Themes in Sangam poetry

Themes in Sangam poetry

Themes in Sangam poetry , Indian Literature is a vast area comprising numerous diverse traditions which resulted in a vast and a complex literature in the last 3500 years. Every part of India has produced classical literature in various Indian languages. Themes in Sangam poetry ,  The literature produced in ancient India includes the Vedic corpus along with the Puranas, the Jain agamas and traditions and the vast literature produced during the Buddhist period which incorporates writings across Asia. The south of India has 4 major languages namely Tamil, Kannada, Malayalam and Telugu. All of them are classical languages with a robust literary tradition and Tamil literary history is of nearly two millennia. Sangam Literature also refers to a body of ancient Tamil writings probably produced during the “chankams/ literary academies located in Maturai, Tamil Nadu from the 4th to the 1st Century”. Sangam Literature is also referred to as early classical Tamil literature with works dating between 400 BCE to 250 CE. The word Sangam refers to an academy where this poetry was composed and later anthologised. The Literature of this period comprised three main types of literary works. We shall look at them next.

Themes in Sangam poetry

Themes in Sangam poetry , The poetry of the Sangam period reflects a syntax and poetics that is not seen in the tradition of poetry from the north of India. This poetry does not have the influence of Sanskrit poetics and prosody on it. As mentioned earlier, the uniqueness of this poetry is the thematic division of writing poetry into the Akam (Poems of Love) and the Puram (Poems of War). Themes in Sangam poetry These poems are further categorised on ideas of emotion which can be compared to the idea of the Nav Rasas by Bharata in his Natyashastra. There is a huge difference in the portrayal of these emotions from the Rasas. The Rasas talk about emotions which are permanent (Stahi) and those which are transient (Vhabhichari) Themes in Sangam poetry.

Sangam poetry has influenced poets and writers across time including three poets from the Hindu religious revival period called the bhakti period circa 800 CE: Thirumangai Alvar, Nammalvar, and Andal. The concept of madal eruthal (literally means climbing the leaves) features in sangam poetry where the hero threatens the heroine that if she would not disclose their love in public, he would ride a fake horse made out of palm leaves (panai madal). Themes in Sangam poetry , The children in the village would pull the “horse” so the entire village would know of their love (e.g. kurunthokai [the second anthology of Sangam literature] – poems 173, 182, kalitthokai [the sixth anthology of Sangam literature] – poem 58).

This imagery is expressed in the religious collection of 4000 verses on Lord Vishnu, the Divya prabhandam collection by Thirumangai Alvar (poems 2710, 2790) and Nammalvar (poems 3371, 3372). Thirumangai Alvar and Nammalvar imagine themselves as women who are in love with Lord Vishnu and threaten to perform madal eruthal if he fails to express his love for the poet. Another theme originally found in sangam poetry but adapted to suit a religious storyline is the concept of bangles falling from the wrists of the heroine because of the pasalai disease (roughly translated to ‘love sickness’) that makes the heroine’s hands very slender.  Themes in Sangam poetry  , This is commonly seen in kurinji thinai (mountainous landscape) of sangam literature. Andal uses this same concept beautifully and says how her kazhal vaLai (the bangles on her arms) have become kazhal vaLai (falling bangles) because of Vishnu, with her typical word play on the two meanings of the word kazhal (‘arm, to remove’).  


MEG 07 INDIAN ENGLISH LITERATURE Solved Assignment 2020 –21

MEG 07 Indian English Literature

Solved Assignment 2020 – 2021

Max. Marks - 100

Answer all questions.

1. Write short note on: 4 x 5 =20
a) Forms and varieties of prose.
b) Importance of Hind Swaraj.
c) Nehru’s prose style in his Autobiography.
d) Gandhi’s thought and its impact on Kanthapura.
e) Role of Bakul

2. Discuss the structure of Midnight Children.. 20
3. Critically examine the ending of Mulk Raj Anand’s novel Untouchable. 20

4. Compare and analyse the two poems, ‘The Old Woman’ and Indian Dancers’. 20
5. How does Mahesh Dattani treat the issue of Gender in Tara ? Discuss. 20
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4. Use only foolscap size paper for your response and tag all the pages carefully
5. Write the relevant question number with each answer.
6. You should write in your own handwriting.
7. Submission: The completed assignment should be sent to the Coordinator of the Study Centre allotted to you by 31st March 2021(if enrolled in the July 2020 Session) and 30th Sept, 2021 (if enrolled in the January 2021 session).
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IGNOU MEG 07 Study Material 2020-21 : Indian English Literature

IGNOU MEG 07 Study Material 2020-21 : Indian English Literature
IGNOU MEG 07 Study Material, IGNOU MEG 07 Books, IGNOU MEG 07 Aspects of Language Solved Assignments, IGNOU MEG 07 Admit Card, IGNOU MEG 07 Exam Form, IGNOU MEG 07 Previous Year Papers Etc. In This Website students will get all answers of their question and also they will get all IGNOU related solution related with their MEG 07 subject.

