definition of hate speech, surveillance and digital security. These issues will trigger the development of organizations dedicated to this area.

Nationalism 

Despite seventy years of multilateralism and global leadership from institutions like the UN, nationalism is on the rise. It can be found in countries like the United States, Europe, China, and Turkey. The U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights warns that nationalism threatens rights such as the right to life, food, and health. Vulnerable groups like refugees and the LGBTQ+ community face significant danger under nationalism. In the coming years, the world will have to reckon with this shift.

Attacks on journalists and the spread of misinformation 

The concept, definition, and spread of “fake news” will continue to be a major issue for societies around the world. Fake news, defined as misinformation and propaganda, causes divisions and endangers a free press. Journalists face significant obstacles and dangers to their work and lives. 2018 was the worst year on record for journalists according to Reporters Without Borders. With nationalism gaining strength, this trend will continue. Human rights as a whole suffer when truth and access to information are endangered.

Responding to climate change 

The climate crisis will only get worse as time goes on. Our current state reflects climate scientists’ worstcase scenarios. How to respond will be one of the world’s most serious questions in the future. In a 2019 report, the UN Conference on Trade and Development stated that the energy industry needs a careful transition. Otherwise, the loss of money from the energy industry could cause destabilization “internally, regionally, and even internationally.” However, a transition is essential for the survival of humanity. How to respond to humanitarian crises caused by climate change will also be a significant human rights issue. 

A more effective UN and commitment to human rights 

2018 reflected the 12th year of a global decline in political and civil rights. When reports on 2019 come out, they’re likely to echo this disheartening reality. As we enter a new decade, the international community has an opportunity to show a renewed commitment to human rights. Countries need to hold themselves and others accountable while raising awareness of human rights and social justice issues.

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The role of World Trade organisation

The role of World Trade organisation 

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates and facilitates international trade between nations. Governments use the organization to establish, revise, and enforce the rules that govern international trade. It officially commenced operations on 1 January 1995, pursuant to the 1994 Marrakesh Agreement, thus replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) that had been established in 1948. 

The WTO is the world's largest international economic organization, with 164 member states representing over 96% of global trade and global GDP. The WTO facilitates trade in goods, services and intellectual property among participating countries by providing a framework for negotiating trade agreements, which usually aim to reduce or eliminate tariffs, quotas, and other restrictions; these agreements are signed by representatives of member governments and ratified by their legislatures. The WTO also administers independent dispute resolution for enforcing participants' adherence to trade agreements and resolving trade-related disputes. 

The organization prohibits discrimination between trading partners, but provides exceptions for environmental protection, national security, and other important goals. The WTO is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. Its top decision making body is the Ministerial Conference, which is composed of all member states and usually convenes biannually; consensus is emphasized in all decisions. Day-to-day functions are handled by the General Council, made up of representatives from all members. A Secretariat of over 600 personnel, led by the Director-General and four deputies, provides administrative, professional, and technical services. The WTO's annual budget is roughly 220 million USD, which is contributed by members based on their proportion of international trade.

Global trade rules

Global rules of trade provide assurance and stability. Consumers and producers know they can enjoy secure supplies and greater choice of the finished products, components, raw materials and services they use. Producers and exporters know foreign markets will remain open to them.

This leads to a more prosperous, peaceful and accountable economic world. Decisions in the WTO are typically taken by consensus among all members and they are ratified by members’ parliaments. Trade frictions are channelled into the WTO’s dispute settlement process, where the focus is on interpreting agreements and commitments and how to ensure that members’ trade policies conform with them. That way, the risk of disputes spilling over into political or military conflict is reduced.

By lowering trade barriers through negotiations among member governments, the WTO’s system also breaks down other barriers between peoples and trading economies.

The role of World Trade organisation


At the heart of the system – known as the multilateral trading system – are the WTO’s agreements, negotiated and signed by a large majority of the world’s trading economies, and ratified in their parliaments.

These agreements are the legal foundations for global trade. Essentially, they are contracts, guaranteeing WTO members important trade rights. They also bind governments to keep their trade policies transparent and predictable which is to everybody’s benefit.

The agreements provide a stable and transparent framework to help producers of goods and services, exporters and importers conduct their business.