Programme Name:
Master of Arts English
Programme Code:
MEG 07

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IGNOU MEG 07 Indian English Literature  

Block- 1 Non-Fictional Prose
  • Unit-1 Non-Fictional prose: A Survey
  • Unit-2 Swmi Vivekananda, Sri Aurobindo, and Ananda Coomaraswamy
  • Unit-3 Gandhi
  • Unit-4 Jawaharlal Nehru
  • Unit-5 Nirad C. Chaudhuri
  • Unit-6 Vikram Seth and Amitav Ghosh
Block- 2 Mulk Raj Anand : Untouchable
  • Unit-1 A Short History of the Indian English Novel
  • Unit-2 Life and Work of Mulk Raj Anand
  • Unit-3 Untouchable: Title, Theme, Plot and Characterisation
  • Unit-4 The Picture of a Fragmented Nation
  • Unit-5 The Gandhian Influence
  • Unit-6 Style

Block- 3 Raja Rao : Kanthapura
  • Unit-1 Raja Rao: Career and Works
  • Unit-2 Kanthapura: Background
  • Unit-3 Kanthapura: Themes
  • Unit-4 Kanthapura: Structure and Technique
  • Unit-5 Kanthapura: Characters
Block- 4 Anita Desai: Clear Light of Day
  • Unit-1 Anita Desai: Life, Works and the Language Issue
  • Unit-2 Clear Light of Day: Themes, Techniques, Time
  • Unit-3 Political Dimension, Major Characters
  • Unit-4 Music, Minor Characters
  • Unit-5 Anita Desai’s Contribution to Indian English Fiction
Block- 5 Midnight’s Children
  • Unit-1 Background
  • Unit-2 The De-doxified English
  • Unit-3 Themes
  • Unit-4 Technique
  • Unit-5 Characterization
  • Unit-6 As a Literary Event
Block- 6 The Short Story
  • Unit-1 About the Short Story
  • Unit-2 R.K. Narayan
  • Unit-3 Arun Joshi and Manoj Das
  • Unit-4 Subhadra Sen Gupta and Raji Narasimhan
  • Unit-5 Shashi Deshpande and Githa Hariharan
  • Unit-6 Ruskin Bond

Block- 7 Poetry
  • Unit-1 Background to Indian English Poetry
  • Unit-2 Henry Derozio and Toru Dutt
  • Unit-3 Sri Aurobindo and Sarojini Naidu
  • Unit-4 Nissim Ezekiel and Kamala Das
  • Unit-5 A.K. Ramanujan, Arun Kolatkar, and Jayanta Mahapatra
  • Unit-6 R. Parthasarathy and Keki N. Daruwalla
Block- 8 Mahesh Dattani: Tara
  • Unit-1 An Overview of Indian English Drama
  • Unit-2 A Preview of Dattani’s Dramatic World
  • Unit-3 Reading Tara
  • Unit-4 Appreciating Tara

IGNOU MEG 07 Books Free Download

To prepare for the upcoming examination or to unravel the assignments, the scholars can download the study blocks at as mentioned above.
To make it easy for the scholars , we've provided the direct links below where they will easily download their Ignou MA English study material freed from cost.



Block I: Non- Fictional Prose

Block II: Mulk Raj Anand: Untouchable
Block III: Raja Rao: Kanthapura
Block IV: Anita Desai: Clear Light of Day
Block V: Salman Rushdie: Midnight’s Children
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Block VI: The Short Story

Block VII: Poetry
Block VIII: Mahesh Dattani: Tara

Khushwant Singh - Biography, Life and Career

Khushwant Singh
Khushwant Singh, Indian essayist and columnist delivered probably the most provocative and respected English-language fiction and verifiable in post-World War II India. His presentation novel, Train to Pakistan (1956; film 1998), was acclaimed for its investigation of the bleeding savagery between Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs during and soon after the 1947 parcel of the subcontinent into India and Pakistan.

Khushal Singh
2 February 1915
Hadali, British India (now in Khushab District, Punjab, Pakistan)
20 March 2014 (aged 99)
New Delhi, India
Famous Works
 Train to Pakistan, All India Radio

Khushwant Singh, Quite a bit of Singh's work, be that as it may, included his wry comical inclination, which was especially obvious in his TV television show, Not a Nice Man to Know (1998); his papers, some of which were gathered in Not a Nice Man to Know: The Best of Khushwant Singh (1993); and the life account Truth, Love and a Little Malice (2002). Singh was naturally introduced to a prosperous Sikh family and spent his adolescence in Hadali and Delhi, where his dad and granddad were engaged with structure development. After he graduated (1934) from Government College, Lahore (presently in Pakistan), he examined law at King's College, London (L.L.B., 1938), and at London's Inner Temple, where in 1938 he qualified as an attorney. He provided legal counsel in Lahore until the segment, when he moved his better half and youngsters to Delhi and joined the Indian Foreign Service.
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Khushwant Singh started composing short fiction while serving in discretionary posts in London and Ottawa; his first story accumulation, The Mark of Vishnu, and Other Stories, was distributed in London in 1950. Singh's abstract yield included such genuine books as The Sikhs (1953), A History of the Sikhs, 1469–1964, Absolute Khushwant: The Low-Down on Life, Death and Most Things in-Between (2010), and The Good, the Bad and the Ridiculous (2013); short-story accumulations; and books, eminently I Shall Not Hear the Nightingale (1959), Delhi: A Novel (1990), The Company of Women (1999), and The Sunset Club (2010). He likewise created English interpretations of Urdu-language fiction and Sikh scriptural writings. He filled in as editorial manager of the Illustrated Weekly of India (1969–78) and of the every day paper Hindustan Times (1980–83), to which he contributed the satiric segment "With Malice Towards One what not."

Khushwant Singh at first was a solid supporter of Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and held a seat (1980–86) in the Rajya Sabha (upper place of the parliament). Singh bit by bit ended up frustrated with Gandhi, in any case, and returned (1984) the Padma Bhushan that she had given (1974) on him after many Sikhs were executed in an assault by Indian troops on fanatics tucked away in the Sikhs' chief spot of love, the Harimandir Sahib, or Golden Temple, in Amritsar. Singh was later conceded (2007) the Padma Vibhushan Khushwant Singh.

Literary Career
Khushwant Singh began his expert profession as a rehearsing legal counselor in 1939. He worked at Lahore Court for a long time. In 1947 he entered Indian Foreign Service for the recently autonomous India. He began as Information Officer of the Government of India in Toronto, Canada. He was Press Attaché and Public Officer for the Indian High Commission for a long time in London and Ottawa. In 1951 he joined the All India Radio as a columnist. Somewhere in the range of 1954 and 1956 he worked in Department of Mass Communication of the UNESCO at Paris. From 1956 he went to publication administrations.
Khushwant Singh established and altered Yojana, an Indian government diary in 1951 - 1953; The Illustrated Weekly of India, a newsweekly; and two noteworthy Indian papers, The National Herald and the Hindustan Times. During his residency, The Illustrated Weekly turned into India's pre-famous newsweekly, with its course raising from 65,000 to 400000. After laboring for a long time in the week after week, on 25 July 1978, seven days before he was to resign, the administration asked Singh to leave "with quick effect".another proofreader was introduced the equivalent day. After Singh's takeoff, the week after week endured an immense drop in readership. In 2016 Khushwant Singh enters Limca Book of Records as a tribute.
Public Figure
As an open figure, Khushwant Singh was blamed for favoring the decision Congress party, particularly during the rule of Indira Gandhi. He was mockingly called a 'foundation liberal'. Singh's confidence in the Indian political framework was shaken by the counter Sikh mobs that pursued Indira Gandhi's death, wherein significant Congress lawmakers are affirmed to be included; yet he remained unflinchingly positive on the guarantee of Indian democracy and worked through Citizen's Justice Committee coasted by H. S. Phoolka who is a senior backer of Delhi High Court Khushwant Singh.