Trade negotiations

The World Trade Organization came into being in 1995. One of the youngest of the international organizations, the WTO is the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) established in the wake of the Second World War.

So while the WTO is relatively young, the multilateral trading system that was originally set up under the GATT is over 70 years old.

The past 70 years have seen an exceptional growth in world trade. Merchandise exports have grown on average by 6% annually. This growth in trade has been a powerful engine for overall economic expansion and on average trade has grown by 1.5 times more than the global economy each year. Total exports in 2019 were 250 times the level of 1948. The GATT and the WTO have helped to create a strong and prosperous trading system contributing to unprecedented growth.

The system was developed through a series of trade negotiations, or rounds, held under the GATT. The first rounds dealt mainly with tariff reductions but later negotiations included other areas such as anti-dumping and non-tariff measures. The 1986-94 round – the Uruguay Round – led to the WTO’s creation.

The negotiations did not end there. In 1997, an agreement was reached on telecommunications services, with 69 governments agreeing to wide-ranging liberalization measures that went beyond those agreed in the Uruguay Round.

In the same year, 40 governments successfully concluded negotiations for tariff-free trade in information technology products, and 70 members concluded a financial services deal covering more than 95% of trade in banking, insurance, securities and financial information.

In 2000, new talks started on agriculture and services. These were incorporated into a broader work programme, the Doha Development Agenda, launched at the fourth WTO Ministerial Conference in Doha, Qatar, in November 2001.

The new work programme included negotiations and other work on non- agricultural tariffs, trade and the environment, WTO rules on anti-dumping and subsidies, trade facilitation, transparency in government procurement, intellectual property and a range of issues raised by developing economies as difficulties they face in implementing WTO agreements.

Negotiations on these and other topics have resulted in major updates to the WTO rulebook in recent years. A revised Government Procurement Agreement – adopted at the WTO’s 8th Ministerial Conference in 2011 – expanded the coverage of the original agreement by an estimated US$ 100 billion a year.

At the 9th Ministerial Conference in Bali in 2013, WTO members struck the Agreement on Trade Facilitation, which aims to reduce border delays by slashing red tape.

When fully implemented, this Agreement – the first multilateral accord reached at the WTO – will cut trade costs by more than 14% and will lift global exports by as much as US$ 1 trillion per year.

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Democratic peace theory

Democratic peace theory 

The democratic peace theory posits that democracies are hesitant to engage in armed conflict with other identified democracies. Among proponents of the democratic peace theory, several factors are held as motivating peace between democratic states. Variations of the democratic peace theory emphasize that liberal and republican forms of democracies are less likely to go to war with one another. Variations of the democratic peace hold its "monadic" (democracies are in general more peaceful in their international relations); "dyadic" (democracies do not go to war with other democracies); and "systemic" (more democratic states in the international system makes the international system more peaceful).

In terms of norms and identities, it is hypothesized that democratic publics are more dovish in their interactions with other democracies, and that democratically elected leaders are more likely to resort to peaceful resolution in disputes (both in domestic politics and international politics). In terms of structural or institutional constraints, it is hypothesized that institutional checks and balances, accountability of leaders to the public, and larger winning coalitions make it harder for democratic leaders to go to war unless there are clearly favorable ratio of benefits to costs. 

These structural constraints, along with the transparent nature of democratic politics, make it harder for democratic leaders to mobilize for war and initiate surprise attacks, which reduces fear and inadvertent escalation to war. The transparent nature of democratic political systems, as well as deliberative debates (involving opposition parties, the media, experts, and bureaucrats), make it easier for democratic states to credibly signal their intentions. The concept of audience costs entails that threats issued by democratic leaders are taken more seriously because democratic leaders will be electorally punished by their publics from backing down from threats, which reduces the risk of misperception and miscalculation by states.

The democratic peace theory posits that democracies are hesitant to engage in armed conflict with other identified democracies. Among proponents of the democratic peace theory, several factors are held as motivating peace between democratic states. Variations of the democratic peace theory emphasize that liberal and republican forms of democracies are less likely to go to war with one another. Variations of the democratic peace hold its "monadic" (democracies are in general more peaceful in their international relations); "dyadic" (democracies do not go to war with other democracies); and "systemic" (more democratic states in the international system makes the international system more peaceful).