Religious Belief
Khushwant Singh was a self-announced rationalist, as the title of his 2011 book Agnostic Khushwant: There is no God expressly uncovered. He was especially against composed religion. He was clearly disposed towards secularism, as he stated, "One can be a righteous individual without had faith in God and an abominable scoundrel having faith in him. In my customized religion, There Is No God!" He likewise once stated, "I don't put stock in resurrection or in rebirth, in the day of judgment or in paradise or hellfire. I acknowledge the irrevocability of death." His last book The Good, The Bad and The Ridiculous was distributed in October 2013, after which he resigned from writing. The book was his proceeded with evaluate of religion and particularly its training in India, including the study of the pastorate and ministers. It earned a great deal of approval in India.

Khushwant Singh was a votary of more prominent political relations with Israel when India did not have any desire to disappoint Arab countries where a large number of Indians discovered business. He visited Israel during the 1970s and was intrigued by its encouraging
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Mulk Raj Anand - Biography, Literary Works and Awards

Mulk Raj Anand
Mulk Raj Anand conspicuous Indian writer of books, short stories, and basic expositions in English, who is known for his practical and thoughtful depiction of the poor in India. He is viewed as
12, December, 1905 at Peshawar, British India ( Now Pakistan)
28 September, 2004 at Pune, Maharastra, India
Literary Period
20th Century India
Famous Works
Untouchable,  The Sword and the Sickle

The child of a coppersmith, Anand graduated with distinction in 1924 from Punjab University in Lahore and sought after extra investigations at the University of Cambridge and at University College in London. While in Europe, he turned out to be politically dynamic in India's battle for autonomy and presently composed a progression of different books on parts of South Asian culture, including Persian Painting (1930), Curries and Other Indian Dishes (1932), The Hindu View of Art (1933), The Indian Theater (1950), and Seven Little-Known Birds of the Inner Eye (1978).

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A productive essayist, Anand first increased wide acknowledgment for his books Untouchable (1935) and Coolie (1936), the two of which inspected the issues of destitution in Indian culture. In 1945 he came back to Bombay (presently Mumbai) to crusade for national changes. Among his other real works are The Village (1939), The Sword and the Sickle (1942), and The Big Heart.
Anand composed different books and short-story accumulations and furthermore altered various magazines and diaries, Mulk Raj Anand including MARG, a craftsmanship quarterly that he established in 1946. He additionally discontinuously took a shot at an anticipated seven-volume self-portraying novel entitled Seven Ages of Man, finishing four volumes: Seven Summers (1951), Morning Face (1968), Confession of a Lover (1976), and The Bubble (1984).
Mulk Raj Anand Literary Career
Mulk Raj Anand's abstract vocation was propelled by a family disaster emerging from the inflexibility of India's standing framework. His first writing article was a reaction to the suicide of an auntie banned by her family for offering a feast to a Muslim woman. Mulk Raj Anand’s first novel, Untouchable, distributed in 1935, is a chilling report of the lives of India's unapproachable station. The tale pursues a solitary typical day for Bakha, a can cleaner, who inadvertently finds an individual from a higher standing, setting off a progression of mortifications. Bakha looks for ointment to the deplorability of the fate into which he was conceived, chatting with a Christian evangelist, tuning in to a discourse about unapproachability by Mahatma Gandhi and an ensuing discussion between two instructed Indians, however before the finish of the book Anand proposes that it is innovation, as the recently presented flush can, that might be his hero by dispensing with the requirement for a rank of can cleaners.
Mulk Raj Anand , Distant, which catches the vernacular innovativeness of the Punjabi and Hindi colloquialism in English was generally acclaimed, and won Anand his notoriety for being India's Charles Dickens. The epic's presentation was composed by his companion E. M. Forster, whom he met while dealing with T. S. Eliot's magazine Criterion. Forster expresses: "Staying away from talk and aversion, it has gone directly to the core of its subject and refined it."
Mulk Raj Anand, Partitioning his time among London and India during the 1930s and 40s, Anand was dynamic in the Indian autonomy development. While in London, he composed purposeful publicity in the interest of the Indian reason close by India's future Defense Minister V. K. Krishna Menon, while attempting to bring home the bacon as a writer and journalist. simultaneously, he upheld Left causes somewhere else around the world, making a trip to Spain to volunteer in the Spanish Civil War, despite the fact that his job in the contention was more journalistic than military. He spent World War II functioning as a scriptwriter for the BBC in London, where he turned into a companion of George Orwell. Orwell's audit of Anand's 1942 novel The Sword and the Sickle indicates the hugeness of its distribution: "Despite the fact that Mulk Raj Anand’s epic would in any case be intriguing individually justifies on the off chance that it had been composed by an Englishman, it is difficult to peruse it without recollecting each couple of pages that it is additionally a social interest. The development of an English-language Indian writing is a bizarre wonder, and it will have its impact on the post-war world".He was likewise a companion of Picasso and had works of art by Picasso in his own specialty accumulation.
Mulk Raj Anand came back to India in 1947 and proceeded with his gigantic artistic yield there. His work incorporates verse and papers on a wide scope of subjects, just as collections of memoirs, books and short stories. Unmistakable among his books are The Village (1939), Across the Black Waters (1939), The Sword and the Sickle (1942), all written in England; Coolie (1936) and The Private Life of an Indian Prince (1953) are maybe the most significant of his works written in India. He likewise established an artistic magazine, Marg, and educated in different colleges. During the 1970s, Mulk Raj Anand worked with the International Progress Organization (IPO) on the issue of social mindfulness among countries. His commitment to the gathering of the IPO in Innsbruck (Austria) in 1974 impacted discussions that later moved toward becoming known under the heading of the "Exchange among Civilizations". Anand likewise conveyed a progression of talks on prominent Indians, including Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru and Rabindranath Tagore, recognizing their accomplishments and importance and giving exceptional consideration to their particular brands of humanism.
His 1953 novel The Private Life of an Indian Prince is self-portraying in the way of the remainder of his ensuing oeuvre. Mulk Raj Anand In 1950 Anand set out on a venture to compose a seven-section personal history titled "seven times of man", of which he was just ready to finish four sections starting in 1951 with Seven Summers, trailed before dawn Face, "Admission of a Lover" and "Bubble".Like quite a bit of his later work, it contains components of his otherworldly voyage as he battles to accomplish a higher level of mindfulness Mulk Raj Anand.
Next Writer - R. K. Narayan
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Bankim Chandra Chatterjee - Biography, Famous Works in English Literature