Democratic peace theory


In terms of norms and identities, it is hypothesized that democratic publics are more dovish in their interactions with other democracies, and that democratically elected leaders are more likely to resort to peaceful resolution in disputes (both in domestic politics and international politics). In terms of structural or institutional constraints, it is hypothesized that institutional checks and balances, accountability of leaders to the public, and larger winning coalitions make it harder for democratic leaders to go to war unless there are clearly favorable ratio of benefits to costs.

These structural constraints, along with the transparent nature of democratic politics, make it harder for democratic leaders to mobilize for war and initiate surprise attacks, which reduces fear and inadvertent escalation to war. The transparent nature of democratic political systems, as well as deliberative debates (involving opposition parties, the media, experts, and bureaucrats), make it easier for democratic states to credibly signal their intentions. The concept of audience costs entails that threats issued by democratic leaders are taken more seriously because democratic leaders will be electorally punished by their publics from backing down from threats, which reduces the risk of misperception and miscalculation by states. Those who dispute this theory often do so on grounds that it conflates correlation with causation; that divergent conceptualizations of "democracy" and "war" lead to divergent results; the purported causal mechanisms of the democratic peace are not theoretically credible; and that omitted variables explain the correlation better than democratic peace theory. Alternative explanations for the correlation of peace among democracies include arguments revolving around institutions, commerce, alliances, and political stability.

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Human Security & Justice

Human Security & Justice 

Human security is an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities whose proponents challenge the traditional notion of national security through military security by arguing that the proper referent for security should be at the human rather than national level. Human security reveals a peoplecentred and multi-disciplinary understanding of security which involves a number of research fields, including development studies, international relations, strategic studies, and human rights[clarification needed]. 

The United Nations Development Programme's 1994 Human Development Report is considered a milestone publication in the field of human security, with its argument that ensuring "freedom from want" and "freedom from fear" for all persons is the best path to tackle the problem of global insecurity. Critics of the concept argue that its vagueness undermines its effectiveness, that it has become little more than a vehicle for activists wishing to promote certain causes, and that it does not help the research community understand what security means or help decision makers to formulate good policies. Alternatively, other scholars have argued that the concept of human security should be broadened to encompass military security: 'In other words, if this thing called ‘human security’ has the concept of ‘the human’ embedded at the heart of it, then let us address the question of the human condition directly. Thus understood, human security would no longer be the vague amorphous add-on to harder edged areas of security such as military security or state security.' 

In order for human security to challenge global inequalities, there has to be cooperation between a country's foreign policy and its approach to global health. However, the interest of the state has continued to overshadow the interest of the people. For instance, Canada's foreign policy, "three Ds", has been criticized for emphasizing defense more than development.

Human Security & Justice


Human security is an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities whose proponents challenge the traditional notion of national security through military security by arguing that the proper referent for security should be at the human rather than national level. Human security reveals a people-centred and multi-disciplinary understanding of security which involves a number of research fields, including development studies, international relations, strategic studies, and human rights[clarification needed].

The United Nations Development Programme's 1994 Human Development Report is considered a milestone publication in the field of human security, with its argument that ensuring "freedom from want" and "freedom from fear" for all persons is the best path to tackle the problem of global insecurity. Critics of the concept argue that its vagueness undermines its effectiveness, that it has become little more than a vehicle for activists wishing to promote certain causes, and that it does not help the research community understand what security means or help decision makers to formulate good policies.

Alternatively, other scholars have argued that the concept of human security should be broadened to encompass military security: 'In other words, if this thing called ‘human security’ has the concept of ‘the human’ embedded at the heart of it, then let us address the question of the human condition directly. Thus understood, human security would no longer be the vague amorphous add-on to harder edged areas of security such as military security or state security.' In order for human security to challenge global inequalities, there has to be cooperation between a country's foreign policy and its approach to global health. However, the interest of the state has continued to overshadow the interest of the people. For instance, Canada's foreign policy, "three Ds", has been criticized for emphasizing defense more than development.

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Explain Ethnicity the reasons of ethnic wars

 

Explain Ethnicity the reasons of ethnic wars

Ethnic conflict, a form of conflict in which the objectives of at least one party are defined in ethnic terms, and the conflict, its antecedents, and possible solutions are perceived along ethnic lines. The conflict is usually not about ethnic differences themselves but over political, economic, social, cultural, or territorial matters. Ethnic conflict is one of the major threats to international peace and security. Conflicts in the Balkans, Rwanda, Chechnya, Iraq, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, and Darfur, as well as in Israel, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip, are among the best-known and deadliest examples from the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The destabilization of provinces, states, and, in some cases, even whole regions is a common consequence of ethnic violence. Ethnic conflicts are often accompanied by gross human rights violations, such as genocide and crimes against humanity, and by economic decline, state failure, environmental problems, and refugee flows. Violent ethnic conflict leads to tremendous human suffering.

Ethnic identity, ethnicity, and ethnic group

The terms ethnic and ethnicity have their roots in the Greek word ethnos, which describes a community of common descent. In ethnic conflict research, the terms ethnic group, communal group, ethnic community, people, and minority are mostly used interchangeably. Two elements provide the basis to identify ethnic groups: first, the accentuation of cultural traits and, second, the sense that those traits distinguish the group from the members of the society who do not share the differentiating characteristics. Anthony D. Smith, a scholar of ethnicity and nationalism studies, identified ethnic criteria that provide the origins of communal identity. Those include shared historical experiences and memories, myths of common descent, a common culture and ethnicity, and a link with a historic territory or a homeland, which the group may or may not currently inhabit. Elements of common culture include language, religion, laws, customs, institutions, dress, music, crafts, architecture, and even food. Ethnic communities show signs of solidarity and self-awareness, which are often expressed by the name the group gives itself.

Ethnic identity is formed by both tangible and intangible characteristics. Tangible characteristics, such as shared culture or common visible physical traits, are important because they contribute to the group’s feeling of identity, solidarity, and uniqueness. As a result, the group considers perceived and real threats to its tangible characteristics as risks to its identity. If the group takes steps to confront the threats, its ethnicity becomes politicized, and the group becomes a political actor by virtue of its shared identity. On the other side, ethnicity is just as much based on intangible factors—namely, on what people believe, or are made to believe, to create a sense of solidarity among members of a particular ethnic group and to exclude those who are not members.

Explain Ethnicity the reasons of ethnic wars


Theories of ethnic identity

Although communal identity provides the foundation for the definition of ethnic groups, disagreement exists over how ethnic identity forms and how it changes over time. A first school of thought, known as the primordialist approach, explains ethnicity as a fixed characteristic of individuals and communities. According to primordialists, ethnicity is embedded in inherited biological attributes, a long history of practicing cultural differences, or both. Ethnic identity is seen as unique in intensity and durability and as an existential factor defining individual self-identification and communal distinctiveness. Mobilization of ethnic identity and ethnic nationalism is a powerful tool to engage the group in a political struggle. Ethnic divisions and ethnic conflict are considered inherent to multiethnic societies and a common phenomenon.

The primordialist focus on fixed identities, however, fails to recognize variations in ethnic group formation, ranging from relatively short-term associations to long-standing, strong, and cohesive groups with biological and historical roots. To account for these differences, a second approach, referred to as instrumentalist, was developed, which understands ethnicity as a device used by individuals and groups to unify, organize, and mobilize populations to achieve larger goals. Those goals are mostly of a political nature and include, among others, demands for self-governance, autonomy, access to resources and power, respect for the group’s identity and culture, and minority rights. Instrumentalists hold that ethnicity has very little or no independent ranking outside the political process and is in its character comparable to other political affiliations such as ideological beliefs or party membership. According to instrumentalists, ethnicity is a result of personal choice and mostly independent from the situational context or the presence of cultural and biological traits. Ethnic conflict arises if ethnic groups compete for the same goal—notably power, access to resources, or territory. The interests of a society’s elite class play an important role in mobilizing ethnic groups to engage in ethnic conflicts. Ethnic conflict is thus similar to other political interest conflicts.

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International terrorism

 

International terrorism

Terrorism clearly has a very real and direct impact on human rights, with devastating consequences for the enjoyment of the right to life, liberty and physical integrity of victims. In addition to these individual costs, terrorism can destabilize Governments, undermine civil society, jeopardize peace and security, and threaten social and economic development.