Bankim Chandra Chatterjee
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee was an Indian writer, whose books immovably settled exposition as an abstract vehicle for the Bengali language and made in India a school of fiction on the European model wrote Vande Matram.

27, June, 1838, at Bengal, British India 
8 April 1894 (aged 55) Kolkata, Bengal Presidency, British India
Literary Period
Famous Works

Bankim Chandra Chatterjee was an individual from a standard Brahman family and was taught at Hooghly College, at Presidency College, Calcutta, and at the University of Calcutta, of which he was one of the principal graduates. From 1858, until his retirement in 1891, he filled in as an agent judge in the Indian common administration.
Some of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee’s young pieces showed up in the paper Sambad Prabhakar, and in 1858 he distributed a volume of lyrics entitled Lalita O Manas. For some time he wrote in English, and his novel Rajmohan's Wife showed up sequentially in Indian Field in 1864. His first outstanding Bengali work was the novel Durgeśnandinī, which highlights a Rajput legend and a Bengali courageous woman. In itself it is of unconcerned quality, however in the logician Debendranath Tagore's words, it took "the Bengali heart by tempest," and with it the Bengali epic was full conceived. Kapālkuṇḍalā, a romantic tale against a frightful foundation of Tantric rituals, was distributed in 1866; and Mṛṇālinī, which was set at the season of the primary Muslim intrusion of Bengal, in 1869.
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Bankim Chandra Chatterjee’s epochmaking paper, initiated production in 1872, and in it a portion of his later books were serialized. Biabksa, which represents the issue of widow remarriage, and Indira were distributed in 1873; Yugalanguriya in 1874; Radharani and Candraśekhar in 1875; Rajanī in 1877; which the creator thought about his most noteworthy novel, in 1878; Rājsiha, an account of Rajput gallantry and Muslim abuse, in 1881; Ānandamah, an energetic story of the revolt of the sannyasis against the Muslim powers of the East India organization, in 1882; Debī Caudhurānī, a household novel with a foundation of dacoity, in 1884; lastly, in 1886, Sītārām, a conjugal tangle and a battle of Hindus against Muslim oppression.