All of these also have a real impact on the enjoyment of human rights. Security of the individual is a basic human right and the protection of individuals is, accordingly, a fundamental obligation of Government. States therefore have an obligation to ensure the human rights of their nationals and others by taking positive measures to protect them against the threat of terrorist acts and bringing the perpetrators of such acts to justice. In recent years, however, the measures adopted by States to counter terrorism have themselves often posed serious challenges to human rights and the rule of law. Some States have engaged in torture and other ill-treatment to counter terrorism, while the legal and practical safeguards available to prevent torture, such as regular and independent monitoring of detention centres, have often been disregarded.

International terrorism


Other States have returned persons suspected of engaging in terrorist activities to countries where they face a real risk of torture or other serious human rights abuse, thereby violating the international legal obligation of non-refoulement. The independence of the judiciary has been undermined, in some places, while the use of exceptional courts to try civilians has had an impact on the effectiveness of regular court systems. Repressive measures have been used to stifle the voices of human rights defenders, journalists, minorities, indigenous groups and civil society. Resources normally allocated to social programmes and development assistance have been diverted to the security sector, affecting the economic, social and cultural rights of many.

These practices, particularly when taken together, have a corrosive effect on the rule of law, good governance and human rights. They are also counterproductive to national and international efforts to combat terrorism. Respect for human rights and the rule of law must be the bedrock of the global fight against terrorism. This requires the development of national counter-terrorism strategies that seek to prevent acts of terrorism, prosecute those responsible for such criminal acts, and promote and protect human rights and the rule of law. It implies measures to address the conditions conducive to the spread of terrorism, including the lack of rule of law and violations of human rights, ethnic, national and religious discrimination, political exclusion, and socio-economic marginalization; to foster the active participation and leadership of civil society; to condemn human rights violations, prohibit them in national law, promptly investigate and prosecute them, and prevent them; and to give due attention to the rights of victims of human rights violations, for instance through restitution and compensation.

This Fact Sheet has been prepared with the aim of strengthening understanding of the complex and multifaceted relationship between human rights and terrorism. It identifies some of the critical human rights issues raised in the context of terrorism and highlights the relevant human rights principles and standards which must be respected at all times and in particular in the context of counter-terrorism.

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The role of UN to the concept of self -determination and its application


The role of UN to the concept of self -determination and its application

Corporate sustainability starts with a company’s value system and a principles-based approach to doing business. This means operating in ways that, at a minimum, meet fundamental responsibilities in the areas of human rights, labour, environment and anti-corruption. Responsible businesses enact the same values and principles wherever they have a presence, and know that good practices in one area do not offset harm in another. By incorporating the Ten Principles of the UN Global Compact into strategies, policies and procedures, and establishing a culture of integrity, companies are not only upholding their basic responsibilities to people and planet, but also setting the stage for long-term success.

The Ten Principles of the United Nations Global Compact are derived from: the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the International Labour Organization’s Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work, the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, and the United Nations Convention Against Corruption.

Human Rights

Principle 1: Businesses should support and respect the protection of internationally proclaimed human rights; and

Principle 2: make sure that they are not complicit in human rights abuses.

Labour

Principle 3: Businesses should uphold the freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining;

Principle 4: the elimination of all forms of forced and compulsory labour;

Principle 5: the effective abolition of child labour; and

Principle 6: the elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation.

Environment

Principle 7: Businesses should support a precautionary approach to environmental challenges;

Principle 8: undertake initiatives to promote greater environmental responsibility; and

Principle 9: encourage the development and diffusion of environmentally friendly technologies. Anti-Corruption

Principle 10: Businesses should work against corruption in all its forms, including extortion and bribery. Maintenance of international peace and security

Maintenance of international peace and security

The main function of the United Nations is to preserve international peace and security. Chapter 6 of the Charter provides for the pacific settlement of disputes, through the intervention of the Security Council, by means such as negotiation, mediation, arbitration, and judicial decisions. The Security Council may investigate any dispute or situation to determine whether it is likely to endanger international peace and security. At any stage of the dispute, the council may recommend appropriate procedures or methods of adjustment, and, if the parties fail to settle the dispute by peaceful means, the council may recommend terms of settlement.

The role of UN to the concept of self -determination and its application


The goal of collective security, whereby aggression against one member is met with resistance by all, underlies chapter 7 of the Charter, which grants the Security Council the power to order coercive measures—ranging from diplomatic, economic, and military sanctions to the use of armed force—in cases where attempts at a peaceful settlement have failed. Such measures were seldom applied during the Cold War, however, because tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union prevented the Security Council from agreeing on the instigators of aggression. Instead, actions to maintain peace and security often took the form of preventive diplomacy and peacekeeping. In the post-Cold War period, appeals to the UN for peacekeeping and related activities increased dramatically, and new threats to international peace and security were confronted, including AIDS and international terrorism.

Notwithstanding the primary role of the Security Council, the UN Charter provides for the participation of the General Assembly and nonmember states in security issues. Any state, whether it is a member of the UN or not, may bring any dispute or situation that endangers international peace and security to the attention of the Security Council or the General Assembly. The Charter authorizes the General Assembly to “discuss any questions relating to the maintenance of international peace and security” and to “make recommendations with regard to any such questions to the state or states concerned or to the Security Council or to both.” This authorization is restricted by the provision that, “while the Security Council is exercising in respect of any dispute or situation the functions assigned to it in the present Charter, the General Assembly shall not make any recommendation with regard to that dispute or situation unless the Security Council so requests.” By the “Uniting for Peace” resolution of November 1950, however, the General Assembly granted to itself the power to deal with threats to the peace if the Security Council fails to act after a veto by a permanent member. Although these provisions grant the General Assembly a broad secondary role, the Security Council can make decisions that bind all members, whereas the General Assembly can make only recommendations.

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MPS 002 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY AND PROBLEMS June 2014 Question Paper

MPS 002 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY AND PROBLEMS  June 2014 Question Paper

 

MPS 002 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY AND PROBLEMS

June 2014 Question Paper

Time : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 100

Note : Attempt five questions in all, selecting at least two questions from each section. All questions carry equal marks. Each question is to be answered in about 500 words.

SECTION I

1. Define globalism and distinguish globalism from globalization.

2. Explain the theory of dependency and analyse its limitations.

3. How does feminism define power and delineate the role of the State ? Discuss.

4. Discuss the North-South divide in the context of global environmental crisis.

5. Explain the evolution of the Non-Aligned Movement and assess its success in dealing with international crises.

SECTION II

6. Discuss the theories relating to regionalism.

7. Describe the role and functions of the IMF and World Bank.

8. What in your view are the challenges faced by the United States of America in the post-Cold War era ? Examine.

9. Write a note on the nature and dimensions of the recent ethnic resurgence across the world.

10. Explain the rise of NGOs and their relevance and role in international relations.

MPS 002 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY AND PROBLEMS December 2014 Question Paper

MPS 002 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY AND PROBLEMS  December 2014 Question Paper

 

MPS 002 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY AND PROBLEMS

December 2014 Question Paper

Time : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 100

Note : Attempt five questions in all, selecting at least two from each section. Each answer should not exceed 500 words limit. All questions carry equal marks.

SECTION - I

1. Explain briefly the theory of conflict resolution in International Politics and highlight thedivergent views in the liberal school regarding conflict resolution.

2. What, in your understanding, are the views of humanists on the world order ? Elaborate.

3. Who are 'middle powers' ? How are they different from 'emerging powers' ? Explain with suitable examples.

4. Can the phenomenon of globalisation be analysed on the basis of the traditional theories of IR ? Discuss.

5. Explain the theory of comparative cost advantage in International Trade.

SECTION - II

6. Describe briefly the new World Order and explain India's role in it.

7. Critically examine the concept of selfdetermination in its applicability to multi-ethnic societies.

8. Sketch the recent trends in the development of technology and examine its impact on the International System.

9. Write a note on trade related aspects of Intellectual Property Rights.

10. What, in your view, are the major challenges faced by the indigenous people in today's world ? Describe.

MPS 002 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY AND PROBLEMS June 2015 Question Paper

MPS 002 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY AND PROBLEMS  June 2015 Question Paper

 

MPS 002 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY AND PROBLEMS

June 2015 Question Paper

Time : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 100

Note : Answer five questions in all, selecting at least two questions from each section. Answer each question in about 500 words. All questions carry equal marks.