Bankim Chandra Chatterjee Literary Career
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee’s most punctual distributions were in Ishwar Chandra Gupta's week by week paper Sangbad Prabhakar. Following the model of Ishwar Chandra Gupta, he started his artistic vocation as an author of refrain. His abilities indicated him different headings, and went to fiction. His first endeavor was a novel in Bengali submitted for an announced prize. He didn't win the prize, and the novelette was never distributed. His first fiction to show up in print was Rajmohan's Wife. It was written in English and is viewed as the primary Indian epic to be written in English. Durgeshnondini, his first Bengali sentiment and the main ever novel in Bengali, was distributed in 1865.
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee’s Kapalkundala (1866) is  first significant distribution. The legend of this novel was Nabakumar. The courageous woman of this novel, named after the homeless person lady in Bhavabhuti's Malatimadhava, is displayed halfway after Kalidasa's Shakuntala and somewhat after Shakespeare's Miranda. In any case, the incomplete similitudes are just inferential examination by faultfinders, and Chattopadhyay's courageous woman might be totally his unique. He had picked Dariapur in Contai Subdivision as the foundation of this well known novel Bankim Chandra Chatterjee.
His next sentiment, Mrinalini (1869), marks his first endeavor to set his story against a bigger authentic setting. This book denotes the move from Chattopadhyay's initial vocation, where he was carefully an essayist of sentiments, to a later period wherein he expected to invigorate the mind of the Bengali talking individuals and realize a social renaissance of Bengali writing.
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee or Chattopadhyay began distributing a month to month scholarly magazine Bangadarshan in April 1872, the main version of which was filled as a rule with his own work. The magazine conveyed serialized books, stories, amusing portrayals, recorded and different expositions, useful articles, religious talks, abstract reactions, and surveys. Vishabriksha (The Poison Tree, 1873) is the primary novel of Bankim Chandra Chatterjee  or Chattopadhyay that showed up sequentially in Bangodarshan.

Bangodarshan left course following four years. It was later resuscitated by his sibling, Sanjeeb Chandra Chattopadhyay.
Chattopadhyay's next significant novel was Chandrasekhar(1877), which contains two to a great extent disconnected parallel plots. In spite of the fact that the scene is once moved back to eighteenth century, the novel isn't recorded. His next novel was Rajani (1877), which highlights a self-portraying plot, with a visually impaired young lady in the title job. Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Self-portraying plots had been utilized in Wilkie Collins' "A Woman dressed in White", and a point of reference for visually impaired young lady in a focal job existed in Edward Bulwer-Lytton's Nydia in "The Last Days of Pompeii", however the similitudes of Rajani with these productions end there.
Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, In Krishnakanter Will (Krishnakanta's Will, 1878) Chattopadhyay delivered an unpredictable plot. It was a splendid portrayal of contemporary India and its way of life and debasement. In that intricacy, faultfinders saw similarity to Western books.

One of the numerous books of Chattopadhyay that are qualified for be named as authentic fiction is Rajsimha (1881, modified and augmented 1893). Anandamath (The Abbey of Bliss, 1882) is a political novel which delineates a Sannyasi (Hindu austere) armed force battling the British troopers. The book requires the ascent of Indian patriotism. The tale was additionally the wellspring of the tune Vande Mataram (I venerate my Motherland for she genuinely is my mom) which, set up with a good soundtrack by Rabindranath Tagore, was taken up by numerous Indian patriots, and is currently the National Song of India. The plot of the novel is approximately determined to the Sannyasi Rebellion. He envisioned untrained Sannyasi troopers battling and beating the exceedingly experienced British Army; at last, in any case, he acknowledged that the British can't be crushed. He completely asserted that the British are not the foe but rather companions; the Muslims are the genuine foe. Subsequently, this novel is additionally named shared in nature. Bankim Chandra Chatterjee is The epic previously showed up in sequential structure in Bangadarshan, the scholarly magazine that Chattopadhyay established in 1872. Vande Mataram wound up unmistakable during the Swadeshi development, which was started by Lord Curzon's endeavor to segment Bengal into a Hindu lion's share West and a Muslim dominant part East. Drawing from the Shakti custom of Bengali Hindus, Chattopadhyay embodied India as a Mother Goddess, which gave the tune a Hindu feeling that would demonstrate to be hazardous for some Muslims.

Bankim Chandra Chatterjee or Chattopadhyay's next novel, Devi Chaudhurani, was distributed in 1884. His last novel, Sitaram (1886), recounts to the account of a neighborhood Hindu ruler, conflicted between his better half and the lady he wants yet incapable to accomplish, makes a progression of bungles and takes self-important, reckless choices. Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, At long last, he should go up against his self and persuade the couple of steadfast troopers that remain between his home and the Muslim Nababs armed force going to dominate.
Next Writer : Mulk Raj Anand 
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The God of Small Things Summary for UGC NET

The God of Small Things

The God of Small Things Published in 1997, The God of Small Things immediately soar Arundhati Roy to worldwide basic and mainstream recognition. Her first (and to date just) novel won the 1997 Booker Prize, a standout amongst the most esteemed honors in the English-language scholarly world.

The God of Small Things, Some time ago, in a town in India called Ayemenem, there was an Imperial Entomologist (somebody who examines bugs) named Shri Benaan John Ipe, who we will allude to from now on as Pappachi (granddad). One day Pappachi finds what he supposes is another type of moth. It's the greatest thing that has transpired. He's crushed to be informed that all he found was an unusual type of an officially existing species. Later on, the forces that be choose they weren't right, however the new moth is named after an alternate researcher. Pappachi will disdain this for an amazing remainder.

Pappachi is hitched to Mammachi, a cultivated musician, whom he beats. Pappachi and Mammachi have two kids: a little girl named Ammu and a child named Chacko. Chacko proceeds to examine as a Rhodes Scholar at Oxford, where he weds a white lady named Margaret. They have a little girl named Sophie. While she's pregnant, Margaret falls for a person named Joe, whom she weds subsequent to separating Chacko. Chacko is crushed and moves back to Ayemenem.
The God of Small Things, Summary of The God of Small Things, my exam solution, the god of small things by arundhati roy

The God of Small Things, In the mean time, Ammu, looking for a little energy in her life, moves out of her folks' home to live with an away relative. She meets Baba and weds him. In 1962, they have twins: a kid named Esthappen Yako (Estha) and a young lady named Rahel. It turns out Baba isn't just a heavy drinker, he likewise tells loads of falsehoods, of all shapes and sizes, for no obvious reason. One day Baba loses his employment, yet his English supervisor says he will work something out for him if Baba will give him a chance to lay down with Ammu. Baba runs this revolting proposition by Ammu and beats her when she cannot. Ammu returns the children and moves to Ayemenem. With the goal that's it for our back-story of The God of Small Things.
A noteworthy lump of the novel happens in 1969, when the twins are 7 years of age. Joe is killed in a fender bender, and Chacko welcomes the lamenting Margaret Kochamma and Sophie Mol to come to Ayemenem for the occasions. Chacko, Ammu, Baby Kochamma, Estha, and Rahel drive to Cochin to get them at the air terminal. In transit, two major things occur. In the first place, traffic stops for the most part when a gigantic walk of socialists floods the lanes. Rahel is truly eager to see Velutha, who does the upkeep work at Paradise Pickles and Preserves, Mammachi's industrial facility. He's waving a warning. When she calls his name, he vanishes into the group and things get tense in the vehicle.

The God of Small Things , The second huge occasion while in transit to Cochin is that the family goes to see The Sound of Music, which is the twins' preferred motion picture. Estha needs to go remain in the hall since he can't quit chiming in. While he's separated from everyone else in the entryway, he is attacked by the Orangedrink Lemondrink Man. This experience fills Estha with unending apprehension.
The family remains medium-term at a lodging, and the following day they meet Sophie Mol and Margaret Kochamma at the air terminal. Rahel stresses that Ammu will love Sophie Mol more than she cherishes her. When they return to Ayemenem, everybody makes a get worked up about Sophie Mol. Rahel feels like she's assuming a supporting job in a play in which Sophie Mol is the star. She keeps running off to converse with Velutha, disclosing to him she saw him in the walk. Velutha discloses to her a lie, saying the individual she saw was his departed twin. Ammu sees them together and we begin to understand that Ammu and Velutha delve each other in a noteworthy manner in The God of Small Things.

In the interim, Estha is totally frightened on the grounds that the Orangedrink Lemondrink Man knows where he lives and can want him quickly. He keeps running into the production line and thinks Two Thoughts while he mixes a pot of banana jam. These contemplations are: Anything can happen to Anyone, and It's ideal to be readied. Estha contemplates getting a pontoon and paddling over to the History House, a betrayed home that once had a place with an Englishman who "went local." The God of Small Things , He figures the Orangedrink Lemondrink Man won't most likely discover him there. At the point when Rahel discovers him paddling the jam like a vessel, Estha educates her concerning his arrangement. They end up finding a little paddle boat and get Velutha to set it up for them.