SECTION I

1. Examine the debate on the future of the nation-state as a viable political unit.

2. Explain the core features of the Marxist approach to the study of International relations.

3. Discuss the changing dimensions of security in the post-Cold War years.

4. What is inequality ? Identify the major causes of international inequality.

5. Describe the core features of the new world order and its implications for India.

SECTION II

6. 'International community has always attached greater importance to territorial integrity than to self-determination.' Comment.

7. What is ethnicity ? Why has the ethnic problem assumed an international dimension ?

8. What are non-governmental organisations ? Assess their relationship with State and Civil society.

9. Trace the evolution of non-proliferation policy bringing out the core features of the non-proliferation regime.

10. Analyse the response of the international community to the growing incidence of terrorism.


 

MPS 002 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY AND PROBLEMS December 2015 Question Paper

MPS 002 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY AND PROBLEMS  December 2015 Question Paper

 

MPS 002 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY AND PROBLEMS

December 2015 Question Paper

Time : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 100

Note : Answer five questions in all, selecting at least two questions from each section. Answer each question in about 500 words. All questions carry equal marks.

SECTION I

1. Explain the liberal approach to resolving conflicts in international relations.

2. Examine the core features of the feminist approach to international relations and state security.

3. What is cold war ? Discuss the reasons for the end of the cold war.

4. Examine the changing dimensions of security in the post-cold war years.

5. Discuss the reasons for the increasing inequalities in the international system.

SECTION II

6. What efforts have been made to strengthen non-proliferation since the 1960s ? Elaborate.

7. Modernisation is the main cause of ethnic upsurge in the post-war period. Comment.

8. Give the reasons for the high incidence of intra-state displacement of people in the last two decades.

9. Critically examine the relationship between NGOs, State and Civil society.

10. Discuss the meaning and dimensions of human security.


 

MPS 002 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY AND PROBLEMS June 2016 Question Paper

MPS 002 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY AND PROBLEMS  June 2016 Question Paper

 

MPS 002 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY AND PROBLEMS

June 2016 Question Paper

Time : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 100

Note : Attempt five questions in all selecting atleast two from each section. Each answer should not exceed 500 words. All questions carry equal marks.

SECTION - I

1. Identify and explain the main differences between the 'realist' and the 'liberal' frameworks in international politics.

2. Critically examine the theory of dependency.

3. Rabindranath Tagore is a 'humanist poet'. Comment.

4. Justify India's demand for the permanent member ship in UN Security Council.

5. Explain the basic objectives and the organisational structure of the World Trade Organization (WTO).

SECTION - II

6. Describe the role of the UN in the cause of self-determination.

7. Discuss the various arms limitation treaties and identify their limitations.

8. Is international terrorism different from cross-border terrorism ? Explain with illustrators.

9. Assess the emergence of China as a 'Super power in World politics.

10. Explain the spread of indigenous people's movement in recent decades.


 

MPS 002 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY AND PROBLEMS December 2016 Question Paper

MPS 002 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY AND PROBLEMS  December 2016 Question Paper

 

MPS 002 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY AND PROBLEMS

December 2016 Question Paper

Time : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 100

Note : Attempt five questions in all, selecting attleast two from each section. Each answer should not exceed 500 words. All questions carry equal marks.

SECTION - I

1. Explain the differences between Colonialism and Imperialism in theory and practice.

2. Critically evaluate the major arguments in the environment development debate.

3. What are the chief attributes of Middle Power ? Differentiate Middle Power from Emerging Power.

4. Explain the role and objectives of IMF and World Bank.

5. Define the concept of 'World Order'. Would you consider the current world order as a new world order ?

SECTION - II

6. What in your understanding are the motives and methods of international terrorism ?

7. Do you agree with the view that the state sovereignty has historically been changing ?

8. Enumerate and explain the major conventions on human rights sponsored by the UN.

9. What do you understand by the term 'ethnicity' and explain the causes of ethnic resurgence in contemporary times ?

10. Globalisation is threatening human security. Do you agree ? Give reasons.


 

MPS 002 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY AND PROBLEMS June 2017 Question Paper

 MPS 002 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY AND PROBLEMS  June 2017 Question Paper

 

MPS 002 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY AND PROBLEMS

June 2017 Question Paper

Time : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 100

Note : Attempt any five questions in all, selecting at least tzvo questions from each section. Each question should be answered in about 500 words. All questions carry equal marks.