Not very long after this scene, The God of Small Things , Vellya Paapen, Velutha's father, goes to the entryway crying. He tells Mammachi and Baby Kochamma that Ammu and Velutha are sweethearts. This is a major no-no, since their general public is driven by class guidelines, and Ammu is a lot higher up. Velutha is what is known as an Untouchable, essentially implying that he's the scummiest of the scummy in Indian culture. In their reality, an issue like this is absolutely unbelievable.
Infant Kochamma and Mammachi trap Ammu into going into her room and they lock her in. Whenever Estha and Rahel go to the entryway and ask Ammu for what reason she's secured her room, she shouts that it's their flaw. Estha and Rahel choose it's an ideal opportunity to hightail it out of there. Sophie Mol persuades them that she ought to go, as well, so the adults will be extremely heartbroken (acclaimed final words, Sophie...). That night they get in the pontoon and begin paddling over the stream. They're practically right crosswise over when a log slams into the pontoon and topples it over. Rahel and Estha swim to the opposite side, yet when they call for Sophie Mol, she doesn't react. They understand that she's suffocated. They end up nodding off in the History House, not understanding that Velutha is sleeping in the corner hanging tight for Ammu to meet him for their daily meeting.

Meanwhile The God of Small Things, Baby Kochamma and Mammachi have chosen to attempt to get Velutha to skip town so the entire family can keep away from the disgrace of being related with him. The issue is, before they can put their arrangement without hesitation, Sophie Mol's body is found. Time for Plan B. Child Kochamma goes to the police, making up a false anecdote about how Velutha attempted to assault Ammu and abducted the children. Meanwhile, the police go to the History House and brutally beat the living crap out of Velutha. He endures the beating until further notice, and the police drag him away. Rahel and Estha see the whole occurrence.
Later on The God of Small Things, Inspector Thomas Mathew tells Baby Kochamma that she has no case – Rahel and Estha don't appear to have been kidnapped, and it's entirely evident that Baby Kochamma made everything up. Since her butt is hanging in the balance, Baby Kochamma blows a gasket and requests to be separated from everyone else with the children. She faults Rahel and Estha for Sophie Mol's demise and reveals to them that in light of what they did, Ammu will be imprisoned and will in all beyond words except if they rodent out Velutha. She discloses to Estha that the auditor will pose him one inquiry and that his reaction to it ought to be "yes."
The God of Small Things, At Sophie Mol's memorial service, everybody overlooks Rahel, Estha, and Ammu, who stand separated from the remainder of the family. After the burial service, Ammu goes to the police headquarters to demonstrate Velutha's innocence. Monitor Thomas Mathew discloses to her it's past the point of no return – Velutha is dead. Child Kochamma blows a gasket when she discovers that her story has been pulled separated once more. The God of Small Things She chooses to get Ammu out of Ayemenem. She finds that it's not hard to abuse Chacko's pain to set him against Ammu. Ammu needs to go out alone and battle for herself. Estha is come back to his dad, Baba. Rahel remains with Mammachi and Baby Kochamma, who in the end send her off to class.

Rahel is kicked out of school a couple of times for misconduct. The last time she sees Ammu is the point at which she's 11 and Ammu is 31. Ammu looks dreadful and is experiencing a lung issue, undoubtedly tuberculosis. At the point when Ammu kicks the bucket, Rahel and Chacko go together to have her body burned.
Rahel proceeds to think about design in Delhi and in the end moves to the United States. She weds a man named Larry McCaslin. He cherishes her yet is grieved by how far off she appears when they have intercourse. They in the long run get separated. Rahel maintains irregular sources of income in New York and Washington. When she is 31, she discovers that Estha has been "re-Returned" and returns to Ayemenem.
The Ayemenem House in 1993 is entirely unexpected than it was in 1969. Infant Kochamma has found satellite TV, and all she and Kochu Maria (the maid) do is sit in front of the TV while the remainder of the house lies in a ruins. Infant Kochamma instructs Rahel that she doesn't know with Estha. Since the day he was Returned to Baba, Estha has quit any pretense of talking totally. He goes on long strolls around Ayemenem without telling anybody where he's going.

The God of Small Things Being back in Ayemenem brings back a surge of recollections for Rahel. The twins experience old things like their Wisdom Exercise Notebooks and take a gander at little knickknacks that they gathered as children. Rahel and Estha hang out. They end up engaging in sexual relations and holding each other for quite a while a short time later. The storyteller recognizes that, as Ammu and Velutha, Rahel and Estha have damaged the Love Laws that "set down who ought to be adored. Furthermore, how. Also, how much".

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