SECTION - I

1. Describe the main components and assumptions of the liberal and the Neo-liberal approach to the study of international relations.

 2. Distinguish between post - modernist and post - colonial approaches to international relations.

3. Explain the important aspects of the environment - development debate.

4. Critically examine the issues responsible for creating international inequities.

5. What are the major international problems addressed by the international institutions ? Explain.

SECTION - II

6. Discuss the various types of international interventions.

7. Explain how science and technology have given rise to international dependency.

8. Write an essay on dimensions of human security in the international system.

9. Evaluate the role of TNCs in violating the rights of women, children and indigenous people.

10. Write short notes on the following :

(a) Resurgence of ethnic identities;

(b) Difference between refugees and IDPs.

MPS 002 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY AND PROBLEMS December 2017 Question Paper

   MPS 002 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY AND PROBLEMS  December 2017 Question Paper

 

MPS 002 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY AND PROBLEMS

December 2017 Question Paper

Time : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 100

Note : Attempt five questions in all, selecting at least two from each section. All questions carry equal marks. Each question is to be answered in about 500 words.

SECTION - I

1. Define 'National interest'. To what extent is the notion of national interest representative of the genuine interests of a nation ?

2. Explain the theory of dependency and analyse its limitations.

3. Critically examine the Feminist view of the State.

4. Write a note on 'Sustainable Development'.

5. It is said the era of nation-states is coming to an end. What in your view is the feature of nationstates ?

SECTION - II

6. Briefly survey the rise and growth of regional movements in Latin America.

7. Discuss the major challenges faced by nationstates in the post-cold war period.

8. What is understood by the term 'Middle Powers' ? Is India a middle power ? Explain.

9. Write a descriptive note on South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC).

10. Can the phenomenon of globalization be analysed on the basis of the traditional theories of international relation (IR) ?

MPS 002 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY AND PROBLEMS June 2018 Question Paper

MPS 002 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY AND PROBLEMS  June 2018 Question Paper

 

MPS 002 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY AND PROBLEMS

June 2018 Question Paper

Time : 3 hours Maximum Marks : 100

Note : Attempt five questions in all, selecting atleast two from each section. All questions carry equal marks. Each question is to be answered in about 500 words.

SECTION - 1.

1. What are the underlying assumptions of the concept of 'Realism' in IR theory ? Explain 'neo-realism.

2. Review the contributions of Latin American Social Scientists to the theory of dependency.

3. Trace the evolution of Non-aligned movement and discuss its contemporary relevance.

4. Should India become a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council ? Why ? Explain.

5. Is India an 'emerging' or middle power ? Or, both ? Explain.

SECTION - II

6. Write a note on Asia Pacific Economic Co-operation (APEC).

7. What in your assessment are the salient characteristics of the current phase of globalisation ?

8. Describe the objectives and the organisational structure of the World Trade Organization (WTO).

9. Analyse the role of the World Bank and IMF in the management.

10. What role do you envisage for India in the evolving new global order ? Explain.


 

MPS 002 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY AND PROBLEMS June 2019 Question Paper

MPS 002 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY AND PROBLEMS  June 2019 Question Paper

 

MPS 002 INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS THEORY AND PROBLEMS

June 2019 Question Paper

Time : 3 hours Maxintum Marks : 100

Note : Answer five questions in all, selecting at least two questions from each section. Answer each question in about 500 words. All questions carry equal marks.

SECTION I

1. Discuss the core elements of Marxist approach to International Relations.

2. What are the different theoretical approaches to regionalism ?

3. Outline the key underlying themes of post-modernism.

4. Examine the features of the post-Cold War World.

5. Write short notes on any two of the following :

(a) South-South Cooperation

(b) SAARC

(c) OSCE

(d) Detente

SECTION II

6. Compare the nature and functions of International Governmental and International Non-Governmental Organizations.

7. What do you understand by the terms intra-state and inter-state displacement ?

8. Do you think China will emerge as a super power in the future ? Give reasons.

9. Give examples of violations of human rights by TNCs.

10. Distinguish between intervention and humanitarian intervention with some examples.